Executive Orders Essay Research Paper Orders Issued

Executive Orders Essay, Research Paper Orders Issued by President Bill Clinton What are Executive Orders? Executive Orders are official documents, Executive numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government.

Executive Orders Essay, Research Paper

Orders Issued by President Bill Clinton

What are Executive Orders?

Executive Orders are official documents, Executive numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government.

Some Executive Orders in the past have created new commissions, councils, task forces and committees; issued and allocated bonds; authorized permit issuance; etc.

40 Executive Orders issued by President Clinton

Date Document Titles

1. 2000-12-23 Executive Orders on Puerto Rico?s Status

2. 2000-12-23 Executive Orders on Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

3. 2000-12-07 Executive Order 13180 on Air Traffic Performance

4. 2000-12-07 Executive Order 13279 on Americas Nuclear Weapons Workers

5. 2000-12-04 Executive Order 13178 on Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral

6. 2000-12-04 Executive Order 13177 on Use of Offsets in Defense Trade

7. 2000-12-20 Executive Order on Protecting the Privacy of Protected Health

8. 2000-11-06 Executive Order 13175 on Indian Tribal Governments

9. 2000-10-06 Executive Order 13170 on Disadvantaged Business

10. 2000-10-06 Executive Order 13169 on Small Business Exporters

11. 2000-11-27 Executive Order 13176 on Facilitation of Presidential Transition

12. 2000-10-27 Executive Order 13174 on Economic Change in the New Economy

13. 2000-10-25 Executive Order 13172 on the Role of the National Task Force

14. 2000-10-25 Executive Order 13173 on the Central San Joaquin Valley

15. 2000-10-12 Executive Order 13171 on Hispanic Employment

16. 2000-09-22 Executive Order 13168 on Tobacco Production

17. 2000-09-15 Executive Order 13167 on Amendment to Executive Order 13147

18. 2000-08-11 Executive Order 13166 on Limited English Proficiency Services

19. 2000-08-09 Executive Order 13165 on White House Task Force on Drug Use

20. 2000-07-26 Executive Order 13164-Extrablishing Reasonable Accommodations

21. 2000-07-26 Executive Order 13163 on Employing People with Disabilities

22. 2000-07-10 Executive Order 13162 on the Federal Career Inter Program

23. 2000-06-30 Executive Order 13161 on Presidential Medal of Valor

24. 2000-06-23 Executive Order 13160 on Nondiscrimination

25. 2000-06-22 Executive Order 13159 on the Russian Federation

26. 2000-05-26 Executive Order 13158 on Marine Protected Areas

27. 2000-05-23 Executive Order 13157 on Woman-Owned Small Businesses

28. 2000-05-17 Executive Order 13156 on Amendment on Executive Order 12871

29. 2000-05-10 Executive Order 13155 on Access to HIV-AIDS Pharmaceuticals

30. 2000-05-03 Executive Order 13153 on Improving Low-Performing Schools

31. 2000-05-02 Executive Order 13152 Equal Employment Opportunities

32. 2000-05-03 Executive Order 13154 Establishing Kosovo Campaign Medal

33. 2000-02-08 Executive Order 13145 on Discrimination in Federal Employment

34. 1999-02-25 Executive Order 13114 on Council on Sustainable Development

35. 1999-04-14 Executive Order 13119 Combat Zone Designation

36. 2000-02-29 Executive Order 13146 on the Future of Princeville NC

37. 2000-03-08 Executive Order 13147 on Medicine Policy

38. 2000-04-21 Executive Order 13150 on Federal Workforce Transportation

39. 2000-04-21 Executive Order 13149 on Federal Fleet and Transportation

40. 2000-04-22 Executive Order 13148 on Environmental Management

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PRESIDENT?S TASK FORCE ON PUERTO RICO?S STATUS

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including Public Law 106-346, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. It is the policy of the executive branch of the Government of the United States of America to help answer the questions that the people of Puerto Rico have asked for years regarding the options for the islands’ future status and the process for realizing an option. Further, it is our policy to consider and develop positions on proposals, without preference among the options, for the Commonwealth’s future status; to discuss such proposals with representatives of the people of Puerto Rico and the Congress; to work with leaders of the Commonwealth and the Congress to clarify the options to enable Puerto Ricans to determine their preference among options for the islands’ future status that are not incompatible with the Constitution and basic laws and policies of the United States; and to implement such an option if chosen by a majority, including helping Puerto Ricans obtain a governing arrangement under which they would vote for national government officials, if they choose such a status.

Sec. 2. The President’s Task Force on Puerto Rico’s Status. There is established a task force to be known as “The President’s Task Force on Puerto Rico’s Status” (Task Force). It shall be composed of designees of each member of the President’s Cabinet and the Co-Chairs of the President’s Interagency Group on Puerto Rico (Interagency Group). The Task Force shall be co-chaired by the Attorney General’s designee and a Co-Chair of the Interagency Group.

Sec. 3. Functions. The Task Force shall seek to implement the policy set forth in section 1 of this order. It shall ensure official attention to and facilitate action on matters related to proposals for Puerto Rico’s status and the process by which an option can be realized. It shall provide advice and recommendations on such matters to the President and the Congress. It shall also provide advice and recommendations to assist the Executive Office of the President in fulfilling its responsibilities under Public Law 106-346 to transfer funding to the Elections Commission of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for public education on and a public choice among options for Puerto Rico’s future status that are not incompatible with the Constitution and the basic laws and policies of the United States.

Sec. 4. Report. The Task Force shall report on its actions to the President not later than May 1, 2001, and thereafter as needed but not less than annually on progress made in the determination of Puerto Rico’s ultimate status.

WILLIAM J. CLINTON THE WHITE HOUSE, December 23, 2000.

ADJUSTMENTS OF CERTAIN RATES OF PAY

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the laws cited herein, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. The rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5302(1)), as adjusted under 5 U.S.C. 5303(a), are set forth on the schedules attached hereto and made a part hereof: (a) The General Schedule (5 U.S.C. 5332(a)) at Schedule 1; (b) The Foreign Service Schedule (22 U.S.C. 3963) at Schedule 2; and (c) The schedules for the Veterans Health Administration of the Department of Veterans Affairs (38 U.S.C. 7306, 7404; section 301(a) of Public Law 102-40) at Schedule 3.

