Grammar Games - Motivation in Teaching English

Role of games on the lessons of English. Advantages of the use and adequacy are in the use of games. Study of grammar through games. Games with pretexts. Conditional expressions and Wishes. Examples of workings folias, in-use on the lesson of English.

C ontents:

I. Introduction

1.1 General characteristics of the work

1.2 The role of games on language lessons

II. Main Part

Chapter 1. Theory part

2.1.1 The advantages of using games

2.1.2 The adequacy in using games

2.1.3 Learning grammar through games

Chapter 2. Practice part

2.2.1 Games with prepositions

2.2.2 Conditionals and Wishes

2.2.3 Examples of worksheets

III. Conclusion

IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY


I. Introduction

1.1 General characteristics of the work

The theme of my qualification work sounds as following: “Grammar Games - Motivation in Teaching English” This qualification work can be characterized by the following:

2. Actuality of the theme.

In recent years language researchers and practitioners have shifted their focus from developing individual linguistic skills to the use of language to achieve the speaker's objectives. This new area of focus, known as communicative competence, leads language teachers to seek task-oriented activities that engage their students in creative language use. Games, which are task-based and have a purpose beyond the production of correct speech, serve as excellent communicative activities. On the surface, the aim of all language games is for students to "use the language"; however, during game play learners also use the target language to persuade and negotiate their way to desired results. This process involves the productive and receptive skills simultaneously. Standing on such ground, I considered the theme of the work actual enough to make investigation.

3. The tasks and aims of the work.

1. The first task of my work is to describe the role of games on language lessons.

2. The second task is to describe views of different linguists on the problem of using games.

3. The last task is to describe various types of grammar games.

4. The novelty of the work.

I consider that the novelty of the work is concluded in new materials of the linguists, which were published in the Internet. The novelty of my work is concluded in the fact, that I had worked out some grammar games, which I had approbated on English language lessons during my pedagogical practice.

5. Practical significance of the work.

In my opinion the practical significance of my work is hard to be overvalued. This work reflects modern trends in linguistics and I hope it would serve as a good manual for those who wants to master modern English language. Also this work can be used by teachers of English language for teaching English grammar.

6. Ways of scientific investigation used within the work.

The main methods for compiling our work are the method of comparative analysis and the method of statistical research.

7. Fields of amplification.

The present work might find a good way of implying in the following spheres:

1. In High Schools and scientific circles of linguistic kind it can be successfully used by teachers and philologists as modern material for writing research works dealing with using of grammar games.

2. It can be used by teachers of schools, lyceums and colleges by teachers of English as a practical manual for teaching English grammar.

3. It can be useful for everyone who wants to enlarge his/her knowledge in English.

8. Linguists worked with the theme.

As the base for my qualification work I used the works of Abbott G., Azar B. Sh., Horwitz E.K., Lee Su Kim and others[1] .

9. Content of the work.

The present qualification work consists of four parts: introduction, the main part, conclusion and bibliography. Within the introduction part, which includes two items I gave the brief description of our qualification work (the first item), where I described its actuality, practical significance, and fields of amplification, and described the role of games on language lessons. The main part of my qualification work includes several items. There I discussed such problems as adequacy in using games and their advantages. In the second chapter (practice part) of main part described different types of grammar games, and included worksheets, which are needed for playing these games. In the conclusion to my qualification work I tried to draw some results from the scientific investigations made within the main part of my qualification work. In bibliography part I mentioned more than 20 sources of which were used while compiling the present work. It includes linguistic books and articles dealing with the theme, a number of used dictionaries and encyclopedias[2] and also some internet sources.

1.2 The role of games on language lessons

Games offer students a fun-filled and relaxing learning atmosphere. After learning and practicing new vocabulary, students have the opportunity to use language in a non-stressful way. While playing games, the learners' attention is on the message, not on the language. Rather than pay attention to the correctness of linguistic forms, most participants will do all they can to win. This eases the fear of negative evaluation, the concern of being negatively judged in public, and which is one of the main factors inhibiting language learners from using the target language in front of other people. In a game-oriented context, anxiety is reduced and speech fluency is generated--thus communicative competence is achieved.

Games are also motivating. Games introduce an element of competition into language-building activities. This provides valuable impetus to a purposeful use of language (Prasad 2003). In other words, these activities create a meaningful context for language use. The competitive ambiance also makes learners concentrate and think intensively during the learning process, which enhances unconscious acquisition of inputs. Most students who have experienced game-oriented activities hold positive attitudes towards them (Uberman 1998). An action research conducted by Huyen and Nga (2003), students said that they liked the relaxed atmosphere, the competitiveness, and the motivation that games brought to the classroom. On the effectiveness of games, teachers in Huyen & Nga's (2003)reported that action research reported that their students seem to learn more quickly and retain the learned materials better in a stress-free and comfortable environment.

The benefits of using games in language-learning can be summed up in nine points.

Games: are learner centered.

1. promote communicative competence.

2. create a meaningful context for language use.

3. increase learning motivation.

4. reduce learning anxiety.

5. integrate various linguistic skills.

6. encourage creative and spontaneous use of language.

7. construct a cooperative learning environment.

8. foster participatory attitudes of the students.


II. Main Part

Chapter 1. Theory part

2.1.1 The advantages of using games

Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms. He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programme. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of using games. "Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely" (Richard-Amato). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen). They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Furthermore, to quote Richard-Amato, they, "add diversion to the regular classroom activities," break the ice, "[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas". In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember things faster and better (Wierus and Wierus). Further support comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practicing language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future.

Games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems.

There are many factors to consider while discussing games, one of which is appropriacy. Teachers should be very careful about choosing games if they want to make them profitable for the learning process. If games are to bring desired results, they must correspond to either the student's level, or age, or to the material that is to be introduced or practiced. Not all games are appropriate for all students irrespective of their age. Different age groups require various topics, materials, and modes of games. For example, children benefit most from games which require moving around, imitating a model, competing between groups and the like. Furthermore, structural games that practice or reinforce a certain grammatical aspect of language have to relate to students' abilities and prior knowledge. Games become difficult when the task or the topic is unsuitable or outside the student's experience.

Another factor influencing the choice of a game is its length and the time necessary for its completion. Many games have a time limit, but the teacher can either allocate more or less time depending on the students' level, the number of people in a group, or the knowledge of the rules of a game etc.

Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. Yet, as Lee observes, a game "should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do". Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen. At different stages of the lesson, the teacher's aims connected with a game may vary:

Games also lend themselves well to revision exercises helping learners recall material in a pleasant, entertaining way. All authors referred to in this article agree that even if games resulted only in noise and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence, and generate fluency. However, can they be more successful for presentation and revision than other techniques? The following part of this article is an attempt at finding the answer to this question.

2.1.2 The adequacy in using games

In this paragraph we would like to reflect how modern teachers evaluate the adequacy in using games when teaching English language

Famous British teacher and educator Andrew Wright in his books' Language learning is hard work ... Effort is required at every moment and must be maintained over a long period of time. Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work.'

Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information.''

The need for meaningfulness in language learning has been accepted for some years. A useful interpretation of 'meaningfulness' is that the learners respond to the content in a definite way. If they are amused, angered, intrigued or surprised the content is clearly meaningful to them. Thus the meaning of the language they listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered.

If it is accepted that games can provide intense and meaningful practice of language, then they must be regarded as central to a teacher's repertoire. They are thus not for use solely on wet days and at the end of term!'

Another distinguished scholar, Aydan Ersoz, of USA noted them following:

Language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the same time allow students to practice language skills. Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase cooperation.'

Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many types of communication.'

In Korea a noted teacher Lee Su Kim distinguished games as follows[3] :

There is a common perception that all learning should be serious and solemn in nature, and that if one is having fun and there is hilarity and laughter, then it is not really learning. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same time. One of the best ways of doing this is through games.'

There are many advantages of using games in the classroom:

1. Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class.

2. They are motivating and challenging.

3. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning.

4. Games provide language practice in the various skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading.

5. They encourage students to interact and communicate.

6. They create a meaningful context for language use.'

A great Polish educator the opinions of whom we mentioned within one of our chapters said,

Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms (1979:2)[4] . He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programme. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of using games. "Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely" (Richard-Amato 1988:147). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen 1994:118). They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Furthermore, to quote Richard-Amato, they, "add diversion to the regular classroom activities," break the ice, "[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas" (1988:147). In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember things faster and better (Wierus and Wierus 1994:218). S. M. Silvers says many teachers are enthusiastic about using games as "a teaching device," yet they often perceive games as mere time-fillers, "a break from the monotony of drilling" or frivolous activities. He also claims that many teachers often overlook the fact that in a relaxed atmosphere, real learning takes place, and students use the language they have been exposed to and have practiced earlier (1982:29). Further support comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practicing language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future (1994:6).'

Games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems that at times seem overwhelming.'

When to Use Games

Ms. Uberman noted that 'Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. Yet, as Lee observes, a game "should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do" (1979:3). Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen.'

'Games also lend themselves well to revision exercises helping learners recall material in a pleasant, entertaining way. All authors referred to in this article agree that even if games resulted only in noise and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence, and generate fluency.'

Learning Vocabulary

Games have been shown to have advantages and effectiveness in learning vocabulary in various ways. First, games bring in relaxation and fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new words more easily. Second, games usually involve friendly competition and they keep learners interested. These create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities. Third, vocabulary games bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students' use of English in a flexible, communicative way.'

'Therefore, the role of games in teaching and learning vocabulary cannot be denied. However, in order to achieve the most from vocabulary games, it is essential that suitable games are chosen. Whenever a game is to be conducted, the number of students, proficiency level, cultural context, timing, learning topic, and the classroom settings are factors that should be taken into account.'

'In conclusion, learning vocabulary through games is one effective and interesting way that can be applied in any classrooms. The results of this research suggest that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons, thus leading toward the goal of improving learners' communicative competence.'

Why Use Games in Class Time?

