Pronunciation and Spelling in English







Минск, 2008

Pronunciation and Spelling in English

Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishSelf-study and classroom use

СОСТАВИТЕЛИ: Гуринович Е. А., преподаватель практической фонетики;

Кучерчук Ю. В., преподаватель практической фонетики.

Практикум предназначен для учащихся лингвогуманитарного колледжа.

Данные материалы включают теоретические сведения о звукобуквенных соответствиях в английском языке, упражнения для совершенствования навыков чтения, а также материалы для чтения и заучивания наизусть. Материалы могут быть использованы как для аудиторной, так и самостоятельной работы учащихся.

Рассмотрено и одобрено на заседании ПЦК практической фонетики.

Протокол № 3 от 14 октября 2008 года.

Pronunciation and Spelling in English

Pronunciation and Spelling in English

1. Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishThe Syllable. The Principles of Syllable Division

The nature of the syllable

Syllable formation in English is based on the phonological opposition vowel-consonant. Vowels are usually syllabic while consonants are not with the exceptions of [l], [m], [n], which become syllabic in final position preceded by a consonant or between two final consonants: bottle [| bɒtl], bottom [| bɒtm], button [| bʌtn].

A syllable is a speech unit which consists of a sound or a group of sounds one of which is heard more prominent than the others. This sound is the peak or the nucleus of the syllable and is called syllabic (vowels and sonorants are usually syllabic).

The English language has developed the closed type of a syllable as the fundamental one while in Russian it is the open type that forms the basis of syllable formation.

The other aspect of this component is syllable division. There is a problem of syllable division in case of intervocalic consonants and their clusters, like in such words as city, extra, standing and others.

Let us consider the word extra. There are two syllables but where should the boundary between them fall?

1) [e-kstrə]. It is unlike that people would opt for a division between [e] and [kstrə] because there are no words in English which begin with consonant sequence [kstr].

2) Similarly, a division between [ekstr] and [ə] would be unnatural.

3) [ek-strə], [eks-trə], [ekst-rə] are possible. People usually prefer either of the first two options here, but there is no obvious way of deciding between them.

In some cases we may take into account the morphemic structure of words. For example, standing consists of two syllables; on phonemic grounds [| stæn-dI ŋ], on grammatical grounds [| stænd-I ŋ].

Syllable division rules for simple words and parts

of compound words

Vowel Intersyllabic sounds Boundary Examples Notes
I. Short stressed a) single consonant within the consonant

[Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishlePronunciation and Spelling in Englishən]

[Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishPronunciation and Spelling in Englishm]

b) consonant cluster between the consonants

[Pronunciation and Spelling in Englishek1|s2|t3|rə]

[Pronunciation and Spelling in Englishwın|dəυ]

[Pronunciation and Spelling in Englishrıŋ|kl]

In case of intervocalic clusters we use the distributional criterion: the combination of consonants belongs to the following syllable, if such combinations are typical of English.
II. Short unstressed, long, diphthong a) single consonant before the consonant

[Pronunciation and Spelling in Englishmelə|dı]

[Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishkPronunciation and Spelling in English:|nə]

[ leı|bl]

b) consonant cluster maximally close to the vowel

[ə|Pronunciation and Spelling in Englishdres]

[ık|Pronunciation and Spelling in Englishspektıd]

[Pronunciation and Spelling in Englishfα:|stə]

[Pronunciation and Spelling in Englishpeı|trən]

! The so-called thriphthongs in English are disyllabic combinations, because they contain two vowel phonemes: [ Pronunciation and Spelling in Englishf a I |ə].

Ex. 1.1 ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 1 )

How many syllables?

One word in each set has a different number of syllables from the others. Decide which it is, then check with the recording.

Example: lengths if table on
1 destiny chocolate computer afterwards
2 stopped smashed wanted tried
3 Leicester Lester Stratford Manchester
4 altogether avocado banana Argentina
5 rhythm chasm through thorough

Ex. 1.2 (Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 1 )

What stress pattern?

One word in each set has a different stress pattern from the others. Which is it? Define the type of the stressed word. Check with the recording.