Sec. 2. Senior Executive Service. The rates of basic pay for senior executives in the Senior Executive Service, as adjusted under 5 U.S.C. 5382, are set forth on Schedule 4 attached hereto and made a part hereof.

Sec. 3. Executive Salaries. The rates of basic pay or salaries for the following offices and positions are set forth on the schedules attached hereto and made a part hereof: (a) The Executive Schedule (5 U.S.C. 5312-5318) at Schedule 5; (b) The Vice President (3 U.S.C. 104) and the Congress (2 U.S.C. 31) at Schedule 6; and (c) Justices and judges (28 U.S.C. 5, 44(d), 135, 252, and 461(a)) at Schedule 7.

Sec. 4. Uniformed Services. Pursuant to section 601 of Public Law 106-398, the rates of monthly basic pay (37 U.S.C. 203(a)) for members of the uniformed services and the rate of monthly cadet or midshipman pay (37 U.S.C. 203(c)) are set forth on Schedule 8 attached hereto and made a part hereof.

Sec. 5. Locality-Based Comparability Payments. (a) Pursuant to sections 5304 and 5304a of title 5, United States Code, locality-based comparability payments shall be paid in accordance with Schedule 9 attached hereto and made a part hereof. (b) The Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall take such actions as may be necessary to implement these payments and to publish appropriate notice of such payments in the Federal Register.

Sec. 6. Administrative Law Judges. The rates of basic pay for administrative law judges, as adjusted under 5 U.S.C. 5372(b)(4), are set forth on Schedule 10 attached hereto and made a part hereof.

Sec. 7. Effective Dates. Schedule 8 is effective on January 1, 2001. The other schedules contained herein are effective on the first day of the first applicable pay period beginning on or after January 1, 2001.

WILLIAM J. CLINTON THE WHITE HOUSE, December 23, 2000.

AIR TRAFFIC PERFORMANCE-BASED ORGANIZATION

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to further improve the provision of air traffic services, an inherently governmental function, in ways that increase efficiency, take better advantage of new technologies, accelerate modernization efforts, and respond more effectively to the needs of the traveling public, while enhancing the safety, security, and efficiency of the Nation’s air transportation system, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment of the Air Traffic Organization. (a) The Secretary of Transportation (Secretary) shall, consistent with his legal authorities, move to establish within the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) a performance-based organization to be known as the “Air Traffic Organization” (ATO). (b) The ATO shall be composed of those elements of the FAA’s Air Traffic Services and Research and Acquisition organizations that have direct connection and give support to the provision of day-to-day operational air traffic services, as determined by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration (Administrator). The Administrator may delegate responsibility for any operational activity of the air traffic control system to the head of the ATO. The Administrator’s responsibility for general safety, security, and policymaking functions for the National Airspace System is unaffected by this order. (c) The Chief Operating Officer (COO) of the Air Traffic Control System, established by the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (Air-21) (Public Law 106-181), shall head the ATO and shall report directly to the Administrator and be subject to the authority of the Administrator. The COO, in consultation with the Air Traffic Control Subcommittee of the Aviation Management Advisory Committee, shall enter into an annual performance agreement with the Administrator that sets forth measurable organization and individual goals in key operational areas and describes specific targets and how such goals will be achieved. The COO may receive an annual bonus not to exceed 30 percent of the annual rate of basic pay, based upon the Administrator’s evaluation of the COO’s performance in relation to the targets and goals described above. (d) The COO shall develop a 5-year strategic plan for the air traffic control system, including a clear statement of the mission and objectives for the system’s safety, efficiency, and productivity. This strategic plan must ensure that ATO actions are consistent with long-term FAA strategies for the aviation system as a whole. (e) The COO shall also enter into a framework agreement with the Administrator that will establish the relationship of the ATO with the other organizations of the FAA.

Sec. 2. Purpose. The FAA’s primary mission is to ensure the safety, security, and efficiency of the National Airspace System. The purpose of this order is to enhance that mission and further improve the delivery of air traffic services to the American public by reorganizing the FAA’s air traffic services and related offices into a performance-based, results-oriented, organization. The ATO will be better able to make use of the unique procurement and personnel authorities that the FAA currently has and to better use the additional management reforms enacted by the Congress this year under Air-21. Specifically, the ATO shall: (a) optimize use of existing management flexibilities and authorities to improve the efficiency of air traffic services and increase the capacity of the system; (b) develop methods to accelerate air traffic control modernization and to improve aviation safety related to air traffic control; (c) develop agreements with the Administrator of the FAA and users of the products, services, and capabilities it will provide; (d) operate in accordance with safety performance standards developed by the FAA and rapidly respond to FAA safety and security oversight findings; (e) consult with its customers, the traveling public, including direct users such as airlines, cargo carriers, manufacturers, airports, general aviation, and commercial space transportation providers, and focus on producing results that satisfy the FAA’s external customer needs; (f) consult with appropriate Federal, State, and local public agencies, including the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, to determine the best practices for meeting the diverse needs throughout the National Airspace System; (g) establish strong incentives to managers for achieving results; and (h) formulate and recommend to the Administrator any management, fiscal, or legislative changes necessary for the organization to achieve its performance goals.

Sec. 3. Aviation Management Advisory Committee. The Air Traffic Control Subcommittee of the Aviation Management Advisory Committee shall provide, consistent with its responsi-bilities under Air-21, general oversight to ATO regarding the administration, management, conduct, direction, and supervision of the air traffic control system.

Sec. 4. Evaluation and Report. Not later than 5 years after the date of this order, the Aviation Management Advisory Committee shall provide to the Secretary and the Administrator a report on the operation and effectiveness of the ATO, together with any recommendations for management, fiscal, or legislative changes to enable the organization to achieve its goals.

Sec. 5. Definitions. The term “air traffic control system” has the same meaning as the term defined by section 40102(a)(42) of title 49, United States Code.