- Games are fun and children like to play them. Through games children experiment, discover, and interact with their environment. (Lewis, 1999)

- Games add variation to a lesson and increase motivation by providing a plausible incentive to use the target language. For many children between four and twelve years old, especially the youngest, language learning will not be the key motivational factor. Games can provide this stimulus. (Lewis, 1999)

The game context makes the foreign language immediately useful to the children. It brings the target language to life. (Lewis, 1999)

- The game makes the reasons for speaking plausible even to reluctant children. (Lewis, 1999)

- Through playing games, students can learn English the way children learn their mother tongue without being aware they are studying; thus without stress, they can learn a lot.

- Even shy students can participate positively.

- How to Choose Games (Tyson, 2000)

- A game must be more than just fun.

- A game should involve "friendly" competition.

- A game should keep all of the students involved and interested.

- A game should encourage students to focus on the use of language rather than on the language itself.

- A game should give students a chance to learn, practice, or review specific language material.

One more scholar, M. Martha Lengeling said the following:

'In an effort to supplement lesson plans in the ESL classroom, teachers often turn to games. The justification for using games in the classroom has been well demonstrated as benefiting students in a variety of ways. These benefits range from cognitive aspects of language learning to more co-operative group dynamics.'

General Benefits of Games

Affective:

- lowers affective filter

- encourages creative and spontaneous use of language

- promotes communicative competence

- motivates

- fun

Cognitive:

- reinforces

- reviews and extends

- focuses on grammar communicatively

Class Dynamics:

- student centered

- teacher acts only as facilitator

- builds class cohesion

- fosters whole class participation

- promotes healthy competition

Adaptability:

- easily adjusted for age, level, and interests

- utilizes all four skills

- requires minimum preparation after development

So language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the same time allow students to practice language skills. Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase cooperation.

Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many types of communication.

2.1.3. Learning grammar through games

The collection of word games is a valuable resource for the teacher of young through adult learners of English as a second or foreign language. Focusing primarily on language development through the use of high frequency vocabulary and structures, they reinforce classroom lessons and provide additional spelling, conversation, listening and speaking practice.

The most instructive language learning games are those that emphasize specific structures. They do not only practice the basic pattern but also do so in a pleasant, easy way that allows the students to forget they are drilling grammar and concentrate on having fun. The following games are concerned with Yes/No questions, Wh-questions, tag questions, comparative and superlative, adverbs, modals, demonstratives, etc.

Most learners somehow accept that the sounds of a foreign language are going to be different from those of their mother tongue. What is more difficult to accept is that the grammar of the new language is also spectacularly different from the way the mother tongue works. At a subconscious, semiconscious and conscious level it is very hard to want to switch to “to be” (‘I’m 23’, ‘I’m hungry’, ‘and I’m cold’) if it is “have” in Italian.

Grammar is perhaps so serious and central in learning another language that all ways should be searched for which will focus student energy on the task of mastering and internalizing it. One way of focusing this energy is through the release offered by games. Teenagers are delighted to be asked to do something that feels like an out-class activity and in which they control what is going on in the classroom – they become the subjects, while for a lot of the 15,000 hours they spend in schools they are the objects of teaching. The point is that fun generates energy for the achievement of the serious goal.

Where exactly do such games fit into a teaching programme? Grammar games can be used in three ways:

· diagnostically before presenting a given structure area to find out how much knowledge of the area is already disjointedly present in the group;

· after a grammar presentation to see how much the group have grasped;

· as revision of a grammar area.

One should not use grammar games as a Friday afternoon ‘reward’ activity. Using them as a central part of the students’ learning process would be a better idea. Thus, each game is proposed for a given level ranging from beginner to advanced. This refers simply to the grammar content of that particular game. But, as it has been already mentioned above, a lot of activities can be adapted to different classes with different grammar components. By changing the grammar content a teacher can, in many cases, use the game frame offered at a higher or lower level. Generally, any frame can be filled with any structures you want to work on with your students. The students have to take individual responsibility for what they think the grammar is about. The teacher is free to find out what the students actually know, without being the focus of their attention. Serious work is taking place in the context of a game. The dice throwing and arguing lightens and enlivens the classroom atmosphere in a way that most people do not associate with the grammar part of a course. The ‘game’ locomotive pulls the grammar train along. Everybody is working at once- the 15-30 minutes the average game lasts is a period of intense involvement.

Other reasons for including games in a language class are:

1. They focus student attention on specific structures, grammatical patterns.

2. They can function as reinforcement, review and enrichment.

3. They involve equal participation from both slow and fast learners.

4. They can be adjusted to suit the individual ages and language levels of the students

5. They contribute to an atmosphere of healthy competition, providing an outlet for the creative use of natural language in a non-stressful situation.

6. They can be used in any language-teaching situation and with any skill area whether reading, writing, speaking or listening.

7. They provide the immediate feedback for the teacher.

8. They ensure maximum student participation for a minimum of teacher preparation.

A game should be planned into the day’s lesson right along with exercises, dialogues and reading practice. It should not be an afterthought.

Games are a lively way of maintaining students’ interest in the language, they are fun but also part of the learning process, and students should be encouraged to take them seriously. They should also know how much time they have to play a game. It’s not useful to start a game five minutes before the end of the lesson. Students are usually given a ‘five-minute warning’ before the time is over so they can work towards the end.

The older the students are, the more selective a teacher should be in choosing a game activity. Little kids love movements, while older ones get excited with puddles, crosswords, word wheels, and poster competitions whatever.

Modern language teaching requires a lot of work to make a lesson interesting for modern students who are on familiar terms with computers, Internet and electronic entertainment of any kind. Sympathetic relations must exist not only among students but between students and a teacher. It’s of special importance for junior students because very often they consider their teachers to be the subject itself, i.e. interesting and attractive or terrible and disgusting, necessary to know or useless and thus better to avoid.

A teacher should bear in mind that it is the content, not the form, which is of interest to the child. A toddler does not learn to say,”Cookie, please”, in her native language because she is practicing the request form. “Cookie, please” is learned because the child wants a cookie.

So children learn with their whole beings. Whole-child involvement means that one should arrange for the child’s participation in the lesson with as many senses as possible. Seeing pictures of children performing actions and repeating, “The boy is running”, “The girl is hopping” is not at all as effective as when students do the actions themselves in response to commands and demonstrations from the teacher.

All said above is fairly true to adult learners not only children, because of our common human nature to possess habits through experience. We all learned to understand and speak our first language by hearing and using it in natural situations, with people who cared for and about us. This is the most effective and interesting way to learn a second language as well. The experts now advise language teachers to spend most of the classroom time an activities that foster natural acquisition, rather than on formal vocabulary and structure explanations and drills. They insist that “once you have become accustomed to the rewards and pleasures gained from teaching through activities, you will wonder how second-language teaching ever got to be anything else. Your own ideas for activities and their management will flow, and your students’ learning rates will soar!” “Activities’ mean action games, finger and hand-clapping games, jump rope and ball-bouncing games, seat and card games, speaking and guessing games and even handicraft activities. Judging the results we have nothing but believe them.


Chapter 2. Practice part

2.2.1 Games with prepositions

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME AND PLACE

1. MAGAZINE SEARCH

Materials: Magazines to share in groups

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. On the board, write a list of prepositions of place that the students have studied. Divide the students into groups of three or four and give each group several magazines. You may want to ask students to bring in their own. If you are supplying them, be sure that they have full-page ads or other large pictures.

2. Give the groups a time limit and have them search through their magazines to find a picture that contains situations illustrating prepositions of place.

3. When the time is up, each group goes to the front of the class, holds up its picture, and explains (in sentences) the contents of the picture, using prepositions of place.

Example: The dog is under the table.

The table is next to the man.

The table is in front of the window.

4. The group that found a picture allowing them to correctly use the most prepositions of place from the list on the board wins.

NOTE: With an intermediate group, choose a wider range of prepositions that they have already reviewed.

2. SCAVENGER HUNT

Materials: Worksheet 1.1, objects filled in various objects provided by instructor[5]

Dynamic: Pairs

Time: 20 minutes

Procedure: 1. Before students come into the classroom, distribute various objects around the room, placing them in visible positions that students can describe using their prepositions of place. List the objects on the worksheet.

2. Divide the class into pairs and give each pair a copy of the worksheet.

3. The students look around the room for each object listed on the worksheet and write a complete sentence describing its location. The first group to finish brings their worksheet to you to be checked. If the answers are correct, that group wins.

3. PREPOSITIONAL CHAIN DRILL

Materials: None

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. Review prepositions of place.

2. Take a small object, such as a pen, and do something with it, then describe your action. (Put the pen on the desk and say, "I put the pen on the desk.")

3. Give the pen to a student and ask him/her, "What did I do with the pen?"

4. The student answers and then does something different with the object that involves a different preposition of place.

5. The student then passes the object to the next student and asks, "What did we do with the pen?" That student repeats what the teacher did and what the first student did with the object. The second student then does something different with the object before passing it to the third student.

Example:

Teacher: I put the pen on the desk. What did I do with the pen?

Alfredo: You put the pen on the desk. (to the next student, Damian) I put the pen above my head. What did we do with the pen?

Damian: The teacher put the pen on the desk. Alfredo put the pen above his head. I put the pen under my book. (to the next student) What did we do with the pen? etc.

6. This activity continues until no one can do something different with the pen that can be described using a preposition of place.

NOTE: You may want to write the prepositions that have been used on the board to help the students remember.

Variation: Give each student a card to use with a preposition of place on it.

4. ERROR ANALYSIS

Materials: Worksheet 1.2 or other similar picture[6]

Dynamic: Pairs

Time: 1. Divide the class into pairs. Give each pair a copy of the worksheet or other similar picture.

NOTE: If you are using your own picture, also give the pairs several sentences you have written about the picture, as on the worksheet. Some sentences should be accurate, and others incorrect.

2. The pairs read the sentences about the picture and decide if they are correct or incorrect in their preposition usage. If they are incorrect, they must correct them.