Example: picture ○ nature ○ capture ○ mature ○
1 politics dynamic musician historic
2 create supply prostate dictate
3 teacher refer eager offer
4 edit debit submit credit
5 Angela Therese spaghetti banana

Ex.1.3 Transcribe and divide into syllables.

Determine where the syllable boundary lies

1. goodness 5. about 9. Saturday
2. hotter 6. lazy 10. export
3. village 7. family 11. hourly
4. cotton 8. admission 12. mathematics

Ex. 1.4 Transcribe the following words, divide them into syllables and explain the rule

1. ninety 6. sentence
2. middle 7. vowel
3. imitate 8. cinema
4. teacher 9. expensive
5. advertise 10. commission

Ex. 1.5 Divide the words into syllables and explain the rule in each line:

1) Ready, pocket, mother, coffee, city;

2) Bottle, couple, cattle, mitten, middle;

3) Breakfast, hedgehog, doctor, country, fifty;

4) Farmer, herself, sleepy, ninety, gloomy;

5) Extreme, abrupt, include, nasty, attract;

6) Fire, towel, vowel, lower, goer.

2. The Primary and the Secondary Meaning of Letters

In English one letter can denote a few different sounds (polysemantic letters). That’s why there are the primary and the secondary sound meanings of them. The primary meaning of a letter is the sound which this letter:

1) denotes in the alphabet: a – [eI ], e – [i:]. E.g. bake, be ;

2) doesn’t correspond to the alphabetical letter: a – [æ]. e.g. cat ;

3) approximates the alphabetical letter: f [f], y – [aI ].

The secondary meaning of a letter is the one which differs from its primary alphabetical meaning and depends on the consonants preceding or following this letter. E.g. a – [ a : ] - staff, [o ] – wander, [ ɔ : ] – war.

The sound formation of the English language distinguishes long and short vowels. According to this peculiarity in English each stressed vowel can have two meanings: alphabetical (long) and short.


Letter Primary meaning Secondary meaning
long short Vowel + r Vowel +re
a Ka te cat ca r ha re
e he , Pe te he n, he lp he r he re
i\y I , Mi ke, mi ne si t, gy m bi rd, By rd hi re, ty re
o no , sto ne no t fo r mo re
u u se bu t tu rn cu re

3. The Primary Sound Meanings of Vowels in Different Types of Syllables

In disyllabic and polysyllabic words the vowel letter has its alphabetical (long) primary meaning if:

1) it is used in word final position e. g. he, no, my;

2) it is separated from the following vowel letter or from the combinations –le, -re by only one consonant letter e.g. pilot, idle, fibre;

3) it is followed by a consonant + r + vowel e.g. library, April;

4) in some vowel combinations* e.g. diet, going.

The vowel letter has its short primary meaning:

1) if it is separated from the following vowel or the combination –le by two or more consonants e.g. render, silly, fiddle.

2) if the vowel letter (apart from “u”) is in the third stressed syllable from the end e.g. family, cylinder; but: funeral;

3) if the vowel letter is followed by a single letter “v” e.g. river, never; but: uvula [\ ju:vju:lə], fever [\ fi:və], over [\ əυvə];

4) if the vowel letter is followed by a consonant and one of the combinations, such as –-ic, -ish, -ity e.g. tragic, polish, cavity;

5) in disyllabic words with the sound [I ] and [ju:] in the last unstressed syllable the vowel letter of a stressed syllable has a short meaning: e.g. tribune, facet; but: stupid.

But if the word ends in –y, -ie as in the words ladies, Edie the letters “a”, “e” have their alphabetical (long) meaning.

*For more information about the rules of reading of vowel combinations (digraphs), see further rules.


Meaning Spelling Examples Exceptions

I. Primary


1) vowel + vowel diet

2) vowel + consonant + vowel vowel + consonant + “r” + vowel

vowel + consonant + “le”

vowel + consonant + “re”





II. Primary


1) vowel + consonant cluster + vowel

vowel + consonant cluster +“le”



2) vowel + consonant + “ic”

vowel + consonant + “ish”

vowel + consonant + “ity”




3) vowel + “v” + vowel





4) vowel + syllable + syllable


cases with “u”:


5) vowel + [ı]-closed syllable

vowel + [(j)u:]-closed syllable




Ex. 3.1 ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 2 )

Read the following names and decide, from their spelling, if the vowel is short or long . (If there is more than one vowel, focus on the vowel receiving most stress.) If you are not sure, check the recording.