Sec. 6. Judicial Review. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

WILLIAM J. CLINTON THE WHITE HOUSE, December 7, 2000

PROVIDING COMPESATION TO AMERICA?S NUCLEAR WEAPONS WORKERS

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including Public Law 106-398, the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-398, the “Act”), and to allocate the responsibilities imposed by that legislation and to provide for further legislative efforts, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. Since World War II, hundreds of thousands of men and women have served their Nation in building its nuclear defense. In the course of their work, they overcame previously unimagined scientific and technical challenges. Thousands of these courageous Americans, however, paid a high price for their service, developing disabling or fatal illnesses as a result of exposure to beryllium, ionizing radiation, and other hazards unique to nuclear weapons production and testing. Too often, these workers were neither adequately protected from, nor informed of, the occupational hazards to which they were exposed. Existing workers’ compensation programs have failed to provide for the needs of these workers and their families. Federal workers’ compensation programs have generally not included these workers. Further, because of long latency periods, the uniqueness of the hazards to which they were exposed, and inadequate exposure data, many of these individuals have been unable to obtain State workers’ compensation benefits. This problem has been exacerbated by the past policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors of encouraging and assisting DOE contractors in opposing the claims of workers who sought those benefits. This policy has recently been reversed. While the Nation can never fully repay these workers or their families, they deserve recognition and compensation for their sacrifices. Since the Administration’s historic announcement in July of 1999 that it intended to compensate DOE nuclear weapons workers who suffered occupational illnesses as a result of exposure to the unique hazards in building the Nation’s nuclear defense, it has been the policy of this Administration to support fair and timely compensation for these workers and their survivors. The Federal Government should provide necessary information and otherwise help employees of the DOE or its contractors determine if their illnesses are associated with conditions of their nuclear weapons-related work; it should provide workers and their survivors with all pertinent and available information necessary for evaluating and processing claims; and it should ensure that this program minimizes the administrative burden on workers and their survivors, and respects their dignity and privacy. This order sets out agency responsibilities to accomplish these goals, building on the Administration’s articulated principles and the framework set forth in the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. The Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Energy shall be responsible for developing and implementing actions under the Act to compensate these workers and their families in a manner that is compassionate, fair, and timely. Other Federal agencies, as appropriate, shall assist in this effort.

Sec. 2. Designation of Responsibilities for Administering the Energy Employees’ Occupational Illness Compensation Program (”Program”). (a) Secretary of Labor. The Secretary of Labor shall have primary responsibility for administering the Program. Specifically, the Secretary shall: (i) Administer and decide all questions arising under the Act not assigned to other agencies by the Act or by this order, including determining the eligibility of individuals with covered occupational illnesses and their survivors and adjudicating claims for compensation and benefits; (ii) No later than May 31, 2001, promulgate regulations for the administration of the Program, except for functions assigned to other agencies pursuant to the Act or this order; (iii) No later than July 31, 2001, ensure the availability, in paper and electronic format, of forms necessary for making claims under the Program; and (iv) Develop informational materials, in coordination with the Secretary of Energy and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, to help potential claimants understand the Program and the application process, and provide these materials to individuals upon request and to the Secretary of Energy and the Attorney General for dissemination to potentially eligible individuals. (b) Secretary of Health and Human Services. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall: (i) No later than May 31, 2001, promulgate regulations establishing: (A) guidelines, pursuant to section 3623(c) of the Act, to assess the likelihood that an individual with cancer sustained the cancer in the performance of duty at a Department of Energy facility or an atomic weapons employer facility, as defined by the Act; and (B) methods, pursuant to section 3623(d) of the Act, for arriving at and providing reasonable estimates of the radiation doses received by individuals applying for assistance under this program for whom there are inadequate records of radiation exposure; (ii) In accordance with procedures developed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, consider and issue determinations on petitions by classes of employees to be treated as members of the Special Exposure Cohort; (iii) With the assistance of the Secretary of Energy, apply the methods promulgated under subsection (b)(i)(B) to estimate the radiation doses received by individuals applying for assistance; (iv) Upon request from the Secretary of Energy, appoint members for a physician panel or panels to consider individual workers’ compensation claims as part of the Worker Assistance Program under the process established pursuant to subsection (c)(v); and (v) Provide the Advisory Board established under section 4 of this order with administrative services, funds, facilities, staff, and other necessary support services and perform the administrative functions of the President under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), with respect to the Advisory Board. (c) Secretary of Energy. The Secretary of Energy shall: (i) Provide the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health access, in accordance with law, to all relevant information pertaining to worker exposures, including access to restricted data, and any other technical assistance needed to carry out their responsibilities under subsection (b)(ii) and section 4(b), respectively. (ii) Upon request from the Secretary of Health and Human Services or the Secretary of Labor, and as permitted by law, require a DOE contractor, subcontractor, or designated beryllium vendor, pursuant to section 3631(c) of the Act, to provide information relevant to a claim under this Program; (iii) Identify and notify potentially eligible individuals of the availability of compensation under the Program; (iv) Designate, pursuant to sections 3621(4)(B) and 3622 of the Act, atomic weapons employers and additions to the list of designated beryllium vendors; (v) Pursuant to Subtitle D of the Act, negotiate agreements with the chief executive officer of each State in which there is a DOE facility, and other States as appropriate, to provide assistance to a DOE contractor employee on filing a State workers’ compensation system claim, and establish a Worker Assistance Program to help individuals whose illness is related to employment in the DOE’s nuclear weapons complex, or the individual’s survivor if the individual is deceased, in applying for State workers’ compensation benefits. This assistance shall include: (1) Submittal of reasonable claims to a physician panel, appointed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services and administered by the Secretary of Energy, under procedures established by the Secretary of Energy, for determination of whether the individual’s illness or death arose out of and in the course of employment by the DOE or its contractors and exposure to a toxic substance at a DOE facility; and (2) For cases determined by the physician panel and the Secretary of Energy under section 3661(d) and (e) of the Act to have arisen out of and in the course of employment by the DOE or its contractors and exposure to a toxic substance at a DOE facility, provide assistance to the individual in filing for workers’ compensation benefits. The Secretary shall not contest these claims and, to the extent permitted by law, shall direct a DOE contractor who employed the applicant not to contest the claim; (vi) Report on the Worker Assistance Program by making publicly available on at least an annual basis claims-related data, including the number of claims filed, the number of illnesses found to be related to work at a DOE facility, job location and description, and number of successful State workers’ compensation claims awarded; and (vii) No later than January 15, 2001, publish in the Federal Register a list of atomic weapons employer facilities within the meaning of section 3621(5) of the Act, Department of Energy employer facilities within the meaning of section 3621(12) of the Act, and a list of facilities owned and operated by a beryllium vendor, within the meaning of section 3621(6) of the Act. (d) Attorney General. The Attorney General shall: (i) Develop procedures to notify, to the extent possible, each claimant (or the survivor of that claimant if deceased) whose claim for compensation under section 5 of the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act has been or is approved by the Department of Justice, of the availability of supplemental compensation and benefits under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program; (ii) Identify and notify eligible covered uranium employees or their survivors of the availability of supplemental compensation under the Program; and (iii) Upon request by the Secretary of Labor, provide information needed to adjudicate the claim of a covered uranium employee under this Program.