3. When a pair is finished, check their work. If this is a competition, the first pair to finish the worksheet correctly wins. If using this activity as a review activity, go over the answers together when everyone has finished.

SUGGESTION: As a follow-up activity, have each pair write 10 True/False sentences with which to challenge another pair.

5. PREPOSITION BEE

Materials: Worksheet 1.3 A or 1.3 B for instructor's use[7]

Dynamic: Teams

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. Divide the class into two teams. Have them line up along opposite walls, or arrange their desks in two lines.

2. The first student from Team A steps to the front of the class. Read a sentence, omitting the preposition. The student must fill in the blank. Several answers will probably be possible; give the team a point for any appropriate answer.

3. Alternate students from the two teams until everyone has had a turn or you are out of time. The team with the most points wins.

SUGGESTION: Instead of reading the sentences, use an overhead and reveal one sentence at a time. This avoids repetition and helps the students to focus on the sentence.

NOTE: You may want to make your own sentences based on the prepositions your class has covered. This activity could also be done at a higher level with sentences using phrasal verbs.

PHRASAL VERBS

1. CONCENTRATION

Materials: Board, instructor's grid

Dynamic: Groups

Time: 25 minutes

Procedure: 1. Draw a grid on the board with just the numbers. On a paper, your grid will have the answers written in.

NOTE: In the example below, the phrasal verbs have been taken from the list in Fundamentals of English Grammar. Several of the verbs in the chart below can take more than one particle, but the list is usually limited to one or two combinations. It is important to choose combinations you have studied and to limit entries so that three or even four matches are not possible. If you have studied more than one combination (such as ask out, ask over, and ask around,) and you want to review them using this activity, you will need to use some particles more than once. That way, the students will be able to make matches such as ask out, drop out, and so on. This chart is intended only as a model to help you explain the game; your own chart will be geared to the lessons in your class.


On the board:

1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20

Instructor's grid:

1 ask 2 back 3 drop 4 up 5 through
6 around 7 out 8 off 9 down 10 fill
11 in 12 get 13 write 14 start 15 throw
16 over 17 away 18 put 19 fool 20 call

2. Divide the class into groups of about five. Tell them that this is a memory game and no writing is allowed. Explain that they are looking for matches and will get a point for each match. They can confer as a team, but you will accept an answer only from the student whose turn it is. They can call out two numbers together the first time since no one knows where any of the words are. In subsequent turns, they should wait for you to write the first answer before they call out their second number.

3. As the first student calls out numbers, write the words that correspond to these numbers in the blanks. Ask the class if it is a match. If not, erase the words. If so, leave them there and cross them out (see below).

On the board:

1 2 3 4 up 5
6 around 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 fool 20 call

Variation: Instead of matching the verb with an appropriate preposition, you can set up the grid to review meaning. Your instructor's grid might then look like this model. Follow the same rules for the game above.


Instructor's grid:

1 call back 2 give back 3 stop sleeping 4 stop a machine/ light

5 get through

with

6 return 7 invent 8 return a call 9 start a machine/light

10 throw out

11 make up 12 shut off 13 be careful 14 put off 15 discard
16 wake up 17 postpone 18 turn on 19 watch out for 20 finish

2. TIC TAC TOE

Materials: Board, Worksheet 1.4 (optional)[8]

Dynamic: Teams

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. Draw a tic tac toe grid on the board with the first word of the phrasal verbs written in. Divide the class into two groups.

2. A student from Team X comes to the board and writes in the corresponding particle for the verb he/she selects. If correct, he/she draws his/her mark in the square (an X). (You may choose to accept only combinations you have studied in class or that are listed in the students' books, or you may decide to accept any correct combination. Whichever you decide to accept, make your decision clear to the students before playing the game.)

3. A student from Team О then comes to the board and does the same. If an answer is incorrect, the student cannot draw his/her mark and erases the answer. The next player on the other team may choose that same square or another square.

4. The first team with three marks in a row wins.

NOTE: You will probably want to explain game strategy such as blocking, but often the student's choice is based on which verb he/she knows.

5. As a follow-up, divide the class into groups of three and use the worksheet. One student is X, one is 0, and the other is in charge and can have his/her book open to the verb page to judge whether an answer is correct. After the first game, the students should rotate roles so that the judge is now one of the players. Continue until all students have had a chance to be the judge. As you will see, some of the verbs on the handout take several different prepositions. As long as the students make an acceptable phrasal verb, the answer is correct.

NOTE: The items on the worksheet come from the list in Fundamentals of English Grammar. If this worksheet is not appropriate to your class, modify it.

Variation: On the grid on the board (or on a modified worksheet), fill in the squares with both parts of phrasal verbs. When a student selects a certain square, he/she must use the phrasal verb in a complete sentence which demonstrates understanding of the meaning. If the sentence is correct, the student puts his/her team's mark in that square.

Example:

ask out do over fill up

get off give up try on

turn off make up hang up

A student from Team X chooses "give up." The student then makes a sentence orally: I couldn't understand the assignment, so I gave up. The sentence must reflect the student's understanding of the meaning of the phrasal verb. A sentence such as I gave up or Don't give up is not acceptable. If a sentence is accepted as being correct, the student writes an X over the square. A student from Team О then chooses a square and makes a meaningful sentence using that phrasal verb. Alternate turns until one team has three in a row or the game is a draw.

3. PREPOSITION BEE

See the directions for the Preposition Bee on Worksheet 1.5 or a similar list of your own sentences.[9]

4. BEAT THE CLOCK

Materials: 3" x 5" cards (see sample)

Dynamic: Teams

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure: 1. Put a sentence using a phrasal verb on one side of as many index cards as you need. Review and discuss phrasal verbs. Have the students create sentences or dialogues and practice orally.

2. Divide the class into two teams, A and B. Arrange the teams so that Team A's desks are directly across from (and touching) Team B's desks. If using tables, have Team A sit on one side and Team В on the other side.

3. Show the students the front of a card. The first student {A or B) who answers with a phrasal verb that correctly replaces the verb on the card gets a point for his/her team. If that student can then use the phrasal verb in a sentence with the correct tense, his/her team gets an extra point.

Example:

Card: I raised my children in Ohio.

Student response: bring up

I brought my children up in Ohio.

Sample cards:

FRONT BACK

I raised my children in Ohio. bring up
I met John by chance at the mall. run into
Tell Jill to return my call. call back
Please be sure to arrive for the test at exactly 8:00. show up

5. "UP" VERBS

Materials: 3" x 5" cards

Time: Pairs/Small groups

Time: 20 minutes

Procedure: Write one verb on each card. Choose some verbs that can also be phrasal verbs with up.

Examples: ask (can't be used with up)

check (can be used with up)

cross (can't be used with up)

get (can be used with up)

2. Divide the class into pairs or groups of three or four. Give each group a stack of verb cards.

3. Tell the students to divide the cards into two piles: verbs with up/verbs without up.

4. When all the up verbs are found, have the students take turns explaining the meaning of each phrasal verb to the other students in the group.

Variation: Make three identical sets of vocabulary cards. Divide the class into three teams. Tell the students to find the up verbs. The team that finds the most up verbs wins. Each correct up verb is worth one point. For each incorrect up verb, subtract one point from the total score. Use the same procedure for any phrasal verb pattern (for example, out, away, through, etc.).

6. PHRASAL CHALLENGE

Materials: None

Dynamic: Pairs

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure: 1. Divide the class into pairs. Tell the pairs to write down eight phrasal verbs and their meanings that they think the rest of the class will not know.

2. After they are finished, join two pairs and have the first pair challenge the other pair. Each pair takes turns reading the phrasal verbs from their list and having their opponents state the meaning of each phrasal verb and use it in a sentence.

3. If the opponents answer correctly, they get a point. The pair with the most points wins.

4. For homework, have the students use the phrasal verbs that they missed in correct sentences.

7. STORY TIME

Materials: 3" x 5" cards, writing paper

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure: 1. Divide the class into groups of three, and give each group five 3"x 5" cards.

2. Each group writes down a different phrasal verb on each of their index cards. You may want to let them use the lists in their books. Have them write the definition of each phrasal verb on the back.

3. Have the groups quiz each other as to meaning by showing only the front of the card to another group.

4. Next, each group makes a sentence orally for each phrasal verb. Rotate the cards again until each group has seen every card and can make a logical sentence. Monitor the groups during this phase.

5. When the students have a good grasp of the definitions, return their original phrasal verb cards to them. Each group now writes a paragraph using all of their phrasal verbs.

6. When the students have finished, rotate their papers clockwise and the 3"x 5" cards counterclockwise. (Each group will have another group's story and a new set of cards.)

7. Each group reads the paragraph and adds a second paragraph, using their new group of phrasal-verb cards.

8. Have them repeat steps 6 and 7. Each group should now have a three-paragraph story.

9. Return the original story to each group. Tell the students to look it over and make any changes they think are necessary. Have one student from each group read the story to the class. Collect the stories for a final teacher correction.

8. CLASS SURVEY

Materials: 3" x 5" cards in four different colors list of difficult phrasal verbs sheets of newsprint and markers (optional)

Dynamic: Groups

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure: 1. Choose four themes and for each theme make up a set of questions, using the phrasal verbs that you want to practice. (You may want to have the students compile a list.)

Examples: Family:

Do you take after your father or your mother?

Did you grow up in a large family or a small family?

Do you get along well with your brothers and sisters?

Are you named after anyone in your family?

School:

Do you go over your notes after class?

Do you try to get out of doing your homework?

Do you ever have trouble keeping up with the assignments?

What is an important grammar point that you have to look out for?

2. Write one set of questions on one yellow card, one set of questions on one green card, etc.

3. Divide the class into groups. (Four groups of four works well, but five groups of five or three groups of three also works. Put extra students into existing groups to work as pairs.)