Example: Mick = short Susan = long

Mick Susan Dean Sammy Cathy
Martha Jane Luke Tammy Rose
Bert Muriel Patty Pete Ross
Ted David Becky Bud Simon
Beth Mike Mary Tom Jean
Timmy Joan Bonnie Sheila Bill
Primary short meaning Primary long meaning

Ex. 3.2 Read these words according to the rules:

Letter “A” (primary short and long meanings):

barrel gas bat land shall
angry cab bag band marry
tangle fat tan pack cattle
back has sand dad carry
















Letter “E” (primary short and long meanings):

best clever led met peck
bell seven set beg shell
send very men lend merry
berry when pen bend kettle
he we these agree evening
she be me even deep

Letters “I/Y” (primary short and long meanings):








































Letter “U” (primary short and long meanings):




































Letter “O” (primary short and long meanings):





















so nose

go probe

phone open










Ex. 3.3

A: Here are the twelve pairs of rhyming words. In each case, one has an expected spelling for the particular sound and one has not. Choose which has the more predictable spelling.

Example: cheque neck

(compare neck with peck, deck, wreck, speck and so on)

1 dome some 5 rich stitch 9 file style
2 mash cache 6 chest breast 10 taste waist
3 steak make 7 wand bond 11 want pant
4 moon prune 8 blood mud 12 cut put

Ex. 3.4 ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 3 )

A: In this section the spelling is 100% predictable from the pronunciation. Listen to the recording and write these individual words down.

1 ________ 5 ________ 9 ________ 13 ________
2 ________ 6 ________ 10 ________ 14 ________
3 ________ 7 ________ 11 ________ 15 ________
4 ________ 8 ________ 12 ________ 16 ________

B: Now see if you can read the following words aloud before you listen to them on the recording. Remember that the pronunciation is still predictable from the spelling.

1 scoop 5 patched 9 puddle 13 shun
2 muted 6 rotter 10 stutter 14 candle
3 glitch 7 hugged 11 handy 15 rumbled
4 spine 8 treck 12 budge 16 trash

C: Now do the same with the following nonsense words.

1 flape 5 snork 9 frake 13 spump
2 spline 6 preck 10 drumble 14 flinge
3 smotted 7 glumpy 11 duddle 15 chinker
4 gatter 8 chandy 12 shunker 16 strended

It doesn’t matter if you don’t know what the words in A and B mean; you can always check them in a dictionary afterwards. Don’t look in a dictionary for the nonsense words in C .

Ex. 3.5 Find and practice reading vowels in their short meanings:

Letter” A”

a) Read as quickly as possible:

A cat, a black cat, a black cat sat, a black cat sat on a mat, a black cat sat on a mat and ate. A black cat sat on a mat and ate a fat rat.

b) Read the sentence:

There was a red van traveling West, and several cars and vans behind it. The van driver suddenly turned and crashed into the taxi. The taxi driver wasn’t badly hurt, but he was very angry.

Can you imagine an imaginary menagerie manager, imagining an imagery menagerie.

c) Proverbs and idioms:

Flat as a pancake.

A hungry man is an angry man.

d) Rhymes and tongue-twisters:

Pat’s black cat is in Pat’s black hat.

Pussy-cat, pussy-cat

Can you catch that bad fat rat?

If you catch that bad fat rat,

You will have some milk for that.

Letter “E”

a) Hens, red hens, best red hens, ten best red hens, Ted sells ten best red hens. Every day Ted sells ten best red hens.

b) Only ten per cent of Kensington Express readers take regular exercise. Ten per cent felt that they were healthy or very healthy.

c) All’s well that ends well.

d) Better late than never.

e) Lesser leather never weathered wetter weather better.

f) Fred fed Ted bread and Ted led Fred bread.

g) Can you retell ten texts in twelve seconds?

Letters “I, Y”

a) As fit as a fiddle.

b) Which witch wished which wicked wish?

c) Needles and pins, needles and pins,

When a man marries, his trouble begins.

d) I slit the sheet, the sheet I slit, and on the slitted sheet I sit.