Sec. 3. Establishment of Interagency Working Group. (a) There is hereby established an Interagency Working Group to be composed of representatives from the Office of Management and Budget, the National Economic Council, and the Departments of Labor, Energy, Health and Human Services, and Justice. (b) The Working Group shall: (i) By January 1, 2001, develop a legislative proposal to ensure the Program’s fairness and efficiency, including provisions to assure adequate administrative resources and swift dispute resolution; and (ii) Address any impediments to timely and coordinated Program implementation.

Sec. 4. Establishment of Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health. (a) Pursuant to Public Law 106-398, there is hereby established an Advisory Board on Radiation and Health (Advisory Board). The Advisory Board shall consist of no more than 20 members to be appointed by the President. Members shall include affected workers and their representatives, and representatives from scientific and medical communities. The President shall designate a Chair for the Board among its members. (b) The Advisory Board shall: (i) Advise the Secretary of Health and Human Services on the development of guidelines under section 2(b)(i) of this order; (ii) Advise the Secretary of Health and Human Services on the scientific validity and quality of dose reconstruction efforts performed for this Program; and (iii) Upon request by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, advise the Secretary on whether there is a class of employees at any Department of Energy facility who were exposed to radiation but for whom it is not feasible to estimate their radiation dose, and on whether there is a reasonable likelihood that such radiation dose may have endangered the health of members of the class.

Sec. 5. Reporting Requirements. The Secretaries of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Energy shall, as part of their annual budget submissions, report to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) on their activities under this Program, including total expenditures related to benefits and program administration. They shall also report to the OMB, no later than March 1, 2001, on the manner in which they will carry out their respective responsibilities under the Act and this order. This report shall include, among other things, a description of the administrative structure established within their agencies to implement the Act and this order. In addition, the Secretary of Labor shall annually report on the total number and types of claims for which compensation was considered and other data pertinent to evaluating the Federal Government’s performance fulfilling the requirements of the Act and this order.

Sec. 6. Administration and Judicial Review. (a) This Executive Order shall be carried out subject to the availability of appropriations, and to the extent permitted by law. (b) This Executive Order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers or employees, or any other person.

WILLIAM J. CLINTON THE WHITE HOUSE, December 7, 2000.

NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS CORAL REEF ECOSYSTEM RESERVE

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the National Marine Sanctuaries Act, (16 U.S.C. 1431 et seq.), and the National Marine Sanctuaries Amendments Act of 2000, Public Law 106-513, and in furtherance of the purposes of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.), Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (33 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.), Coastal Zone Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.), Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), Marine Mammal Protection Act (16 U.S.C. 1362 et seq.), Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.), National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (16 U.S.C. 668dd-ee), and other pertinent statutes, it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. Preamble. The world’s coral reefs — the rain forests of the sea — are in serious decline. These important and sensitive areas of biodiversity warrant special protection. While United States waters contain approximately 3 percent of the world’s coral reefs, approximately 70 percent of U.S. coral reefs are in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The 3.5 million acres of coral reefs around the remote, mostly uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands are spectacular and almost undisturbed by humans. The approximately 1,200 mile stretch of coral islands, seamounts, banks, and shoals are unquestionably some of the healthiest and most extensive coral reefs in the United States. In their own right, the spectacular coral reefs and lands provide an amazing geological record of volcanic and erosive powers that have shaped this area. This vast area supports a dynamic reef ecosystem that supports more than 7,000 marine species, of which approximately half are unique to the Hawaiian Island chain. This incredibly diverse ecosystem is home to many species of coral, fish, birds, marine mammals, and other flora and fauna including the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, the threatened green sea turtle, and the endangered leatherback and hawksbill sea turtles. In addition, this area has great cultural significance to Native Hawaiians as well as linkages to early Polynesian culture — making it additionally worthy of protection and understanding. This is truly a unique and special place, a coral reef ecosystem like no place on earth, and a source of pride, inspiration, and satisfaction for all Americans, especially the people of Hawaii. It is fully worthy of our best efforts to preserve a legacy of America’s natural wonders for future generations. Due to the special significance of this area, I have determined that it is in the best interest of our Nation, and of future generations, to provide strong and lasting protection for the coral reef ecosystem of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. On May 26, 2000, I directed the Secretaries of Commerce and the Interior, working cooperatively with the State of Hawaii and consulting with the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council, to develop recommendations for a new, coordinated management regime to increase protection of the coral reef ecosystem of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and provide for sustainable use of the area. Upon consideration of their recommendations and comments received during the public visioning process on this initiative, and based on the statutory authorities set forth above, I am issuing this Executive Order.

