An Evergreen topic in British classical literature, children’s poems and everyday speech: patterns of climate in the British isles

The Description of the UK climate and factors which influence the climate of Britain. The description of seasons and weather in different months and its description in classical literature and children’s books. The theme of the weather in everyday speech.

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«Научное общество учащихся средней общеобразовательной школы № 7»

Секция: Английская филология

An Evergreen topic in British classical literature, children’s poems and everyday speech: patterns of climate in the British isles

Чайковский 2007


The theme: “An evergreen topic in British classical literature, children’s poems and everyday speech: Patterns of climate in the British Isles”.

The topic of the weather is the most interesting and most often discussed topic in the British Isles because the weather is very changeable there. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening. And a nasty morning can change to a fine afternoon. That’s why it’s natural for the British to use the comparison as changeable as the weather “of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something”. “Other countries have "climate, in Britain we have weather". This statement is often made by the British to describe the meteorological conditions of their country.

Many British authors describe British weather in their books and poems. And what’s more there are a lot of poems for children about seasons and weather.

The aim of our work is to present a short survey of the average weather conditions in the British Isles and to show how these conditions are reflected in British classical literature, in children’s poems and in everyday speech.

The goals are:

1) to describe the UK climate

2) to describe seasons and months and to show their descriptions in British literature and children’s poems

3) to present the British climate as a favourite topic of conversations

Hypothesis: we expect that the topic of the weather is the most interesting, most favourite and most often discussed topic in the British Isles. That’s why, many British authors describe British weather in their books and poems.

While working at the topic, we used different classical literature, textbooks, and children’s poems which helped us to describe the weather in different seasons, months and everyday speech.

The description of the UK climate and factors which influence the climate of Britain

The climate in the UK is generally mild and temperate due to the influence of the Gulf Stream.

In England the climate is mild, temperate, soft and damp thanks to the warmth of washing it seas. The average temperature is about 11˚C in the south and 9˚C in the north-east. The warmest month is July and the coldest is January. The average July temperature in London is about 11-17˚C, the average January temperature is about 3-7˚C. The north-eastern region is the coldest in England whereas the south-east and the Westland are the warmest. The average rainfall is 600-750 mm. The largest part falls from September till January. Fogs are frequent there.

The climate of Northern Ireland is mild and humid. In winter the waters of nearby sea influence the coastal regions. Inside the country there are rather low temperatures because of cold air downwards. The average temperature is about 10˚C. It’s about 14,5˚C in July and 4,5˚C in January. The Ireland is a little cloudier and wetter than England because of its hilly landscape. The quantity of rainfall in the north is more than 1016 mm a year, in the south it is about 760 mm a year.

Scotland is the coldest region in the UK, although the climate is rather mild. The average January temperature is about 3˚C, it often snows in the mountains in the north. The average July temperature is about 15˚C. The largest rainfall is on the west of the Highlands (about 3810 mm), less in some eastern regions (about 635 mm a year). Sometimes it rains more than 240 days a year.

The climate of Wales is as mild and humid as in England. The average January temperature is 5,5˚C. The average July temperature is about 15,5˚C. The coldest places are distant from the Sea Shore. The average rainfall is 762 mm in the central coastal region and more than 2540 mm near Snow don.

So, rainfall is more or less even throughout the year. Annual rainfall decreases from west to east and increases with height. The highest parts of Britain, where rain falls two days out of three, receive mote than 100 inches. In East Anglia, rain falls only one day out of three and evaporation often exceeds rainfall. Elsewhere in Britain, rain falls about one day out of two.

One can see the considerable contrasts of climate within the comparatively small area of Britain. They are partly due to the elongated shape of the country. The pronounced regional contrasts are also due to Britain’s position between a great land mass and a vast ocean.

The climate of the western part of Britain is maritime in character (humid and cloudy), while eastern and south-eastern England have certain of Europe’s climatic attributes, including biting cold, wind and snow showers in winter.

“The melancholy days are come, the saddest of the year, of wailing winds, and naked woods, and meadows brown and sere” (Robert Browing);

“In winter, when the dismal rain comes down in slanting lines, and wind, that grand old harper, smote his thunder-harp pf pines…” (Alexander Smith);

“The winter’s rains and ruins are over, and all the season of snows and sins; the days dividing lover and lover, the light that loses, the night that wins” (Algernon Charles Swinburne).

In children’s rhymes one can also hear discontented notes about winter winds:

“Oh wind, why do you never rest?