4. Tell the students that they are going to do some investigation into the society of the classroom by doing a survey. Give each group a set of same-color cards and a theme: The Yellow Group—Family; The Green Group—Friends, etc. Give the question card to the group leader and a blank card to each of the other members.

5. The group members copy the questions from the group leader's card on their own cards so that each has a card with the same questions. They may add questions of their own if they wish or if there is extra time. Any additional questions must include a phrasal verb.

6. When each member has an identical set of questions, the teams stand up and form new groups with one member of each color. (If there are extras of one or two colors, they can work as partners within the group.)

7. In their new groups, the students take turns interviewing each group member. The yellows ask their questions first and record the data, then greens, then blues, etc. Everyone asks everyone else in the group his/her questions.

8. The students reform their original same-color groups, summarize their findings, and present them to the entire class. If time permits, have the groups prepare a visual on newsprint in the form of a pie chart, a graph, a list of statistics, or another type of visual. The posters can be part of the presentation and later be put up around the board.

NOTE: To save time, write out the duplicate cards yourself on colored index cards or copy one set of questions on different-colored paper. This will take the place of step 5. Collect the cards and reuse them in later classes.

SUGGESTION: This activity works well with preposition combinations instead of phrasal verbs.

Examples:

Best Friends:

What do you look for in a best friend?

Is your best friend patient with you?

Do you ever hide anything from your best friend?

Do you ever argue with your best friend?

Work:

Are you content with your job?

Do you look forward to going to work?

Do you forget about your job when you leave at the end of the day?

Does your boss ever take advantage of you by having you do extra work?

2.2.2 Conditionals and Wishes

TRUE IN THE PRESENT/FUTURE

1. SUPERSTITIONS

Materials: None

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Write a few superstitions on the board. Here are some examples. If a black cat crosses your path, you'll have bad luck. If your palm itches, you're going to receive money. If you break a mirror, you'll have seven years bad luck. If you step on a crack, you'll break your mother's back.

Look at the verb forms in the if-clause and result clause together. Ask students to generate a rule (if this is an introduction) or review the rule (if you have already introduced this form).

2. Break students into small groups and have them discuss superstitions from their countries. They should list three or four to share with the rest of the class.

3. As a whole group, share the superstitions and discuss which are universal and which seem to exist only in one or two cultures. Students often have similar superstitions in their countries and like to share them, and it is interesting to compare slight variations.

4. For further review of forms, you may want to write several of the students' superstitions on the board and analyze them (Were they written correctly?).

2. SUPERSTITIONS MATCH A

Materials: Worksheet 2.1[10]

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Cut up the worksheet or make your own. Give each student half of a superstition, that is, one card.

2. The students circulate and try to find the missing half of their superstition. When students feel they have a match, they sit down. You will probably have to check student matches and advise them to sit down or find a different match. (In case you are unfamiliar with some of the superstitions in the worksheet, the //-clause on the left matches the result clause directly across from it.)

3. Go over the superstitions together, talking about meaning and form.

3. SUPERSTITIONS MATCH В

Materials: 3" x 5" cards, or paper cut into strips at least 2" x 4"

Dynamic: Groups

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Follow steps 1 and 2 for Superstitions.

2. Have the students write their superstitions on the cards or paper strips so that one half of the superstition is on one card and the other half is on a different card. (Each group should produce only half as many superstitions as there are members in their group, so that a group of four students will write two superstitions, a total of four cards. In step 2 of Activity 1, students may have generated many superstitions, so instruct them to choose the ones they like best.)

3. Collect and shuffle the cards. Hand one card to each student. Students circulate and try to find their match. (The student who wrote the superstition will have to be the judge of whether or not the match is good because you will probably be unfamiliar with several of the superstitions.)

4. As a class, go over the superstitions and check (as a group) to see if the correct grammar forms were used.

4. JUST THE FACTS

Materials: Worksheet 2.2[11]

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. Cut up the cards in the worksheet or prepare your own. Distribute one to each student, who must construct a sentence that uses the true conditional form.

Example: Add lemon to milk

Example fact (by student): If you add lemon to milk, it curdles.

2. Arrange students in a circle, and have each say his/her sentence.

Variation: To avoid students' losing interest, do step 2 as a memory round. Each student says his/her sentence and repeats all those that came before his/hers.

5. EXPERIMENT REPORT

Materials: None

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. Divide the class into groups of three or four. Assign each group an experiment.

Suggested experiments: putting a spoon in the microwave mixing blue and yellow paint boiling eggs in water with onion skins touching your tongue to a frozen surface shaving your eyebrows frowning all the time

2. The students discuss what they think the result will be, Then each group reports to the class, using some conditional sentences.

(If you intend to have the students act out the experiments in class or for homework, obviously there are some in the list above you would not want to assign.)

NOTE: Because the results of these experiments can be perceived as

a habitual result or as a predictable fact, either the present or the future can be used in the result clause.

6. DIRECTIONS

Materials: A map (Worksheet 2.3) and a handout (either A or B) per student[12]

Dynamic: Pairs

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Break the class into pairs and give a map and two worksheets to each pair. Each student handout contains both locations and routes as indicated in Worksheet 2.4.

2. Student A begins and asks Student В for directions to the first location. Student В looks at the map and the list of routes on his/her handout and gives advice in a conditional sentence.

Example:

Student A: How can I get to Bethesda?

Student B: If you take Route 190, you will get to Bethesda.

3. After Student A has asked for directions to all the locations on 2.3 Part A, Student В asks for directions to the location on his/her handout (2.3 Part B). Student A now gives the advice.

NOTES: Locations and the ways to get there are not in order. Students must match them. A local map also works well because the students are familiar with places and highways. Pattern the handouts after Worksheet 2.3, in that case.

Variation: For a higher-level class, provide locations only and have the partner search the map for a route that goes to the requested location.

UNTRUE IN THE PRESENT

1. MEMORY GAME

Materials: 3" x 5" cards

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 25 minutes

Procedure: 1. On each card write an adjective in large letters so that it can be seen around the room.

SUGGESTIONS: sad, drunk, lonely, stranded, nauseous, hungry, thirsty, nervous, angry, rich, sick, sleepy, famous, tired, poor, lost, married, single, scared

(Include a few new words that will be challenging even for higher-level students, such as jilted or stranded.) Have students sit or stand in a circle while you distribute the cards. (If you use adjectives like married or single, be sure to give them to students who are not!)

2. Ask who has the best memory and then start with the person next to him/her. If you know you have a weak student, you may want to start with that person. The first student holds up his/her card and composes a sentence, using the untrue present conditional.

Example card: lonely Example sentence: If I were lonely, I would call my family.

3. The second student says his/her sentence and repeats student one's sentence. Continue around the circle, with each new student adding a sentence and repeating all the previous sentences. The last student will have to remember the sentences from all the other students. It is important that students hold their cards toward the circle at all times because they serve as clues. Also, don't let any of the students write. Students may cue their classmates through gestures. The only correction allowed is to emphasize were rather than was.

NOTE: If your class is large, divide it into two groups and play two rounds. The same cards can be used, but different sentences must be created. The game has been played with up to 14 in a low-level class and up to 22 in a high-level class.

2. CLUE

Materials: None

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. One student volunteers to leave the room and, when he/she returns, will guess the word chosen by the class from clues given by the rest of the class. The volunteer can ask questions if they are in the form of the untrue present.

2. While the volunteer is out of the room, decide on a category (suggestions: occupations, food, school material). Have the class choose a word in that category. Brainstorm together the kinds of clues that can be given. They must be in the form of the untrue present conditional.

Example 1: Food server

Clues: If I were you, I would wear a uniform.

If I were you, I'd never have dirty hands.

If I were you, I would talk to many people.

Also, decide which clues should be saved for last. (For example: "If I were you, I would serve customers quickly in order to get a good tip.")

Example 2: mustard

Clues: If I were you, I'd be careful not to get this on my clothes.

If I were you, I'd never eat this by itself.

If you were a waitress, you would put this on the table next to the ketchup.

Last clue: If I were you, I would always put it on hot dogs.

3. When the volunteer returns, students take turns offering clues, but they must be in the form of the untrue present conditional.

3. BUILDING AROUND

Materials: None

Dynamic: Large groups

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Put students into groups of five to seven.

2. One student begins with a sentence in the untrue present conditional.

Example: If I lived in France, I would speak French.

3. Each student builds on the story by taking the result of the previous sentence and turning it into an if-clause.

Example:

Student 1: If I lived in France, I would speak French.

Student 2: And if I spoke French, I would speak the same native language as Florence.

Student 3: And if I spoke the same native language as Florence, we would be good friends.

Student 4: And if we were good friends, we would go to parties together.

4. Encourage the students to correct/help each other within the groups.

4. SONG

Materials: Lyrics to a song, handout with questions (optional) Tape player (optional)

Dynamic: Pairs/Small groups

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure: 1. Choose a song that has several examples of the untrue present conditional.

SUGGESTIONS: "If I Were a Carpenter"

"If I Had a Hammer"

"If I Could Save Time in a Bottle"

Type up the lyrics, but leave blanks for the conditional forms—just provide the verb.

2. The students, working in pairs, fill in the missing verbs.

3. Listen to the song to check answers.

Variation: Add some questions that make use of the conditional or allow students to think about why the conditional was used. For the song "If I Were a Carpenter," questions can include:

a. What kinds of jobs are mentioned?

b. Does the man hold any of these jobs? How do you know?

С. The man asks a lot of questions about occupations, but what does he really want to know from his girlfriend? Write a conditional sentence to express what he wants.

5. LINE-UPS

Materials: Worksheet 2.4 or 3"x 5" cards[13]

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 20 minutes

Procedure: 1. Use the cards in the worksheet or prepare your own cards with similar questions. If you make your own cards, it is advisable to make each set a different color so you can assemble students in lines more easily. ("Everyone with a pink card, stand against the board. If you have a yellow card, stand in front of someone with a pink card.") Have all the students holding one of the colors come to the front of the room and stand against the board (or wall). Have the other students stand in front of one of these students.