Sec. 2. Purpose. The purpose of this Executive Order is to ensure the comprehensive, strong, and lasting protection of the coral reef ecosystem and related marine resources and species (resources) of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

Sec. 3. Establishment of Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve. There is hereby established in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands a coral reef ecosystem reserve to be known as the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve (Reserve). The Reserve shall include submerged lands and waters of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, extending approximately 1,200 nautical miles (nm) long and 100nm wide. The Reserve shall be adjacent to and seaward of the seaward boundaries of the State of Hawaii and the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, and shall overlay the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge to the extent that it extends beyond the seaward boundaries of the State of Hawaii. The boundaries of the Reserve are described in section 6 of this order.

Sec. 4. Management Principles. The Secretary of Commerce, or his designee, (hereafter “Secretary”) shall, subject to section 10(b) of this order, manage the Reserve in accordance with the following principles: (a) The principal purpose of the Reserve is the long-term conservation and protection of the coral reef ecosystem and related marine resources and species of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in their natural character; (b) The Reserve shall be managed using available science and applying a precautionary approach with resource protection favored when there is a lack of information regarding any given activity, to the extent not contrary to law; (c) Culturally significant, noncommercial subsistence, cultural, and religious uses by Native Hawaiians should be allowed within the Reserve, consistent with applicable law and the long-term conservation and protection of Reserve resources; (d) The Reserve shall be managed using, when appropriate, geographical zoning and innovative management techniques to ensure that the Reserve resources are protected from degradation or harm; (e) To the extent consistent with the primary purpose of the Reserve, the Reserve shall be managed to support, promote, and coordinate appropriate scientific research and assessment, and long-term monitoring of Reserve resources, and the impacts or threats thereto from human and other activities, to help better understand, protect, and conserve these resources and species for future generations; (f) To the extent consistent with the primary purpose of the Reserve, the Reserve shall be managed to enhance public awareness, understanding, and appreciation of Reserve resources, and the impacts or threats thereto from human and other activities; (g) The Reserve shall be managed to further restoration and remediation of degraded or injured Reserve resources; and (h) The Reserve shall be managed to facilitate coordinated management among Federal and State agencies and other entities, as appropriate, to provide comprehensive (looking beyond jurisdictional boundaries) conservation of the coral reef ecosystem and related marine resources and species throughout the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, consistent with applicable authorities and the Management Principles of this section.

Sec. 5. Implementation. (a) Management of the Reserve. The Secretary shall manage the Reserve under the National Marine Sanctuaries Act and in accordance with this order. (b) Reserve Operations Plan. The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and the Governor of Hawaii, shall develop an operations plan to govern the management of the Reserve. In developing the Reserve Operations Plan the Secretary shall consider the advice and recommendations of the Reserve Council established pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section. The Reserve Operations Plan shall be directed at priority issues and actions that, at a minimum, provide for: (1) Coordinated management among the Reserve, Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge, Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, and the State of Hawaii, consistent with relevant authorities; (2) Coordination among Federal agencies and the Director of the National Science Foundation to make vessels and other resources available for conservation and research activities for the Reserve; (3) The cleanup and prevention of marine debris in the Reserve; (4) The restoration or remediation of any degraded or injured resources of the Reserve; (5) Research, monitoring, and assessment of the Reserve; (6) Education and outreach about the Reserve and its resources and efforts to conserve them; (7) Enforcement and surveillance for the Reserve, including the use of new technologies and coordination with the United States Coast Guard and other relevant agencies; (8) Identification and coordination with Native Hawaiian interests, regarding culturally significant, noncommercial subsistence, cultural, and religious uses and locations within the Reserve; (9) Identification of potential tourism, recreational, and commercial activities within the Reserve and actions necessary to ensure that these activities do not degrade the Reserve’s resources or diminish the Reserve’s natural character; (10) Use of vessel monitoring systems for any vessel entering or transiting the Reserve, if warranted. To this end, the Secretary in consultation with the Department of State, United States Coast Guard, and the Department of Defense, shall evaluate the need for the establishment of vessel monitoring systems and, if warranted, shall initiate the steps necessary to have the appropriate domestic agencies, and request that the International Maritime Organization, adopt a vessel monitoring system requirement for the Reserve; (11) Any regulations, in addition to the conservation measures and Reserve Preservation Areas established under this order, that the Secretary determines are necessary to manage the Reserve in accordance with this order; and (12) Coordination of all relevant activities with the process to designate the Reserve as a National Marine Sanctuary, as provided under paragraph (f) of this section. (c) Conservation Measures. The Reserve Operations Plan shall also include the conservation measures in section 7 of this order and the Reserve Preservation Areas in section 8 of this order. (d) Memorandum of Agreement. To further paragraph (b)(1) of this section, and subject to section 10(b) of this order, and in particular to promote coordinated management of the entirety of the shallow areas of the coral reef ecosystem throughout the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, the Secretary shall work with the Secretary of the Interior and Governor of the State of Hawaii to enter into one or more memoranda of agreement for the coordinated conservation and management of the Reserve, Midway Atoll and Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuges, and State of Hawaii submerged lands and waters within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (e) National Marine Sanctuary. The Secretary shall initiate the process to designate the Reserve as a national marine sanctuary pursuant to sections 303 and 304 of the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (16 U.S.C. 1433, 1434). In doing so the Secretary shall supplement or complement the existing Reserve. The Secretary shall, in consultation with the Governor of the State of Hawaii, determine whether State submerged lands and waters should be included as part of the sanctuary. In designating and managing the sanctuary, the Secretary shall consider the advice and recommendations of the Reserve Council established pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section. (f) Council. After considering input from the Secretary of the Interior and Governor of the State of Hawaii, the Secretary shall establish a Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Council pursuant to section 315 of the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (16 U.S.C. 1445a) to provide advice and recommendations on the Reserve Operations Plan and designation and management of any sanctuary. The Council shall include: (1) Three Native Hawaiian representatives, including one Native Hawaiian elder, with experience or knowledge regarding Native Hawaiian subsistence, cultural, religious, or other activities in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (2) Three representatives from the non-Federal science community with experience specific to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and with expertise in at least one of the following areas: (A) Marine mammal science. (B) Coral reef ecology. (C) Native marine flora and fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. (D) Oceanography. (E) Any other scientific discipline the Secretary determines to be appropriate. (3) Three representatives from nongovernmental wildlife/marine life, environmental, and/or conservation organizations. (4) One representative from the commercial fishing industry that conducts activities in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (5) One representative from the recreational fishing industry that conducts activities in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (6) One representative from the ocean-related tourism industry. (7) One representative from the non-Federal community with experience in education and outreach regarding marine conservation issues. (8) One citizen-at-large representative. (9) One representative from the State of Hawaii as appointed by the Governor. (10) One representative each, as nonvoting, ex officio members, from the Department of the Interior, United States Coast Guard, Department of Defense, Department of State, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, National Science Foundation, Marine Mammal Commission, and Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. (g) Report. The Secretary shall provide a progress report on the implementation of this order to the Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality within 1 year from the date of this order.