Letter “O”

a) Bob’s dog got a hot pot of porridge and some chops.

b) I’ve got a job in a sports shop at the moment.

c) Honesty is the best policy.

d) A proper cup of coffee from a proper copper coffee pot.

Letter “U”

a) A duck, an ugly duck, an ugly duck was in a cup, an ugly duck was in a funny cup, an ugly duck was in a funny cup on Sunday. An ugly duck was in a funny cup on a sunny Sunday.

b ) Lucky in cards unlucky in love.

c) Mummies munch much mush.

d) Double bubble gum bubbles double bubbles.

Ex. 3.6 Practice reading vowels in their long meanings:

Letter “A” a) This amazing lake in Wales is a famous place for great races.

b) I can explain. The Daily Mail came late.

c) Make hay while the sun shines.

A stitch in time saves nine.

d) Rain, rain, go away,

Come again another day.

e) Billy, Billy, come and play

While the sun shines bright today.

Letter “E”

a) A man of words and not of deeds

Is like a garden full of weeds.

b ) He speaks Chinese and Japanese with equal ease.

c) Easy come easy go.

Letters “I, Y”

a) Mike likes spicy pies with fried pike.

b) Hi, Mike! I’m busy typing. I have ninety-nine pages to type by Friday.

c) Out of sight out of mind.

Variety is a spice of life.

d) Why do you cry, Willy?

Why do you cry?

Why, Willy, why, Willy?

Why, Willy, why?

Letter “O”

a) The road below goes from Rome to the south coast. We are very close to our home.

b) Chip-chop, chip-chop,

Chipper-chopper Joe,

One big blow.

Oh! My toe!

Ex. 3.7 Put the words given below into a suitable column according to the rules of reading of stressed vowels:

Twilight, crying, Friday, magic, transport, limit, fiddle, panic, student, trying, bypass, never, uncle, letter, river, alphabet, timid, numeral, being, stupid, apricot, atomic, cinema, majority, better, hunting, visit, novel, palace, luggage, sentence, alcoholic, beginner, British, cucumber, famine, forever, Labrador, laser, microphone, noble, novel, poet, printer, puritan, puzzle, regular, Roman, secret, stupidity, syllabic, typical.

Primary long meaning Primary short meaning

Ex. 3.8 Read the following words and see how –e changes the pronunciation


WITH –e :

fat cat am plan hat
gate late name plane hate
NOW PRONOUNCE: man same take that lemonade bale safe tap tape


WITH –e :

sit in begin if swim
invite fine wine wife time
NOW PRONOUNCE: fit inside still mile hid ride tide like pipe strip


WITH –e :

stop top not hot clock
hope home note nose smoke
NOW PRONOUNCE: job stone rose God joke dome bone on spot coke


WITH –e :

bus run pub sun just
excuse June tube rude use
NOW PRONOUNCE: much fuse cube cub fuss tune gun fun duke luck
EXCEPTIONS: some come one have give live love

Ex. 3.9 Place the following words in the grids according to their vowel sound:

Rich, curl, month, cart, suit, breath, flashed, loom, herd, still, hemmed, torn, scene, cruise, floor, dock, just, don, sword, hoop, banned, rang, bin, love, hat, bird, stabbed, hood, farm, ought, ridge, ton, cloth, chalk, hoot, son, link, next, calm, germ, hymn, cab, wood, breath, creep, itch, blood, cough, should, could, black, said, foot, monk, dog, stood, piece, arch, move, purr, feast, palm, pearl, edge, shopped, eve, barred, soup, leaf, bard, begged.

Short vowel sounds

[ I ] [æ] [e] [υ] [o] [ Λ ]

Long vowel sounds:

[i:] [ 3 :] [ ɑ :] [o:] [u:]


1. Divide into groups and transcribe these words:

Worry, student, apricot, oppose, novel, after, magic, limit, visit, excuse, sentence, bypass, money.

primary alphabetical meaning primary short meaning secondary meaning

2. Find the odd word:

a) little, silly, fiddle, middle, quite

b) tragic, pathetic, paste, falls

c) ruling, tulip, truthful, trustee, numeral

3. Transcribe these words:

Archery, point, cricket, victory, golf, runner-up, water polo, racket, rugby, swimming, championship, spectator.