2. The students in the line against the board ask their questions of the student standing in front of them. When the students in the "answer line" have answered the question, they move on to the next "questioner." The students in the "question line" do not move.

3. When the students in the "answer line" have talked to every student in the "question line," it is time to change positions.

Continue as specified in step 2.

4. To wrap up this activity, ask each student to share some of the responses he/she received.

NOTE: If you have an uneven number of students, have one student wait at the end of the line until the students move. One student will always be without a partner, but because the students will answer the questions at different rates, it will always appear as if several students are waiting. If you have a very large class, divide the class in two and do the line-ups both in front and in back of the class.

6. VALUES

Materials: Worksheet 2.5 [14]

Dynamic: Groups

Time: 20 minutes

Procedure: 1. Prepare two sets of cards from Worksheets 2.5 A and 2.5 B. Break the class into small groups. Give each group a values card and a YES or NO card. Stress that they cannot let any of the other groups know if their card says YES or NO.

2. Each group is presented with a situation. They must change the wording on the card into a conditional sentence. They then choose one classmate in another group who they feel will give them the answer on their YES/NO card.

Example:

The card says: You find a wallet with $50 and an ID inside. Do you keep it?

Sentence made by the group: If you found a wallet with $50 and an ID inside, would you keep it?

YES/NO card: YES

Task: Decide which of their classmates not in their group will answer YES to the question they generated. They must make an educated guess based on what they know of their classmates.

3. Check with each group to make sure they have chosen a classmate. When all groups have done so, play a round: the first group picks a student and asks its question. If the student's answer matches the group's card, the group receives a point. Go on to the next group.

4. Play another round.

7. IMAGINE THAT! (Might and Would)

Materials: None

Dynamics: Groups

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Write a result on the board that is either unusual or funny. Ask students when or why they might do that action. Generate as many (if-clauses as possible.

Suggested results (can be used for teacher example and for groups):

go skinny dipping

call 911

paint my body

hop on one foot

climb on the roof

attract a lot of attention

climb a tree

2. Divide the students into groups. Give each group a different result and have them brainstorm if-clauses using might.

3. After each group writes as many (if-clauses as possible, have the students in each group decide which one of the (if-clauses would produce the result they have been working with. The groups should try to reach a consensus, but that may not be possible.

4. Share sentences (or (if-clauses) with the class.

Example: attract a lot of attention

Student sentences:

I might attract a lot of attention if I screamed in class. I might attract a lot of attention if I dyed my hair green. I might attract a lot of attention if I sang a song on the street corner.

5. As a whole class, look at the sentences each group has chosen to share with the class. Decide as a whole class which sentence would most likely produce the result.

SUGGESTION: If you do this game as a competition, have the class vote on the best sentence. The group that receives the most votes gets a point for that round. Then go on to another round of sentences. The only danger here is that students may vote for their own sentence and then no one group would ever win. This could be avoided by telling students that they cannot vote for their own sentence.

8. AS IF/AS THOUGH PICTURES

Materials: Magazines

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. Arrange students in groups of three or four. Find, copy, and distribute magazine pictures that have people with unusual expressions.

2. Have students discuss several pictures, making sentences using as if or as though. ("He looks as if he ate a lemon." "He looks as if he were sick.")

3. Each group takes turns holding up a picture and describing it by using their sentences.

Variation: Have students find their own pictures, perhaps as homework. Or have them each bring a magazine to class and look through them in their groups for a good picture. (In this case, you may want to have some back-up pictures just in case.)

UNTRUE IN THE PAST

1. BUILDING AROUND

Materials: None

Dynamic: Large groups

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Break class into groups of five to seven.

2. Have one student begin with a sentence in the untrue past conditional. Follow the steps in Building Around, 16.2.3.

Example:

Student 1: If I had gotten married after high school, I would not have come to the United States.

Student 2: If I had not come to the United States. I would not have visited the Grand Canyon.

Student 3: If I had not visited the Grand Canyon, I would not have taken so many pictures, (etc.)

2. STORY SAGAS

Materials: Worksheet 2.6[15]

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 20 minutes

Procedure: 1. Have students work in groups of three or four. Give each group a story summary. If you plan to give each group a different summary, give each group a handout with all the summaries and then assign one per group. (There is a handout of sample summaries in Worksheet 2.6.)

2. The students read the summary and then write five conditional sentences based on the information in the summary.

Example:

Blair lied and told Todd she was pregnant with his child so that he would marry her. She knew what he didn't: that he was about to inherit $28 million. As a result of her deception, Cord, the man she really loved, was disgusted with her. Since the marriage, Blair has discovered that she is now, in fact, pregnant, and Todd has discovered that he is a millionaire. Blair's mother, who is in a psychiatric center, knows the truth about the marriage and has a habit of saying whatever comes to mind.

Sample Sentences:

If Blair had not lied to Todd, he wouldn't have married her.

If Blair had not married Todd, she could have married Cord.

If Todd had known about the $28 million before his marriage, he might have suspected Blair.

Variation: Instead of using soap opera summaries, use a story the class has read. If this is a multi skills class, you know what material the class has read. If the reading class is separate, you can check with the reading instructor. Follow the same procedure, but write conditional sentences based on the story. You can also use fairy tales or fables.

MIXED CONDITIONALS

1. WHAT IF

Materials: None

Dynamic: Pairs/Small groups

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Break the class into pairs or groups of three or four.

Explain (or review) that some actions have results not only in the time they happened, but can also carry over into the present or future.

Example: If I had eaten more last night... I wouldn't be hungry now.

2. Give each group or pair several if-clauses—things that happened in the past. Tell them this activity has results in the present and that they should make sentences with a past condition and a present result.

SUGGESTIONS: If I had written my essay last weekend

If I had gone to bed earlier last night

If I had washed my hair yesterday

If I had gone to the movies with my friends last night

If I had studied more English in my own country

2. COMIC STRIP ADVICE

Materials: Worksheet 2.7[16]

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Distribute copies of the comic strip Cathy (Worksheet 2.7) to each group.

2. After they read the comic strip, have the groups work together to complete the (if-clauses. They can use the information provided by the mother in the strip or just make a logical ending.

Example: Cathy says: If only I weren't so fat.

Student results: I could wear my new dress.

I would have had more boyfriends. I would feel better.

REVIEWING THE CONDITIONAL FORMS

1. REVIEW MATCH

Materials: Worksheet 2.8[17]

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 20 minutes

Procedure: 1. Divide the class into small groups. Give each group the same number of cards. Be sure to give an even number to each group. If this is not possible, give one group one pair more than the others. Use the cards in Worksheet 112 or make your own.

2. Each group should make as many matches as possible. Group members should take the remaining unmatched cards to other groups and try to make a trade. {Important: They cannot give away a card without receiving one in exchange, and they cannot take a card unless the other group agrees to the trade.)

3. When one group has matched all its cards, the game stops. A group member reads the matches, and the rest of the class must agree that they are logical. If all matches are accepted, that group is the winner. If one or more matches is rejected, the game proceeds until the next group feels it is finished.

NOTE: Because of mixed conditionals, there will not necessarily be matches for all cards.

2. DEAR ANNIE

Materials: Worksheet 2.9[18]

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure: 1. Have students pick one of the seven situations on the worksheet and write a letter to "Dear Annie" in which they explain their situation and ask how it can be avoided in the future or how it could have been avoided.

2. Collect the students' "Dear Annie" letters. Randomly redistribute them to the class, making sure that no one receives his/her own letter.

3. Have students pretend they are Annie and respond in writing to the letter they received. They must use whichever conditional structures are appropriate to the situation described in the letter,

4. Have several students read to the class the original letter they wrote along with their (Annie's) response. Return the letters and the responses to the authors of the original letters.

WISHES

1. ALADDIN'S LAMP

Materials: Worksheet 2.10[19]

Dynamic: Groups

Time: 20 minutes

Procedure: 1. Discuss the meaning of Aladdin's lamp if necessary. (A poor boy named Aladdin found an old lamp. When he rubbed it, a genie appeared and granted him three wishes.)

2. Tell students they have each found Aladdin's lamp and been granted three wishes. Have them write their wishes down.

3. Break students into groups of about five. Pass out one worksheet per group and have the students compare their wishes and answer the survey questions.

4. Each group can report its findings to the class.

Chapter 3.

Relationships between ideas

PARALLELISM

1. MEMORIZE IT

Materials: Worksheet 3.1[20]

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. Make copies of the handout. Give half of your class Part A and the other half, Part B. Do not tell the students that there is a difference between the sentences in the two parts.

2. Tell the students to memorize the sentences for about 30 seconds and then turn over their papers. On the backs of their papers, or on another piece of paper, have them write the sentences exactly as they remember them.

3. Students now turn their papers back to the front and check their answers with the sentences. Did anyone get all the sentences correct?

4. Reveal that there is a difference between the sentences in the two parts and have a student with Part A compare papers with a student who has part B. Ask them which one was easier to remember and why. Talk about where the parallel structure is in each sentence in Part A.

NOTE: Those students with Part A usually have an easier time memorizing the sentences because of the parallel structure. Occasionally, however, you may have a student who can memorize Part В completely. In that case, talk about how some people have a good ability to memorize, but that it is easier for most of us if there is some kind of structure.

JOINING IDEAS

1. EITHER/NEITHER/TOO

Materials: 3"x 5" index cards

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Write out two kinds of cards: one set has sentences; the other set has short answers that agree or disagree. Each sentence in Set One has only one matching answer in Set Two.

Example: Set One Set Two

I'm having a good time I am, too.

I'm not having fun. I'm not either.

The U.S. president lives in

Washington, D.C His wife does, too.

I don't have a headache. Neither do I.

I didn't do the homework. Neither did I.

You're a good student. You are, too.

2. Divide the students into two groups. Each student receives one card. The students circulate and look for their match. They can say their sentences to each opposite group member until they find the appropriate matching answer.