Wandering, whistling to and fro?

Bringing rain out of the west

From the dim north bringing snow?”

* * *

“No one can tell me

Nobody knows

Where the wind comes from

Where the wind goes”

* * *

Oh, I want to know

What does the wind do?

Where does the wind go,

Mother, when it does not blow?

* * *

“What is it going to do today?

“Rain or snow?” the people say.

They look at the sky, all wooly grey,

And watch the way the wind is blowing –

And they suddenly know –

Because it’s snowing today!

* * *

Who has seen the wind?

Neither you nor I:

But when the trees bow down their heads

The wind is passing by.

Who has seen the wind?

Neither I nor you:

But when the leaves hang trembling

The wind is passing through.

* * *

The south wind brings wet together,

The north wind wet and cold together,

The west wind always brings us rain,

The east wind blows it back again.

The climate is generally so raw above 1,700 feet that the scenery is reminiscent of the subarctic regions of Scandinavia.

Substantial differences in climate also occur within comparatively small areas. The sides of valleys receive more sunshine if they face south, and are therefore warmer, while valley bottoms act as reservoirs for cold air draining off the surrounding slopes, and are susceptible to frost and fog. Near the edge of large, deep lakes the extremes of climate are frequently moderated: on hot summer days the air is cooled as it blows over the water, while on cold nights the water provides a protection from frost.

So, the UK climate is mild and changeable due to the influence of many factors. Many poems about the weather prove it.

The description of different seasons in classical literature and children’s books

Time and place must both be considered in drawing generalizations about weather in the British Isles. Needless to say, that spring is the most favorite season. Poets and writers are very proud of spring:

“Come, gentle spring, ethereal mildness!” (James Thomson);

“Now the north wind ceases, the warm south – west awakes, the heavens are out in fleeces, and earth’s green banner shakes” (George Meredith);

“Sweet spring, full of sweet days and roses, a box where sweets compacted lie” (George Herbert);

“And in green under wood and cover blossom by blossom the spring begins” (Algernon Charles Swinburne);

Spring is a wonderful time for children, too:

“Spring is coming, I can feel it,

How soft is the morning air!

Birds are singing, buds are peeping

Life and joy are everywhere!”

* * *

I’m happy, I’m happy!

I sing all day.

It’s spring, it’s spring again.

* * *

I like the sun,

I like the spring,

I like the birds

That fly and sing.

* * *

In the spring, in the spring

Sweet and fresh is everything.

* * *

“O spring, o spring,

You wonderful thing!

O spring, o spring

When the birds sing

I feel like a king; o spring!”

(Walter R. Books);

* * *

“Spring, the sweet spring,

Is the year’s pleasant king

Then blooms each thing,

Then maids dance in a ring,

Cold doth not sting,

The pretty birds do sing:

Cuckoo, jug-jug, pu-we, to-witta-woo!”

(Thomas Mash);

* * *

“Cheep, cheep!” why do the birds sing?

“Cheep, cheep!” why do the birds sing?

“Cheep, cheep!” the birds all sing

“Cheep, cheep, cheep!” because it’s spring.

* * *

“In the spring time,

The only pretty ring time

When birds do sing,

Hey ding-a-ding, ding;

Sweet lovers love the spring”

(William Shakespeare);

* * *

Birds are in the tree-tops

Flying here and there,

Everything is growing,

Spring is everywhere.

Flowers are in the garden,

Butterflies are there

Flying round the blossoms,

Spring is everywhere.

* * *

The birds are returning,

Their songs fill the air.

And meadows are smiling

With blossoms so fair.

* * *

When the earth is turned in spring,

The worms are fat as anything.

And birds come flying all around

To eat the worms right off the ground.

They like worms just as much as I

Like bred, and milk, and apple pie.

Summer and early autumn are fine and bright; the most ancient song that appears with its musical notes attached (about 1250) glorifies the coming of summer:

“Summer is icumen in – lhude sing cuccu! Groweth sed, and bloweth med, and springth the wudu nu – sing cuccu!” (Modern version: “summer has come in – sing loud, cuckoo! The seed grows and the meadow flowers, and now the wood is in leaf – sing cuckoo!”).

Children are very glad when summer comes: “Come over, for the bee has quit the clover, and your English summer’s done” (Rudyard Kipling);

“The swallows are making them ready to fly, wheeling out on a windy sky; good-bye, summer, good-bye, good-bye” (George Whyle-Melville);

* * *

Come, my children, come away

For the sun shines bright today.