1. Divide into groups and transcribe these words:

Cinema, never, crying, stupid, numeral, uncle, Monday, figure-skating, war, river, panic, staff, hunting, transport.

primary alphabetical meaning primary short meaning secondary meaning

2. Find the odd word:

a) doing, hunting, uncle, cinema, magic

b) stupid, trying, Friday, April, silly

c) student, numeral, never, crying, being

3. Transcribe the words:

Fibre, April, going, render, family, avid, cavity, facet, lady, fever, over, funeral, fencing.

4. Reading of Stressed Vowels in Combination with the Letter ”r”



+ “r” + vowel

+ vowel + ”r”

+ vowel + ”l/n”

+ “r” + consonant

+ final “r”



fair, fare


farm, far



here, hero, neon


herbal, her



liar, fire, giant


firm, fir


[Pronunciation and Spelling in English:]

boar, more

[Pronunciation and Spelling in English:]

north, for



pure, sure, fuel


surf, fur






Ex. 4.1

a) Name the stressed sound of every line:

1. share, rare, care, compare, prepare, hare.

2. here, mere, sphere, material, serial, period.

3. fire, lyre, hire, tired, wire, satire.

4. pure, cure, lure, curious, during, secure.

5. more, shore, explore, before, store.

b) Read these words according to the rules:

Letter “A” (primary short and long meanings):













Letter “E” (primary short and long meanings):













Letters “I/Y” (primary short and long meanings):













Letter “U” (primary short and long meanings):













Letter “O” (primary short and long meanings):














a) Make words with these beginnings and write them in the correct part of the table:

Beginnings ba fa ra da sta squa ca ha cha

Endings r re lf ir rd rt lm

Words with the vowel [α:] Words with the vowel [εə]
bar bare

b) Divide the words into groups according to the sounds:

Air, bear, deer, square, tour, real, giant, your, near, ear, pair, oar, more, secure, cure, fire, lure, lyre, pure, satire, board, fair, hair, hear, dear, tire, fuel, sore, our, area, near, pier, hour, fire, mere, real, diamond, ear, fierce, science, vary, zero, theory, fuel, ore, millionaire, lair, mere, where, trial, work, earn, sergeant, warm, worm, heart, world, merry, persuade, nurse, harp, early, scarcely, clerk, form, target, learn, hurry, bird, persue, war, firm, circus, turn, farm, earth, word, market, girl, fir, bargain, turkey, mortar, swirl, sword, order, urgently, orchid, appear, observe, persue, surface, disregard, perm, sardines, require, depart, quarrel.

Ex.4.3 Read as quickly as possible:

1. Hares, rare hares, take care of rare hares; my parents take care of rare hares. My parents rarely take care of rare hares and canaries.

2. Football, more than football, basketballs more than football, adore basketball more than football, boys adore basketball more than football, tall boys adore basketball more than football. Almost all tall boys adore basketball more than football.

3. The theory, the theory of this experienced engineer is clear, the theory of this experienced engineer is really clear. My dear! The theory of this experienced engineer is really clear.

4. Near an ear, a nearer ear, a nearly eerie ear.

5. Cheers, dear! Cheers! Here’s to the bearded mountaineer!

6. Charming, large and charming, farms are large and charming, gardens and farms are large and charming. The parks, gardens and farms are large and charming.

7. A girl, a circus girl, Pearl is a circus girl, Pearl is a circus girl who works, Pearl is a circus girl who works with birds.

8. Her work, her work in workshop, her work in a dirty workshop, her work in a dirty workshop was the worst. Her work in a dirty workshop was the worst in the world.

Ex. 4.4 Pick out the odd word:

1. term, clerk, serve, perfect.

2. target, farm, warm, market.

3. learn, earth, pearl, heart.

4. Vernon, terrible, merry, hurry.

5. word, work, world, war.

6. first, fur, far, turn.

7. girl, shirk, wire, birch, birth.

8. earn, learn, heart, early.

9. worm, worn, world, work.

10. nurse, lurk, hurry, hurt, suburb.

11. advertisement, university, reserved, western.