3. Students can then invent their own sentences and see if their classmates can give an appropriate answer.

2. USING CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

Materials: Worksheet 3.2[21]

Dynamic: Pairs

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Put students into pairs. Fill the blanks in the worksheet with your students' names. Give one copy of the worksheet to each pair of students.

2. Have the pairs work together to write one sentence, joining the pairs of sentences on the paper with an appropriate correlative conjunction (both … and, not only . . . but also, either … or, and neither . . . nor).

Example:

Guillermo has black hair. Jorge has black hair. Possible combinations;

Both Guillermo and Jorge have black hair.

Not only Guillermo but also Jorge has black hair.

Variation: Use the worksheet as a model only. Write your own sentences containing" information about students in your class. This will make it seem less like an exercise and more fun for your students.

3. SAME / DIFFERENT

Materials: Worksheet 3.3[22]

Dynamic: Pairs

Time: 20 minutes

Procedure: 1. Put students into pairs and give each student a copy of the worksheet. The students ask each other the questions on the worksheet. Then they write a sentence, using an appropriate correlative conjunction to compare themselves with each student who answered each question.

Example:

Question: What month were you born in?

Student A's answer: June

Student В writes: Both Student A and I were born in

June.

or Neither Student A nor I was born in September.

2. Circulate to check on student progress. When all pairs have finished, you may want to have volunteers give a few example sentences.

4. CONNECTING IDEAS

Materials: Board, paper

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. Write a list of connecting words on the board (for example, because, although, for, before, so). You may want to concentrate on just one type (conjunctions, adverbial subordinators, or transitions) or mix them.

2. Divide the class into groups of approximately three or four. Set a time limit (perhaps 5 minutes), and have the groups write a logical and grammatical sentence for each word on the board. Each sentence must have a different meaning. (This avoids such sentences as / went to bed after I finished my homework, I went to bed before I finished my homework, I went to bed because I finished my homework.)

3. For each word on the board, have the groups read their sentences. Give the groups a point if a sentence is both grammatical and logical. (If it is not correct, have other students correct it.) If you are also looking for correct punctuation, have a student from each group write some of the group's answers on the board.

NOTE: The time limit will vary depending on the level of the class and the number of words you list on the board. If you want, you can give the class a topic to base their sentences on, although this can lead to similar sentences, as noted in step 2 above.

5. PANTOMIME

Materials: 3" x 5" cards with instructions on them

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Write one situation on each card.

Suggestions: starting a car on a cold morning receiving a letter from a good friend eating something you don't like making scrambled eggs trying to study next to a noisy person

Hand out cards, face down, to the most outgoing students, who will be your "actors." They should not show their cards to anyone.

2. Be sure the class understands the meaning of "pantomime." Then call the first student to the front of the class to act out his/her card.

3. Ask the class to explain what the "actor" did by using adverbials of time and sequence and adverbial clauses of time.

Example: "First, she sat down at the table. Then she took her books out of her bag. As soon as she began to study, another student sat down next to her."

4. Encourage students to shout out possibilities for each action. Do not focus on guessing what the "actor" was doing, but rather on describing how he/she did it.

6. COMBINATIONS

Materials: Worksheet 3.4[23]

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Put students into groups of three or four. Give each group one copy of the worksheet.

2. Have students work together to choose the best answer for each sentence. (Remember, the directions state to find the expressions that can not be used in the sentences.) In each case, two answers are correct and one is not. The students are looking for the expression/word that is not possible in the sentence, considering both appropriate meaning and appropriate punctuation.

7. COMPLETE THE SENTENCE

Materials: Worksheet 3.5[24]

Dynamic: Teams

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Cut up the worksheet and divide the class into two teams.

2. The students on each team take turns drawing slips of paper that contain a clause beginning or ending with a coordinator or subordinator.

Examples: He went to class although...

Because he was all wet. . .

3. If the student completes the sentence correctly, he/she scores a point for his/her team.

NOTE: You may want only the student who draws the slip to respond, or you may allow the teammates to help. Either way, accept the answer only from the student who drew the slip. This activity can also be used with intermediate students if you limit the coordinators and subordinators to those used in their text.

8. JUST BECAUSE

Materials: Worksheet 3.6[25]

Dynamic: Pairs

Timer: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Arrange students in pairs and give each pair a copy of the worksheet.

2. Using the randomly listed independent clauses, the students work together to write logical and grammatical sentences by combining two of the clauses with because. Punctuation also counts!

3. You can award one point for each correct sentence, or one point for a logical combination of clauses and one point for correct punctuation. Collect the written sentences and grade them immediately, if possible. The pair with the most points wins. If you do not want to do this activity as a competition, go around the room and have the pairs share some of their sentences as a closure.

4. As a follow-up activity, use the students' combination and punctuation errors for an error analysis worksheet.

Variation: Read an independent clause from one of the lists on the worksheet. The students, working in small groups, supply a logical completion to your sentence, using because. The first group to produce a good completion scores a point. Alternatively, ask all groups for a completion and give points for all correct answers.

9. OTHERWISE ...OR ELSE

Materials: None

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Explain that you will write a sentence such as I have a headache or / have to work on the board after a student volunteer leaves the room.

2. Send a volunteer out of the room. With the rest of the class, brainstorm several possible logical clauses to complete the sentence, beginning with otherwise or else.

3. Erase the sentence on the board and have the volunteer return. The other students offer their responses. The student volunteer tries to construct the sentence that had been written on the board.

Example:

Possible responses: Otherwise, I would be scared.

Otherwise, I would worry about my valuables.

Otherwise, someone could break in.

Sentence on the board (which the volunteer must guess);

I always lock my doors.


2.2.3 Examples of worksheets

Chapter 1: Worksheet 1.1: SCAVENGER HUNT

With a partner, find the objects on the list. They are all located somewhere in the classroom. Then write a complete sentence that includes a prepositional phrase to describe each object's location.

Objects:

1. 6.

2. 7.

3. 8.

4. 9.

5. 10.

Locations:

1. ___________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________________

3. ___________________________________________________________

4. ___________________________________________________________

5.___________________________________________________________

6. ___________________________________________________________

7. ___________________________________________________________

8. ___________________________________________________________

9.____________________________________________________________

10. __________________________________________________________

Worksheet 1.2: ERROR ANALYSIS

With your partner, decide whether the sentences describing the picture are correct or incorrect. If they are incorrect, correct them.

1. The bird is on the umbrella.

2. The sandwiches are behind the salad.

3. The spatula is on the man's hand.

4. The hammock is between a tree and a pole.

5. The dog is under the table.

6. The cat is under the table.

7. The baby is beside the father.

8. The hot dogs are next to the salad.

9. The chairs are under the table.

10. The grill is in front of the man.

Worksheet 1.3 A: PREPOSITION BEE (LOWER LEVEL)

1. What time do you get up ___________________________ the morning?

2. She is sitting ____________________________________________ me.

3. The roof is ______________________________________our classroom.

4. I have a doctor's appointment ______________________________10:30.

5. Scott was born ___________________________________________June.

6. Do you have any money _____________________________ your wallet?

7. I am standing __________________________________Sarah and Alison.

8. I'll meet you ____________________________ the library this afternoon.

9. Our classroom is _____________________________________ the office.

10. Before the test begins, please put your books ______________ the table.

11. Keiko attends class ___________9:00________________________2:30.

12. What time does it get dark_______________________________ night?

13. I'll be ________________ my office after class if you want to talk to me.

14. Please keep your notes____________________________your notebook.

15. I'm always cold because there is a ceiling fan directly ________my desk.

16. When it's cold, I wear a sweater _________________________my skirt.

17. Hugo works out in the gym ____________________________ Saturday.

18. Where's my pencil? I don't see it, but it must be ______ here somewhere.

19. The back seat is ________________________ the driver's seat in a car.

20. I'm going _____________________________to take my dog for a walk.

21. The children pressed their noses inside the store _______ the glass to see what was inside the story.

Worksheet 1.3 B: PREPOSITION BEE (HIGHER LEVEL)

1. I'll meet you _____________________4:00, give or take 15 minutes.

2. Mary was walking ________________ from her car when I saw her.

3. It's raining; you'd better put a coat ____________________your dress.

4. Marco was walking ____________________the river when he fell in.

5. He set the vase ____________________________________the table.

6. The basketball went ________________________________the hoop.

7. The sign warned people not to lean_________ the newly painted wall.

8. My partner's eyes kept closing the entire presentation. It _______was so embarrassing!

9. Shut the computer ____________________if you are the last to leave.

10. Max is ________________Mexico, but he has lived here for 10 years.

11. You can't get Jasmine's attention when she is _____________ a group of her friends.

12. There were many accidents _______________the big storm last week.

13. The glass fell ___________ her hands _________________ the floor.

14. Because of my allergies, the doctor told me I would have to

go _________ chocolate.