Little children, come with me

Birds and trees and flowers to see!

* * *

Ger your hats and come away,

For it is a pleasant day.

* * *

Let us make a merry ring,

Talk and laugh, and dance and sing!

Quickly, quickly come away,

For it is a pleasant day!

* * *

Summer’s here!

Days are long, and the sun

Is high and strong.

Long live, summer!


Full of warmth

And sweet delight!

In autumn and winter fog is most frequent, particularly over the low-lying parts of the Midlands, where cold air gathers in hollows, and in the polluted parts of cities. Fogs are densest when skies are clear and winds light, they are therefore less common in coastal regions and in the Highlands, where autumn and winter winds are strong. There are melancholy notes in the descriptions of autumn and winter months: “No warmth, no cheerfulness, no healthful ease, no comfortable feel in any member – no shade, no shine, no butterflies, no bees, no fruits, no flowers, no leaves, and no birds – November!” (Thomas Hood);

In one of his letters Rudyard Kipling writes: “Never again will I spend another winter in this accursed bucket shop of a refrigerator called England”.

George Gordon Byron sarcastically remarks in “Don Juan”: “In England winter – ending in July, to recommence in August”.

Such attitudes to winter may be found in many poetical works: “Fear no more the heat o’the sun, nor the furious winter’s rages” (William Shakespeare);

“O wind, if winter comes, can spring be far behind?” (Percy Bysshe Shelley);

Children’s poems about autumn are rather sad:

Flowers are happy in summer

In autumn they die and are blown away

Dry and withered,

Their petals dance in the wind

Like little brown butterflies”

(L. Hughes)

* * *

“Come, little leaves”, said the wind one day.

“Come over the meadows with me and play

Put on your dresses of red and gold,

For summer is gone and days are cold”.

* * *

This is the season when days are cool,

When we eat apples and go to school.

And some poems about winter:

In winter time we go

Walking in the fields of snow;

Where there is no grass at all;

Where the top of every wall,

Every house and every tree

Is as white, as white can be.

And our footprints in the snow

Where the children go.

* * *

Skating, skating,

Boys and girls so gay

Like to skate together

On a winter day.

Rain is a familiar feature of the British climate in any season English literature:

“Lord, this is a huge rain! This was a weather to sleep in!” (Geoffey Chaucer);

“All day the low-hung clouds have dropped their garnered fullness down; all day that soft gray mist hath wrapped hill, valley, grove and town” (Caroline Southey);

“I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers, from the seas and the streams” (Percy Bysshe Shelley);

“Oft a little morning rain foretells a pleasant day” (Charlotte Bronte).

There are lots of children’s poems about rain:

The sun is shining.

Flowers are blooming.

The sky is blue

And rains are few.

* * *

“Rain, rain go to Spain,

Never show your face again”

* * *

Rain, rain go away,

Come again another day,

Little Johny wants to play.

* * *

Rain on the green grass,

And rain on the tree,

Rain on the house-top,

But not on me.

* * *

The rain is raining all around

It falls on field and tree

It rains on the umbrellas here

And on the ships at sea.

* * *

When clouds appear

Like rocks and towers,

The earth’s refreshed

By frequent showers.

* * *

I like the fall,

The rain and all.

I like the grey

September day.

I like the rain

Against my pane.

I like to sit

And look at it.

I like the fall,

The rain and all.

* * *

The rain is raining all around,

It falls on field and tree,

It rains on the umbrellas here,

And on the ships at sea.

So, descriptions of some seasons and the weather show the beauty of British nature. And it proves that the topic of the weather is the most favourite topic for British authors.

The weather in different months and its description in classical literature and children’s poems

December, January and February are winter months. In January which is normally the coldest month of the year, temperatures in the west, subject to warm winds blowing in off the Atlantic, are higher than those in the east. Warm coastal waters cause warm nights in south-west England and west Wales.

Snow is a rare event in Britain. Most heavy snow comes during winter months with easterly or north-easterly winds. On average, snow falls on 15 days a year in Norfolk, 20 in Yorkshire and 34 in Aberdeen (Scotland). As a rule snow is considered to be a nuisance: “As I in hoary winter night stood shivering in the snow, surprised was I with sudden heat which made my heart to glow” (Robert Southwell). Compare, however: “When men were all asleep the snow came flying, in large white flakes falling on the city brown, stealthily and perpetually setting and lying, hushing the latest traffic on the drowsy town” (Robert Briges).

But British children like playing with snow:

It’s snowing, it’s snowing,

What a lot of snow!