Sec. 6. Area of the Reserve. The Reserve includes the waters and submerged lands of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as follows: (a) The seaward boundary of the Reserve is 50nm from the approximate center geographical positions of Nihoa Island, Necker Island, French Frigate Shoals, Gardner Pinnacles, Maro Reef, Laysan Island, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Reef, Midway Atoll, and Kure Island. Where the areas are not contiguous, parallel lines drawn tangent to and connecting those semi-circles of the 50nm areas that lie around such areas shall delimit the remainder of the Reserve. (b) The inland boundary of the Reserve around each of the areas named in subparagraph (a) of this section is the seaward boundary of Hawaii State waters and submerged lands, and the seaward boundary of the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, as appropriate. (c) The Reserve boundary is generally depicted on the map attached to this order. The Secretary, after consultation with the Governor of the State of Hawaii, may make technical modifications to the boundary of the Reserve, including providing straight-line boundaries for the Reserve for clarity and ease of identification, as appropriate.

Sec. 7. Protection and Conservation Measures. The conservation measures in this section apply throughout the Reserve. (a) (1) Commercial Fishing. All currently existing commercial Federal fishing permits and current levels of fishing effort and take, as determined by the Secretary and pursuant to regulations in effect on the date of this order, shall be capped as follows: (A) No commercial fishing may occur in Reserve Preservation Areas pursuant to section 8 of this order; (B) There shall be no increase in the number of permits of any particular type of fishing (such as for bottomfishing) beyond the number of permits of that type in effect the year preceding the date of this order; (C) The annual level of aggregate take under all permits of any particular type of fishing may not exceed the aggregate level of take under all permits of that type of fishing in the years preceding the date of this order, as determined by the Secretary, provided that the Secretary shall equitably divide the aggregate level into individual levels per permit, and further provided that the Secretary may make a one-time reasonable increase to the total aggregate to allow for the use of two Native Hawaiian bottomfishing permits; (D) There shall be no permits issued for any particular type of fishing for which there were no permits issued in the year preceding the date of this order; and (E) The type of fishing gear used by any permit holder may not be changed except with the permission of the Secretary, as provided under paragraph 3 of this section. (2) Recreational Fishing. All currently existing (preceding the date of this order) levels of recreational fishing effort, as determined by the Secretary and pursuant to regulations in effect on the day of this order, shall be capped (i.e., no increase of take levels or levels of fishing effort, species targeted, or change in gear types) throughout the Reserve. However, fishing is further restricted as provided in section 8 of this order. (3) The Secretary, after consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and Governor of the State of Hawaii, and after public review and comment and consideration of any advice or recommendations of the Reserve Council and Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council, may further restrict the fishing activities under subparagraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section if necessary to protect Reserve resources, or may authorize or require alternate gear types if such gear would offer equal or greater protection for Reserve resources. (b) In addition to the conservation measures in paragraph (a) of this section, the following activities are prohibited throughout the Reserve: (1) Exploring for, developing, or producing oil, gas, or minerals; (2) Having a vessel anchored on any living or dead coral with an anchor, an anchor chain, or an anchor rope when visibility is such that the seabed can be seen; (3) Drilling into, dredging, or otherwise altering the seabed; or constructing, placing, or abandoning any structure, material, or other matter on the seabed, except as an incidental result of anchoring vessels; (4) Discharging or depositing any material or other matter into the Reserve, or discharging or depositing any material or other matter outside the Reserve that subsequently enters the Reserve and injures any resource of the Reserve, except fish parts (i.e., chumming material or bait) used in and during authorized fishing operations, or discharges incidental to vessel use such as deck wash, approved marine sanitation device effluent, cooling water, and engine exhaust; and (5) Removal, moving, taking, harvesting, or damaging any living or nonliving Reserve resources, except as provided under paragraph (a) of this section and sections 8(a) and 9 of this order. (c) The Secretary may conduct, or authorize by permit the activities listed in subparagraphs (b)(3)-(5) of this section to the extent that they are necessary for research, monitoring, education, or management activities that further the Management Principles of section 4 of this order.