15. My house is located __________________________ the city limits.

16. Your final essays are due __________________________ May 27.

17. Jordan was born __________________________ the last day of July.

18. I sat in the middle seat, ____________________ Luci and Claudia.

19. Because of all the trees, I can't see what is ________ those buildings.

20. Dogs must be ________________________ their yards or on a leash.

21. Is there any holiday that is celebrated ________________ the world?

Worksheet 1.4: TIC TAC ТОE

pay hand look

put try wake

make shut run

do figure grow

find fill tear

ask call drop

write watch pick

look keep hang

hang give fill

Worksheet 1.5: PREPOSITION BEE (PHRASAL VERBS)

1. I first asked my girlfriend _______________ on a date two years ago.

2. I had a message to call you_______________________________.

3. Rumi gave ____________on her math homework because she couldn't figure the problems.

4. My handwriting was so messy that my teacher told me to do my homework______________________.

5. Ali is very easy-going; he gets ____________________ everyone.

6. If the classroom gets too hot, take _________________ your sweatshirts and sweaters.

7. Watch________________________! There's a big pothole in the road.

8. The copy machine ran ________ paper, so I couldn't make you copies.

9. I need an alarm clock to wake __________________________ .

10. They are tearing ___________ the old building on the corner.

11. I'll lend you the money if you promise to pay me ______________ .

12. Before our teacher hands _______________ our tests, she always tells us to put our books____________________ .

13. Yuji is not a serious student; he is always fooling _________ in class.

14. I know this class is difficult, but try to get ____________________ it.

15. Hitoshi grew _________________________ in a small town in Japan.

16. Cassio hung the phone before I could ask him about the _______________ homework.

17. I like to buy clothes, but I hate trying them ___________________.

18. If you don't know how to spell a word, look it_______________ in the dictionary.

19. Elena lost her essay and had to start _____________________ .

20. I ran _________________ my former teacher in the parking lot today. I hadn't seen him in three years.

Chapter2:

Worksheet 2.1: SUPERSTITIONS MATCH

if you sleep with a mirror under your pillow you will dream of what your future husband looks like
if you trip on a flight of stairs you will have triplets
if your cat washes its face company is coming
if your eyebrows grow together or your arms are hairy you will be very rich
if the bottom of one of your feet itches you are going to take a trip
if your nose itches you'll kiss a fool
if a cat licks its tail it will rain
if your ears burn someone is talking about you
if you find a four-leaf clover you will have good luck
if you walk under a ladder you will have bad luck
if you use the same pillow your dog uses you will dream what he dreams
if you step on your shadow you will have bad luck
if you want to do well on a test use the same pencil you used for studying because it will remember the answers

Worksheet 2.2: JUST THE FACTS

drive with your eyes closed eat five pizzas at once
use sunscreen heat water to 100°C
fly east from here put ice cubes in the sun
have a baby never study
read a lot do not eat
over water plants pour oil on water
pass this class take scuba diving lessons

Worksheet 2.3: DIRECTIONS

A.

I. Can you tell me how to get to...?

The Goddard Space Flight Center

The White House

Georgetown University

II. If you take ... you will get to ...

395

495

16th Avenue

B.

I. If you take . . . you will get to ...

Mac Arthur Boulevard

Route 214

The Baltimore-Washington Parkway

II. Can you tell me how to get to...?

The University of Maryland

The National Zoo

The Pentagon

Worksheet 2.4: LINE-UF

If you lost your homework and your teacher did not believe that you had done the work, what would you do? If you discovered, after eating dinner at a restaurant, that you had no money or credit cards with you, what would you do?
If you disliked your sister's new boyfriend, what would you say to her? If you saw your friend cheating on a test, what would you do?
If you had a choice between finishing your essay and going to a party, what would you do? If you arrived at a friend's house for dinner and realized you had the wrong night, what would you say?
If your parents told you not to see your boyfriend/girlfriend, what would you do? If your parents asked you to return to your home country, what would you do?
If your friend gave you a puppy for your birthday, what would you do? If a classmate asked you a personal question, what would you say?
If your friend made mistakes in grammar while speaking, would you correct him/her? If you were invited for dinner to a friend's house and the food was terrible, what would you say or do?

Worksheet 2.5 A: VALUES

You accidentally break your host family's remote control. Do you confess? Your best friend's boyfriend girlfriend asks you out. Do you accept?
You see your teacher's car hit a parked car and leave. You know the owner of the damaged car. Do you tell him/her? A new acquaintance invites you to a party, and everyone there goes skinny-dipping. Do you join them?
You know that a friend's boyfriend is involved with another man. Do you tell her? You see a friend shoplift something inexpensive. Do you talk to him/her about it?
Your friend is copying someone else's homework instead of doing it himself/herself. Do you talk to him/her? The cashier overcharges you by 15 cents. Do you complain?
You see your sister's husband kissing another woman. Do you tell her?

You run over your neighbor's dog, Do you confess?

The waiter forgets to charge you for your dessert. Do you tell him? Your parents tell you to stop seeing your boyfriend/girlfriend. Do you see him/her in secret?

Worksheet 2.5 B

YES NO
YES NO
YES NO
YES NO
YES NO
YES NO
YES NO

Worksheet 2.6: STORY SAGAS

Sample Summaries:

From General Hospital:

Catherine is accused of murdering Damian even though no body has been found, (Damian has disappeared under mysterious circumstances.) Lucy remembers seeing Catherine parked outside her building at 11 P.M., which does not match the prosecution's case. Lucy agrees to testify for Catherine. When asked how she happened to look outside at 11 P.M, Lucy says that her pet duck was quacking. This amuses the jury and the lawyers, who laugh at Lucy. Embarrassed, Lucy tries to defend her duck, which only makes matters worse. After her testimony, Catherine is angry at Lucy for mentioning the duck because it made Lucy look foolish and caused the jury to disregard her testimony.

From All My Children:

Charlie and Hailey were dating, but break up over a difference of opinion regarding her domineering" father. Meanwhile, Cecily's newly famous movie star husband divorces her. She returns to Pine Valley and begins to work for Charlie. An attraction begins to develop between them, which they both deny. Charlie is surprised when Hailey announces only weeks after their break up that she is engaged to Alex.

From One Life to Live:

Eighteen-year-old Joe falls in love with a much older woman, Dorian. Although she swears that she really loves Joe, everyone warns him that Dorian is just using him and that he will be hurt. Joe's mother makes a deal with Dorian. Dorian's part of the deal is to drop Joe and marry David, who agrees to marry Dorian for money.

David impersonates Vicki and Tina's brother to inherit a fortune. When he falls in love with Tina, he is forced to reveal the truth to her. She agrees to conceal the truth to help David inherit. David and Tina marry in secret. When Tina's ex-husband, Cord, learns about the marriage, David must confess he is not the true heir. To save Tina from possible conspiracy charges and to help her retain custody of her children, David tells Tina he never loved her, and he divorces her. Having had to give up Tina, whom he really did love, he agrees to Dorian's plan to marry Dorian.

Worksheet 2.7: COMMIC STRIP ADVICE

Grammar Games - Motivation in Teaching English

Worksheet 2.8: REVIEW MATCH

if you catch a cold you need to take some medicine and keep warm
if I had been tired I would have taken a nap
if I had a dog I would take him for a walk
if you eat a lot of ice cream you will gain weight
if I had been as sick as you I wouldn't have gone to school
if you study hard you get good grades
if I had had a dog I wouldn't have been afraid to be alone
if I found a wallet I would return it
If I find your wallet I will return it to you
If I had found your wallet I would have returned it to you
if I had eaten the whole box of chocolates I would have had an upset stomach
if you had asked me I would have helped you
If I had had enough money I would have lent you some
if I am sick tomorrow I will stay home
if I had eaten a lot of ice cream I would have felt sick
if I am angry my face turns red
if your skin turns green you have a serious problem
if you ask me I will tell you the truth
if you need me I will be there
if I were bitten by a dog I would go to the hospital
If my feet hurt I would rub them

Worksheet 2.9: DEAR ANNIE

Choose one of the situations. For the situation you choose, write a letter to "Dear Annie" explaining your situation. Ask her for advice about how your situation could have been prevented or how it can be prevented in the future.

1. You forgot to lock your car and as a result, your books were stolen from the back seat. How could you have avoided having your books stolen?

2. You were absent from class on Monday when the teacher told the class there would be a test on Tuesday. How could you have avoided failing the test?

3. Your dog always barks late at night. As a result, your neighbor has threatened to kill the dog. What will save your dog's life?

4. You were out having a good time. On your way home, a policeman gave you a ticket for speeding. How could you have avoided getting a speeding ticket?

5. Although you know that you are not a very good cook, you prepared dinner for all of your friends. As a result, all of your friends got sick and had to be taken to the hospital. How could this situation have been avoided?

6. While you were playing, you left a little ball on the stairway. When your mother came down the stairs, she fell and broke her leg. How could this have been avoided?

7. Every time you go shopping, you go at 5:00 when the store is busiest. As a result, you always have to stand in a long check-out line. How can you avoid standing in a long line the next time you go to the store?

Example:

Dear Annie,

Help! A terrible thing has just happened to me! Yesterday after my classes, I went to the mall to go shopping. I forgot to lock my car, and as a result, my books were stolen from the back seat. I have a test this Friday, but now I can't study because I don't have my book, I am very upset. Could you tell me how I could have prevented this terrible situation?

Sincerely yours,

Going to fail in Buffalo

Part B

You write an advice column in the paper and sign yourself "Dear Annie." You have received a letter that describes a situation and asks your advice on how the situation could have been prevented/avoided or how it can be prevented/ avoided in the future. Write a response, using the appropriate conditional constructions. If you are asked about how a situation could have been avoided, use the untrue in the past conditional. If you are asked about how a situation can be avoided, use the present/future conditional. You may also use other conditional constructions in your response.

Example:

Dear "Going to Fail,"

If you had remembered to lock your car in the first place, your books wouldn't have been stolen and you wouldn't be in this terrible situation! Perhaps in the future you should keep your books in the trunk of your car. That way, if you forget to lock your car again, your books won't be stolen and you won’t fail any more tests.

Yours truly,

Annie

PS. If you tell your teacher about your situation, I'm sure he/she‘ll help you find a book to study with.

Worksheet 2.10: ALADDIN'S LAMP

Answer the questions based on the wishes in your group.

1. How many were past wishes?

2. How many were wishes for the present?

3. How many were wishes for the future?

4. How many wishes were about family members?

5. How many wishes were about money?

6. How many wishes were about the environment?

7. How many wishes were about stopping some habit?

8. Did any group members have the same wish?

9. What was the most popular topic of the wishes?

10. What was the most popular time for the wish (past, present, future)?

Chapter 3:

Worksheet 3.1: MEMORIZE IT

PART A

1. Mary liked to dance, bowl, and swim.

2. I admire Bob for his intelligence, honesty, and cheerfulness.

3. By getting a job and saving money, Marcia paid for her dance lessons.

_________________________________________________________________PART B

1. Mary liked to dance and bowl, and she is a good swimer.

2. I admire Bob for his intelligence and honesty, and he has a cheerful disposition.

3. By getting a job and she was able to save her money, Marcia paid for her dance lessons.

Worksheet 3.2: USING CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

Write one sentence joining the two ideas with a correlative conjunction (both . . . and, not only . . . but also, either ... or, and neither . . . nor).