It’s snowing, it’s snowing!

Let us play with snow!

* * *

The snow is falling,

The north wind is blowing;

The ground is white

All day and all night.

* * *

Come to the garden

And play in the snow.

Make a white snowman

And help him to grow.

“What a nice snowman!”

The children will say.

“What a fine game

For a cold winter day!”

* * *

It’s snowing, it’s snowing

What a lot of snow

Let us make some snowballs,

We all like to throw.

It’s snowing, it’s snowing,

Let us sledge and ski!

When I’m dashing down the hill

Clear the way for me!

* * *

Down comes the snow on a winter day.

I make a snow-man when I go to play.

* * *

It’s winter, it’s winter,

Let us skate and ski!

It’s winter, it’s winter,

It’s great fun for me!

* * *

Sing a song of a winter,

Be happy and gay,

Dance around the snow-man,

Come out and play.

Spring begins in March but May is one of the driest months, especially in eastern and central England; however, April is drier in parts of the west and north. April and especially May are the favorite in English poetry: “April, April, laugh thy girlish laughter; then, the moment after weep thy girlish tears!” (William Watson);

“O, how this spring of love resembles the uncertain glory of an April day” (William Shakespeare);

“And after April, when May follows and the hedge leans to the field and scatters on the clover …” (Robert Browning).

And the children’s rhymes say: “March winds and April showers bring forth May flowers”.

* * *

March brings breezes,

Loud and shrill

To stir the dancing daffodil.

* * *

April brings the primrose sweet,

Scatters daisies at our feet.

* * *

April weather

Rain and sunshine both together.

* * *

May brings flocks of pretty lambs.

Skipping by their fleecy dams.

* * *

Come to the woods on a sunny day,

Come to the woods some day in May.

Look at the grass, at the busy bees,

Look at the birds in the green, green trees.

All people are waiting for summer beginning in June. On average, June is the driest month all over Britain. On average, July is normally the warmest month inland, while on the coast August is equally warm and the sea temperature is at its maximum. In July and August the sea is warm enough for bathing on the south coast. July temperatures fall from south to north and increase from the coast inland.

Summer time is a time for play;

We are happy all the day.

The sun is shining all day long.

The trees are full of birds and song.

* * *

This is the season when nights are short.

And children have plenty of fun and sport.

Boating and swimming all day long

Will make us well and strong.

* * *

Along the south coast, temperatures do not fall substantially until late September, and the summer sunshine totals are generally highest in this area. September is the first autumn month which brings more rain than summer months. It is September when British children begin going to school. But the wettest months are October and December with dark evenings and misty mornings: “I saw old autumn in the misty morn stand shadowless like silence, listening to silence” (Thomas Hood);

There are twelve months in a year,

From January to December.

The finest month of all the twelve

Is the merry month September.

* * *

Autumn is the season

When apples are sweet.

It is the season

When school-friends meet;

When noisy and gay,

And browned by the sun

With their books and bags

To school they run.

* * *

What a rainy season!

The sky is dark and grey.

No sunshine anymore!

No playing out of doors.

However, in any particular year almost any month can prove the wettest and the differences between months are not great.

There is a very good poem about months:

January comes with frost and snow

February brings us winds that blow,

March has winds and happy hours,

April brings us sun and showers,

Pretty is the mouth of May,

June has flowers, sweet and gay

July begins our holiday,

August sends us all away,

September takes us back to school,

October days begin to cool,

November brings the leaves to Earth;

December dying sees the birth of the New Year and all its mirth.

So, all months are special and have their own features. That’s why, a lot of writers like to describe them in their poetry and prose.

The theme of the weather in everyday speech

Still, the weather is so changeable that the British often say that they have no climate but only weather. Therefore, it is natural for them to use the comparison “as changeable as the weather” of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something. The weather is the favorite topic of conversations in the UK.

So, according to Samuel Johnson, an outstanding English lexicographer, critic, author and conversationalist, “when two Englishmen meet, their first talk is of the weather”. A lot of conversational idioms and set expressions about weather can be found in novels by English writers, some examples will suffice:

- Good evening, Mr. Hunter. Rather cold weather for the time of year, isn’t it?

- Yes- I suppose it is. Have you got a Mr. Arden staying here? (Agatha Christie);

* * *

- “Such a lovely morning”, said Mrs. Marchmond brightly. “All my early tulips are out. Are yours?” The girl stared at her vacantly.

