Studying The Landscape Essay Research Paper

Studying The Landscape Essay, Research Paper Reconstruction of local area ? terrain, availability of water ground water, susceptibility to flooding.? Conditions over different years. Loss

Studying The Landscape Essay, Research Paper

Reconstruction of local area ? terrain,

availability of water ground water, susceptibility to flooding.? Conditions over different years. Loss

of sits through erosion, inundation and burial under sediment. Glaciers can give us clue to possible resources of

earlier ages Varves etc layers of sediment thickness explaining

climate Rivers: important as settlement often nearby due to

settle deposits, changing course through natural processes shows lots of

changes.? Rough chronology of sites

from rivers etc Sediments ? composition of information on

weathering, past use of soil, and soil types. Soil development: source of sediment, process of

soil formation, human modification.?

Butzer three types of human activity: Primary Cultural Deposits ? accumulate on the

surface from human activity Secondary Cultural Deposits ? primary deposits

that have undergone displacement Tertiary Cultural Deposits ? Completely removed

from original context and may have been reused ? build terracing Ancient human landscapes: human effects with

deforestation and farming ? also to build a better general picture of the

site as a whole. Analysing whether human artefacts are in their

primary context. Soil Micro morphology ? an activity take place

indoors or outdoors, what type of one etc. Movement of sediment and sediment deposits show us

Mediterranean over agricultural in some areas. Loess soil fine silt evidence of climatic change;

cold dry climate. Linked to areas of Neolithic farming 0 70@ of LBK sites

associated with this type of soil. Buried Land Surfaces ? fenland life, also half

buried water trees showing us water levels and possible droughts (Anasazi

cliff dwellers and Scott Sine droughts of 1209 ? 1350. Tree ring analysis complete ? levels of moisture,

growth, forest cover etc, helps explain why Jamestown colony occurred

during an extraordinary drought 1606 ? 1612 Organic remains richest source of evidence for

environmental reconstruction. Reconstructing the Plant Environment Main point suggest what vegetation people

encountered at different times, base of food chain, local and human life,

good reflection of climatic change Pollen Analysis ? palynology ?fluctuation in

vegetation through time.? Pollen

zones characterised by different plant communities. Ethiopia shown tropical wetter, greener, more

tropical climate years ago. Phytoliths usages of plants as they survive

for a relatively long time. Animal Environment ? complex relationship between

animals and their environment. Smaller animals or microfauna more reflective of

climatic and environmental change ? sensitive to oscillations ? better

indicator of immediate environment Insects ? York 3rd century canal had

grain flies (possibly showing granry as well as effluent). Reconstructing the Human Environment Main interest is why humans choose particular site

or location for their settlement.?

Also spiritual or non-empirical factors. Modification of the immediate human environment ?

examine closely traces of skins and fires etc Wider environment ? test water for pollution levels

etc Land management ? physical evidence boundaries etc Humans bringing their own landscapes to new parts

of the world was quickly and efficiently destructive. Easter Island prime example ? used to be a forest

but is now completely grassland as now trees left. SUMMARY Developed from inconsequential species at the mercy

of the environment to huge influence over its surroundings.? Determines WHERE and HOW people live,

battery of techniques aiding explanations. Now looks at key variables that influence operation

of cultural systems 0 no longer focus on individual sites, but on systems

and changing patterns. History of the Countryside ? Rackham Pollen Analysis ? Landscape Archaeology ? soil marks, crop marks,

wood banks, hedge banks, ridge and furrow and differences of level.