1. __________ isn't from Hong Kong. She isn't from Mexico.

2. Someone just bought a new car, but I can't remember who. Maybe it was __________. Maybe it was __________.

3. __________ lost her passport. She lost her driver's license too.

4. We have an essay due next Tuesday. We have a grammar test next Tuesday.

5. I enjoy this class. I am learning lots of new things. I am meeting new people.

6. __________ doesn't like to cook. He doesn't like to eat out in

7. __________ likes cats. She likes cocker spaniels.

8. Chocolate can make some people hyperactive. It can keep people awake at night.

Worksheet 3.3: SAME/DIFFERENT

Ask your partner these questions. Then use correlative conjunctions (both . . and, not only . . . but also, either . , . or, neither . . . nor) to write sentences about the two of you.

1. What month were you born in?

_____________________________________________________________

2. Do you have a boyfriend/girlfriend?

____________________________________________________________

3. Are you married?

_____________________________________________________________

4. Do you drive?

_____________________________________________________________

5. Are you the youngest in your family?

_____________________________________________________________

6. Can you play the piano?

_____________________________________________________________

7. Do you have American friends?

_____________________________________________________________

8. Do you like cats?

_____________________________________________________________

9. Have you ever studied in another foreign country?

_____________________________________________________________

10. Can you speak more than four languages?

_____________________________________________________________

Worksheet 3.4: COMBINATION

Cross out the words or expressions that can not be used in the sentences without a change in meaning or punctuation.

1. (Although / Because / Even though) Sue is a good student, she did not receive a good grade.

2. It was hot today. (Although / However / Nevertheless), I still ran for five miles.

3. I went swimming (despite / even though / in spite of) the cold weather.

4. Mary is rich, (but / however / whereas) John is poor.

5. (However / Whereas / While) John is poor, Mary is rich.

6. I always eat breakfast. (Nevertheless / However / Therefore), I still get hungry.

7. It was raining today. (But / Consequently / Therefore), we stayed home.

8. This university, (for example / for instance / such as), has an excellent ESL program.

9. (Besides / Furthermore / In addition to) working at the restaurant, Kim works on campus.

10. I had a terrible headache today. (Furthermore / As well as / In addition), I was very tired.

Worksheet 3.5: COMPLETE THE SENTENCE

My friend went to class although
Since the dog was all wet,
I got a raise at work; consequently,
Not only does the president like to go running, but
Because my boyfriend thinks he is God's gift to women,
My friend found a new job last week, so
I had fun at the beach this weekend; nevertheless,
Neither my sister nor her children
Both Indonesia and Thailand
Even though my brother has five children,
The population of the United States is increasing, for
Despite the fact that I didn't go to my friend's party last Saturday,

Worksheet 3.6: (CONTINUED)

Because Kim lost her car keys,
I went to class even though
Before I called ray mother,
Since I had lived there for five years,
I was born in Mexico, yet
Every day there is more information about the dangers of smoking; therefore,
My brother got involved with bad people; as a result,
I don't like the taste of carrots, nor
While my mother likes to stay home and watch movies on TV,
While I was walking down the street,
As long as you are happy,
He seemed happy; however,

Worksheet 3.7: JUST BECAUSE

With your partner, select two sentences from the list and combine them using because. Be sure your sentences are logical and grammatical. Remember to punctuate correctly.

I'm not going to go camping. She studied hard for her final exams.

She has six children. She took aspirin. Air pollution in California is increasing.

I had to go to work. The bus was late.

Don't eat too much for lunch. My sister doesn't work outside the house.

My in-laws are coming for a visit. I was late for work.

It's impossible to see out the front window. She has a migraine headache.

More and more people are driving alone. She wants to get into a good university.

We are going to a great restaurant for dinner.

You should wash your car.

It's been raining all day. I ate breakfast at 7:00 A.M.

I spent the day cleaning the house.


iii. Conclusion

In the present qualification work we attempted to investigate the problem of game using at English language lessons, one of the main problems in theory of English grammar teaching. We chose the theme of our qualification work because we interested in it. We used different kind of references to investigate the role of games in teaching English.

Recently, using games has become a popular technique exercised by many educators in the classrooms and recommended by methodologists. Many sources, including the ones quoted in this work, list the advantages of the use of games in foreign language classrooms. Yet, nowhere have I found any empirical evidence for their usefulness in vocabulary presentation and consolidation.

Though the main objectives of the games were to acquaint students with new words or phrases and help them consolidate lexical items, they also helped develop the students' communicative competence.

From the observations, I noticed that those groups of students who practiced grammar activity with games felt more motivated and interested in what they were doing. However, the time they spent working on the words was usually slightly longer than when other techniques were used with different groups. This may suggest that more time devoted to activities leads to better results. The marks students received suggested that the fun and relaxed atmosphere accompanying the activities facilitated students' learning. But this is not the only possible explanation of such an outcome. The use of games during the lessons might have motivated students to work more on the vocabulary items on their own, so the game might have only been a good stimulus for extra work.

Although, it cannot be said that games are always better and easier to cope with for everyone, an overwhelming majority of pupils find games relaxing and motivating. Games should be an integral part of a lesson, providing the possibility of intensive practice while at the same time immensely enjoyable for both students and teachers. My research has produced some evidence which shows that games are useful and more successful than other methods of vocabulary presentation and revision. Having such evidence at hand, I wish to recommend the wide use of games with vocabulary work as a successful way of acquiring language competence.

The present material can be used at the lessons of grammar, practical course of English language, lexicology, and speech practice in both: universities and English classes at schools. This paper can help to create the teaching aids, textbooks, etc. Teachers and students might use the results of the present work for the further investigations.


IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Abbott G., D. McKeating, J. Greenwood, and P. Wingard. 1981. The teaching of English as an international language. A practical guide. London.

2. Azar B. Sh. Fun with grammar. New York. 2000

3. Ersoz Aydan. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6, June 2000.

4. Hubbard, P., H. Jones, B. Thornton, and R. Wheeler. 1983. A training course for TEFL. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

5. Horwitz E.K., Horwitz, M.B., and Cope, J.A. 1986. Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal 70 (2)

6. Lee Su Kim. Creative Games for the Language. Class Forum Vol. 33 No 1, January - March 1995

7. Lee, W. R. 1979. Language teaching games and contests. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

8. Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen, Khuat Thi Thu Nga. Learning Vocabulary Through Games. 'Asian EFL Journal' - December 2003

9. Rinvolucri Mario. Grammar Games: cognitive, affective and drama activities for EFL students. Cambridge, 1989.

10. Rinvolucri Mario and Paul Davis.1992. More grammar games. Cambridge University Press.

11. Rixon, S. 1981. How to use games in language teaching. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

12. Wright A. Games for Language Learning. Cambridge University Press, 1984.

13. Wilga M. Rivers, Mary S. Temperley. A practical guide to the teaching of English as a second language. - Cambridge, 1978.

14. Yin Yong Mei and Jang Yu-jing. 'Using Games in an EFL Class for Children' Daejin University ELT Research Paper. Fall, 2000.

15. World Book Encyclopedia Chicago 1993 Vol. 6 p. 56

16. Internet: http://search.atomz.com/

17. Internet: http://e.usia.gov/forum/vols/vol36/no1/p20.htm-games

18. Internet: http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Chen-Games.html

19. Internet: http://e.usia.gov/forum/vols/vol34/no2/p22.htm-note-taking


[1] The full list of works and authors is mentioned in bibliography to this qualification paper

[2] Abbott, G., D. McKeating, J. Greenwood, and P. Wingard. 1981. The teaching of English as an international language. A practical guide. London: Collins.

[3] Lee Su Kim. Creative Games for the Language. Class Forum Vol. 33 No 1, January - March 1995, Page 35.

[4] Lee, W. R. 1979. Language teaching games and contests. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[5] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 1 (Worksheet 1.1: SCAVENGER HUNT)

[6] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 1 (worksheet 1.2: ERROR ANALISIS)

[7] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – Chapter 1 (Worksheet 1.3 A: PREPOSITION BEE (LOWER LEVEL)

(Worksheet 1.3 B: PREPOSITION BEE (HIGHER LEVEL)

[8] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 1 (Worksheet 1.4: TIC TAC TOE)

[9] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 1 (Worksheet 1.5: PREPOSITION BEE: Phrasal verbs)

[10] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 2 (Worksheet 2.1 and 2.2: SUPERSTITIONS MATCH)

[11] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 2 (Worksheet 2.2: JUST THE FACTS)

[12] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 2 (Worksheet 2.3: DIRECTIONS)

[13] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 2 (Worksheet 2.4: LINE – UPS)

[14] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 2 (Worksheet 2.5 A and B)

[15] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 2 (Worksheet 2.6: STORY SAGAS)

[16] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 2 (Worksheet 2.7:COMIC STRIP ADVICE)

[17] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 2 (Worksheet 2.8:REVIEW MATCH)

[18] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 2 (Worksheet 2.9:DEAR ANNIE)

[19] SEE the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 2 (Worksheet 2.10: ALLADIN’S LAMP)

[20] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 3 (Worksheet 3.1: MEMORISE IT)

[21] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 3 (Worksheet 3.2: USING CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS)

[22] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 3 (Worksheet 3.3: SAME/DIFFERENT)

[23] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 3 (Worksheet 3.4:COMBINATIONS)

[24] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 3 (Worksheet 3.5:COMPLETE THE SENTENCE)

[25] See the Paragraph 2.2.3 – chapter 3 (Worksheet 3.6: JUST BECAUSE)