- “I don’t know”. What was one to do, thought Adela, with someone who didn’t talk gardening or dogs – these standbys of rural conversation? (ibid);

- The weather is very delightful just now, is it not?” – “A St. Martin’s summer” (ibid);

- “Hullo, hullo, hullo, here I am. Good afternoon, good afternoon. What a lovely day, what? Shall I sit here? Right ho”. (Pelham Grenville Wodehouse)

* * *

- Morning, he said.

- Morning, - Nice weather.

- Beautiful (ibid). (Bernard Shaw)

The weather is the favorite conversational topic in England. People talk about the weather more in Britain than in most parts of the world. When two Englishmen meet their first words will be “how are you?” and after the reply “very well, thank you. How are you? ”. The next remark is almost certain to be about the weather. When they go abroad the English often surprise people of other nationalities by this tendency to talk about the weather, a topic of conversation that other people do not find so interesting.

So, talking about the weather is always an interesting, exciting subject for British people and you must be good at talking about it. It is a part of polite conversations which may be extremely short:

- Good morning, Mr. Brown

- Good morning, Mr. Dickson. How do you like the weather today?

- Isn’t it awful?

- Yes, it’s been pouring since yesterday morning and the outlook is not very promising.

* * *

- Good afternoon, Mrs. Collins, nice day, isn’t it?

- Oh, yes, just lovely, I believe it’s a bit colder than yesterday.

- Yes, the mist has cleared but the weather forecast says it will be snowing later in the day.

* * *

- Hello, Charles

- Hello, Dick. Lovely day, isn’t it?

- Absolutely wonderful, nice and warm. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Do you know?

- Yes, it says it will be bright and sunny

- How nice. Good bye.

* * *

- Nice day, isn’t it?

- Isn’t it beautiful!

- The sun…

- Isn’t it wonderful?

- Yes, wonderful, isn’t it?

- It’s so nice and hot.

- I think it’s so nice when it’s hot, isn’t it?

- I really love it, don’t you?

* * *

- Terrible day, isn’t it?

- Isn’t it unpleasant?

- The rain … I don’t like the rain.

- Just I think – a day like this is July. It rains in the morning, then a bit of sun and then rain, rain, rain all day.

- I remember the same July day in 1936…

- Yes, I remember too.

- Or was it 1928?

- Yes it was.

- Or in 1939?

- Yes, that’s right.

* * *

- It’s a lovely day, isn’t it?

- Yes, isn’t the day fine?

- The sun … not a cloud in the sky…

- It’s so nice and warm.

- Isn’t it wonderful?

Although the last two conversations are humorous, one must follow a very important rule: you must always agree with other people when you talk about the weather. If it is raining and snowing and the wind is knocking down trees, and someone says “nice day, isn’t it?” one usually answers “isn’t it wonderful?”

There are a lot of jokes and stories about the British weather in common use. A good example of English humor is the following story:

“A Londoner, who was going to the west of England for a holiday, arrived by train at a town and found that it was pouring with rain. He called a porter to carry his bags to a taxi. On the way out of the station, partly to make conversation and partly to get a local opinion about the weather prospects for his holiday, he asked the porter: “How long has it been raining like this?” – “I don’t know, sir, I have only been here for fifteen years”, was the reply.

One can also read lots of humorous stories about the British weather in books by Jerome K. Jerome:

“There you dream that an elephant has suddenly sat down on your chest, and that the volcano has exploded and thrown you down to the bottom of the sea – the elephant still sleeping peacefully on your bosom… Sometimes a westerly oily wind blew, and at other times an easterly oily wind, and sometimes it blew a northerly oily wind, and may be a southerly oily wind; but weather it came from the Arctic snows, or was raised in the waste of the desert sands. The rain is pouring steadily down all the time”.

But we must say that the British are very optimistic in spite of the weather which is very changeable.

When the weather is wet

We must not fret.

When the weather is cold

We must not scold.

When the weather is warm

We must not storm.

But be thankful together

Whatever the weather.

* * *

Whether the weather be fine,

Whether the weather be not,

Whether the weather be cold,

Whether the weather be not,

We’ll weather the weather

Whatever the weather

Whether we like it or not.

So, all dialogues prove our hypothesis because people often talk and discuss the weather. One must follow a very important rule: you always must agree with other people when you talk about the weather. It’s a part of polite conversations.