Sec. 8. Reserve Preservation Areas. (a) To further protect Reserve resources, the following areas are hereby established as Reserve Preservation Areas until some or all are made permanent after adequate public review and comment, within which all activities referred to in paragraph (b) of this section are prohibited. (1) From the seaward boundary of Hawaii State waters and submerged lands to a mean depth of 100 fathoms (fm) around: (A) Nihoa Island, provided that bottomfishing in accordance with the requirements of section 7(a)(1) of this order shall be allowed to continue seaward of a mean depth of 10fm, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment; (B) Necker Island, provided that bottomfishing in accordance with the requirements of section 7(a)(1) of this order shall be allowed to continue seaward of a mean depth of 20fm, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment; (C) French Frigate Shoals; (D) Gardner Pinnacles, provided that bottomfishing in accordance with the requirements of section 7(a)(1) of this order shall be allowed to continue seaward of a mean depth of 10fm, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment; (E) Maro Reef, provided that bottomfishing in accordance with the requirements of section 7(a)(1) of this order shall be allowed to continue seaward of a mean depth of 20fm, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment; (F) Laysan Island, provided that bottomfishing in accordance with the requirements of section 7(a)(1) of this order shall be allowed to continue seaward of a mean depth of 50fm, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment; (G) Lisianski Island, provided that bottomfishing in accordance with the requirements of section 7(a)(1) of this order shall be allowed to continue seaward of a mean depth of 50fm, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment; (H) Pearl and Hermes Atoll; and (I) Kure Island. (2) Twelve nautical miles around the approximate geographical centers of: (A) The first bank immediately east of French Frigate Shoals; (B) Southeast Brooks Bank, which is the first bank immediately west of French Frigate Shoals, provided that the closure area shall not be closer than approximately 3nm of the next bank immediately west; (C) St. Rogatien Bank, provided that the closure area shall not be closer than approximately 3nm of the next bank immediately east, provided further that bottomfishing in accordance with the requirements of section 7(a)(1) of this order shall be allowed to continue, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment; (D) The first bank west of St. Rogatien Bank, east of Gardner Pinnacles; (E) Raita Bank; and (F) Pioneer Bank, provided that bottomfishing in accordance with the requirements of section 7(a)(1) of this order shall be allowed to continue, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment. (b) Activities Prohibited Within Reserve Preservation Areas. (1) In addition to the conservation measures in section 7 of this order, which are applicable to the entire Reserve, the following activities are prohibited within the Reserve Preservation Areas listed in paragraph (a) of this section, except as expressly otherwise stated in this paragraph and sections (8)(a) and 9 of this order: (A) Commercial and recreational fishing; (B) Anchoring in any area that contains available mooring buoys, or anchoring outside an available anchoring area when such area has been designated by the Secretary; (C) Any type of touching or taking of living or dead coral; (D) Discharging or depositing any material or other matter except cooling water or engine exhaust; and (E) Such other activities that the Secretary identifies after adequate public review and comment, and after consideration of any advice and recommendations of the Reserve Council. (2) Notwithstanding the prohibitions in this paragraph, the Secretary may conduct, or authorize by permit, research, monitoring, education, or management activities within any Reserve Preservation Area that further the Management Principles of section 4 of this order. (3) The Reserve Preservation Areas in this section are approximated using fathoms. The Secretary will develop straight line boundaries based on longitude and latitude coordinates to encompass each Reserve Preservation Area, to provide for clarity and ease of identification. The Secretary may make technical modifications to any such boundaries.

Sec. 9. Native Hawaiian Uses. Native Hawaiian non-commercial subsistence, cultural, or religious uses may continue, to the extent consistent with existing law, within the Reserve and Reserve Preservation Areas identified under section 8 of this order. The Secretary shall work with Native Hawaiian interests to identify those areas where such Native Hawaiian uses of the Reserve’s resources may be conducted without injury to the Reserve’s coral reef ecosystem and related marine resources and species, and may revise the areas where such activities may occur after public review and comment, and consideration of any advice and recommendations of the Reserve Council.

Sec. 10. National Wildlife Refuges. (a) The Secretary of the Interior, in managing, through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service the Hawaiian Islands and Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuges pursuant to the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (16 U.S.C. 668dd-668ee) and other applicable laws, shall follow the Management Principles of section 4 of this order, to the extent consistent with applicable law. (b) Wherever the Reserve overlaps the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge, the Reserve shall be managed to supplement and complement management of the Refuge to ensure coordinated conservation and management of the Reserve and the Refuge, consistent with the purposes and policies of the National Marine Sanctuaries Act, the National Marine Sanctuaries Amendments Act of 2000, and this order, and the authorities of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service under the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (16 U.S.C. 668dd-668ee) and other laws with respect to management of the Refuge. Nothing in this order shall enlarge or diminish the jurisdiction or authority of the Secretary or Secretary of the Interior in managing the Reserve or Refuge, respectively. (c) The Secretary of the Interior, through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, shall coordinate with the Secretary and the Governor of the State of Hawaii, as provided under section 5(b) of this order, to ensure coordinated protection and management among the Reserve, Refuges, and State, consistent with relevant authorities.

Sec. 11. Administration and Judicial Review. (a) International Law. Management of the Reserve and any regulations issued pursuant thereto and all other provisions of this order shall be applied consistently with the 1983 Presidential Proclamation on the Exclusive Economic Zone, the 1988 Presidential Proclamation on the Territorial Sea, and the 1999 Presidential Proclamation on Contiguous Zone and in accordance with generally recognized principles of international law, and with the treaties, conventions, and other agreements to which the United States is a party. The Secretary shall consult with the Department of State in implementing this order. (b) Agency Responsibilities. All Federal agencies whose actions may affect the Reserve and any National Marine Sanctuary established by the Secretary pursuant to this order shall carry out such actions in accordance with applicable laws, regulations and Executive Orders, including Executive Orders 13089 of June 11, 1998, and 13158 of May 26, 2000. (c) National Security and Emergency Actions. Consistent with applicable law, nothing in this order is intended to apply to military activities (including those carried out by the United States Coast Guard), including military exercises, conducted within or in the vicinity of the Reserve, consistent with the requirements of Executive Orders 13089 of June 11, 1998, and 13158 of May 26, 2000. Further, nothing in this order is intended to restrict the Department of Defense from conducting activities necessary during time of war or national emergency, or when necessary for reasons of national security as determined by the Secretary of Defense, consistent with applicable law. In addition, consistent with applicable law, nothing in this order shall limit agency actions to respond to emergencies posing an unacceptable threat to human health or safety or to the marine environment and admitting of no other feasible solution. (d) United States Coast Guard. Nothing in this order is intended to limit the authority of the United States Coast Guard to enforce any Federal law, or install or maintain aids to navigation. (e) Funding. This order shall be carried out subject to the availability of appropriated funds and to the extent permitted by law. (f) Territorial Waters. Nothing in this order shall enlarge or diminish the jurisdiction or authority of the State of Hawaii or the United States over submerged or other lands within the territorial waters off the coast of Hawaii. (g) Judicial Review. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable in law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

WILLIAM J. CLINTON THE WHITE HOUSE, December 4, 2000.