The results of our research

To support or disapprove our hypothesis we have studied such books as “Pygmalion” by Bernard Shaw, “Three men in a boat to nothing say about the dog” by Jerome K. Jerome, “Stories for children” by Vera Colwell, Eileen Colwell and Leila Berg, “Easy English” by Vyborova, “The ABC fun” by Burlakova, “Tales from Shakespeare” by William Shakespeare and other literature.

We found out that in the “Stories for children” there are a lot of descriptions of different seasons and weather:

“How cold it was! The yard was white and smooth. Flakes of snow were falling” (Vera Colwell);

“Then one day spring came. Blue and white and yellow flowers came out in the garden, and the sun shone more warmly every day” (ibid);

“It was a bright, sunny day… (Leila Berg);

“One day it was raining. It rained and rained. Pete put on his raincoat with the hood, and his big wellingtons, and went outside to see what happening. It was a heavy rain. And it made great puddles in the street” (ibid);

“It had rained all night long. But now the sun was shining, and the wind was blowing all over the pavements, blowing the rain away. The pavements were white and clean where the wind had dried them” (ibid);

“It was a beautiful October morning. Everything was golden. The trees were golden in the sun, and the roads were gold” (ibid);

“It was springtime the birds were flying and new exciting things were happening every day” (ibid);

“It was a lovely hot day. The sun shone all the time. The children on the beach ran in and out of the warm water” (Eileen Colwell);

Also, we have found in the story “Three men in a boat to nothing say about the dog” by Jerome K. Jerome.

“Sometimes a westerly oily wind blew, and at other times an easterly oily wind, and sometimes it blew a northerly oily wind, and may be a southerly oily wind; but weather it came from the Arctic snows, or was raised in the waste of the desert sands. The rain is pouring steadily down all the time”;

Besides, we have found in the play “King Lear” some descriptions of seasons and weather, too:

“While he was threatening what his weak arm could never carry out, night fell, and a fearful storm of thunder, lighting and rain broke out”;

“The wind was high, and the rain and storm increased”;

“This dreadful storm has driven the beasts to their hiding places”;

More than that, we have found in the play “Pygmalion” by Bernard Shaw different descriptions of seasons and weather as well:

“It was raining…”

“I wonder will there be rain today? It’s a little cloudy in the western part of the British Isles; perhaps it will spread to the eastern part. The barometer though doesn’t assume of any substantial changes in the condition of atmosphere”;

“Still I hope that there will be no more frosts”;

“It has been cool since the morning, hasn’t it?”

So, all these descriptions of seasons and weather and mentioned before children’s poems, dialogues, excerpts from different works about seasons and months prove that our hypothesis is right. Therefore, the topic of the weather is the most interesting, most favourite and most often discussed topic in the British Isles.


In the conclusion we would like to say that

1) British climate has three main features: it is mild, humid and changeable. That means that it is never too hot or too cold. Winters are extremely mild. Snow may come but it melts quickly.

2) Each author builds his own world of nature with weather, scenery, hills, rivers and others.

3) There are a lot of children’s poems about seasons and weather.

4) In Great Britain the weather is always an interesting topic of the conversations.

Finally, we think that our work could be useful for teachers and schoolchildren because it contains a lot of poems. Also, it includes many descriptions of different seasons and weather.

The list of literature

climate season weather literature

1. Bernard Shaw “Pygmalion” Избранныепьесы. На английском языке. М.: “Менеджер”, 2006.

2. Jerome K. Jerome “Three men in a boat to say nothing of the dog” “ИздательствоВысшаяшкола”, 1976 (second edition, Moscow Higher School 1976).

3. Бурлакова А.П. “TheABCfun”, М.: "Просвещение", 1981.

4. ВасильеваИ.Б. “English Reader sixth form”, М.: "Просвещение", 1976.

5. Верещагина И.Н., Притыкина Т.А. “Onwego”, М.: "Просвещение",1994.

6. Верхогляд “Stories for Children”, М.: "Просвещение", 1991.

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8. Журнал "Иностранные языки в школе", №1, 1989; №5, 1990; № 2,5,6, 1996; №3, 1997; № 4, 2000; №6, 2002, № 3, 2003.

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10. ЛэмЧ., ЛэмМ. “Tales from Shakespeare” (after Charles and Mary Lamb),/ АдаптацияК.В. Ингал.- М.: "Просвещение", 1984

11. Интернет


Illustrations to the different seasons and weather

The most unpleasant aspect of British climate – fog

It’s a sunny day

It’s a nasty day

It’s a snowy day

It’s a rainy day

It’s a windy day

It’s spring

It’s summer

It’s autumn