NATIONAL COMMISSION ON THE USE OF OFFESTS IN DEFENSE TRADE AND PRESIDENT?S COUNCIL ON THE USE OF OFFESTS IN COMMERCIAL TRADE

By the authority vested in the President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including Public Law 106-113 and the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App. 2), and in order to implement section 1247 of Public Law 106-113 (113 Stat. 1501A-502) and to create a parallel “President’s Council on the Use of Offsets in Commercial Trade,” it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Membership. Pursuant to Public Law 106-113, the “National Commission on the Use of Offsets in Defense Trade” (Commission) comprises 11 members appointed by the President with the concurrence of the Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate and the Speaker and the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives. The Commission membership includes: (a) representatives from the private sector, including one each from (i) a labor organization, (ii) a United States defense manufacturing company dependent on foreign sales, (iii) a United States company dependent on foreign sales that is not a defense manufacturer, and (iv) a United States company that specializes in inter-national investment; (b) two members from academia with widely recognized expertise in international economics; and (c) five members from the executive branch, including a member from the: (i) Office of Management and Budget, (ii) Department of Commerce, (iii) Department of Defense, (iv) Department of State, and (v) Department of Labor. The member from the Office of Management and Budget will serve as Chairperson of the Commission and will appoint, and fix the compensation of, the Executive Director of the Commission.

Sec. 2. Duties. The Commission will be responsible for reviewing and reporting on: (a) current practices by foreign governments in requiring offsets in purchasing agreements and the extent and nature of offsets offered by United States and foreign defense industry contractors; (b) the impact of the use of offsets on defense subcontractors and nondefense industrial sectors affected by indirect offsets; and (c) the role of offsets, both direct and indirect, on domestic industry stability, United States trade competitiveness, and national security.

Sec. 3. Commission Report. Not later than 12 months after the Commission is established, it will report to the appropriate congressional committees. In addition to the items described in section 2 of this order, the report will include: (a) an analysis of (i) the collateral impact of offsets on industry sectors that may be different than those of the contractor paying offsets, including estimates of contracts and jobs lost as well as an assessment of damage to industrial sectors; (ii) the role of offsets with respect to competitiveness of the United States defense industry in international trade and the potential damage to the ability of United States contractors to compete if offsets were prohibited or limited; and (iii) the impact on United States national security, and upon United States nonproliferation objectives, of the use of co-production, subcontracting, and technology transfer with foreign governments or companies, that results from fulfilling offset requirements, with particular emphasis on the question of dependency upon foreign nations for the supply of critical components or technology; (b) proposals for unilateral, bilateral, or multilateral measures aimed at reducing any detrimental effects of offsets; and (c) an identification of the appropriate executive branch agencies to be responsible for monitoring the use of offsets in international defense trade.

Sec. 4. Administration, Compensation, and Termination. (a) The Department of Defense will provide administrative support and funding for the Commission and Federal Government employees may be detailed to the Commission without reimbursement. (b) Members of the Commission who are not officers or employees of the Federal Government will be compensated at a rate of basic pay prescribed for level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of title 5, United States Code, for each day (including travel time) during which such member is engaged in performance of the duties of the Commission. Members of the Commission who are officers or employees of the Federal Government will serve without compensation in addition to that received for their services as officers or employees of the Federal Government. (c) Members of the Commission will be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, under subchapter 1 of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while on business in the performance of services for the Commission. (d) The Commission will terminate 30 days after transmitting the report required in section 1248(b) of Public Law 106-113 (113 Stat. 1501A-505).

Sec. 5. Establishment and Membership. (a) There is established, pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), the “President’s Council on the Use of Offsets in Commercial Trade” (Council). (b) The Council shall be composed of the appointed members of the Commission or their designees.

Sec. 6. Duties and Report of the Council. The Council shall review and report to the President, through the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, on the use of offsets in commercial trade, including their impact on the United States defense and commercial industrial base. The Council shall consult with and, as appropriate, provide information to the Commission.

Sec. 7. Administration. (a) The Department of Defense shall provide administrative support and funding for the Council. (b) The heads of executive departments and agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law, provide to the Council such information as it may require for the purpose of carrying out its duties. (c) Members of the Council shall serve without compensation.

Sec. 8. General. (a) Notwithstanding any other Executive Order, the functions of the President under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended, except that of reporting to the Congress, that are applicable to the Council, shall be performed by the Department of Defense in accordance with guidelines that have been issued by the Administrator of General Services. (b) The Council shall terminate on the date of the transmission of the report required by section 1248(b) of Public Law 106-113 (113 Stat. 1501A-505).

WILLIAM J. CLINTON THE WHITE HOUSE, December 4, 2000

TO PROTECT THE PRIVACY OF PROTECTED HEALTH INFORMATION IN OVERSIGHT INVESTIGATIONS

By the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. It shall be the policy of the Government of the United States that law enforcement may not use protected health information concerning an individual that is discovered during the course of health oversight activities for unrelated civil, administrative, or criminal investigations of a non-health oversight matter, except when the balance of relevant factors weighs clearly in favor of its use. That is, protected health information may not be so used unless the public interest and the need for disclosure clearly outweigh the potential for injury to the patient, to the physician-patient relationship, and to the treatment services. Protecting the privacy of patients’ protected health information promotes trust in the health care system. It improves the quality of health care by fostering an environment in which patients can feel more comfortable in providing health care professionals with accurate and detailed information about their personal health. In order to provide greater protections to patients’ privacy, the Department of Health and Human Services is issuing final regulations concerning the confidentiality of individually identifiable health information under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). HIPAA applies only to “covered entities,” such as health care plans, providers, and clearinghouses. HIPAA regulations therefore do not apply to other organizations and individuals that gain access to protected health information, including Federal officials who gain access to health records during health oversight activities. Under the new HIPAA regulations, health oversight investigators will appropriately have ready access to medical records for oversight purposes. Health oversight investigators generally do not seek access to the medical records of a particular patient, but instead review large numbers of records to determine whether a health care provider or organization is violating the law, such as through fraud against the Medicare system. Access to many health records is often necessary in order to gain enough evidence to detect and bring enforcement actions against fraud in the health care system. Stricter rules apply under the HIPAA regulations, however, when law enforcement officials seek protected health information in order to inve

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