Ex. 4.5 Put the words into three columns:

[ɑ:] [ɔ:] [з:]

Tardy, sort, purge, war, heart, dormant, world, port, darling, warm, earn, lord, work, partake, furbish, learn, mortify, clerk, purblind, portly, sergeant, dart, further, partner.

Ex. 4.6 Complete this conversation using the words in the box. Then listen and check

( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 4 )

Cars cares stars stares

Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishSid: This is a great life, with no worries or cares !

Joe: It would be nice if we had ________ though, Sid.

Sid: I didn’t say ______, I said ______!

Joe: Oh, I see. Not _______, as in traffic, but ______ with an ES at the end!

Sid: That’s right. I’ve always loved sleeping under the ______.

Joe: But why? There’ hardly any space under the ______!

Sid: No, not ______, ______! You know, little lights in the sky.

Joe: Oh, ______! I thought you said _________, that people walk up!

Ex. 4.7 Read and transcribe the following sentences:

1. I’d like to reserve a seat on the ten-thirty flight to Birmingham, on Thursday. My name is Vernon.

2. I’ll search under the fir trees and the birches, I’ll circle the earth – and I’ll return with a superb firm earthworm for my perfect turtledove.

3. Pearl will be thirty next birthday. Her perfume from Germany is perfect.

4. Gregory reported about this story with sarcasm, then he asked rhetorical question.

5. I always think about misfortune with a horror.

6. Barbara’s government had a very bad reputation.

7. Sorry, but I don’t like horror films, I prefer going to the theatre.

Ex. 4.8 Listen and circle the word you hear ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 5 )

Heart or hat? She put her hand on her heart\hat .

1. Nowhere or no way? There’s nowhere\no way to go.

2. Fair or far? It isn’t fair\far .

3. Part or port? This is the main part\port of Athens.

4. Bear or beer? That’s a strong bear\beer .

5. Come or calm? She told me to come\calm down.

Ex. 4.9 Practice reading

idioms, sayings:

He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.

If the cap fits, wear it.

Here today, gone tomorrow.

Five fat friars frying fish.

While there is life there is hope.

No smoke without fire.

Real weird rear wheels.

First come, first served.

Even a worm will turn.

It is the early bird that catches the worm.

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

One good turn deserves another.

A picture is worth a thousand words.

The calm before the storm.

To put the cart before the horse.

A barking dog seldom bites.

Don’t take your harp to the party.

A bird is known by its note, and a man by his talk.

Adversity makes the man wise, not rich.

Through hardship to the stars.

Return good for evil.

Better unborn than untaught.

You can bring your horse to the water but you can’t make it drink.

rhymes and twisters:

An old woman, old woman, shall we go a – shearing?

Speak a little louder, sir, - I am very hard of hearing.

Old woman, old woman, shall I love you dearly?

Thank you, kind sir, I hear you very clearly.

How many boards

Could the Mongols hoards

If the Mongol hoards got bored?

“What is this life if, full of care,

We have no time to stand and stare?”

I cannot bear to see a bear

Bear down upon a hare.

When bare of hair he strips the hare,

Right there I cry, “Forbear!”

5. Reading of Vowel Digraphs *

Aa Ee Ii Oo Uu Yy
Aa [i:] formulae

[eı] ai d

[aı] balalai ka

[æ] plai d

[e] sai d

[α:] au nt

: ] Au gust

[ɒ] sau sage

[əυ] au bergine

[eı] way

[e] say s

[ə] alway s

[ı] Monday


[i:] sea

[eı] grea t

[ ıə] idea

[e] brea d

[i:] nee d

[i:] cei ling

[eı] bei ge

[aı] ei ther

[e] lei sure

[i:] peo ple

[ıə] theo ry

[e] leo pard

[(j)u:] neu tral

[jυə] Eu rope

[i:] key

[ı] money

[eı] they


[ə] Parlia ment

[aıə] dia mond

[aı] tie

[i:] achie ve

[ı] Freddie

[e] frie nd

[ıə] patrio t

[aıə] lio n

[aıə] triu mph

[əυ] oa k

[ɔ:] broa d

[u:] shoe

[ɔ I ] boi l

[ə] tortoi se

[ı] connoi sseur

[əυ] broo ch

[u:] foo d

[υ] foo t

[Λ ] bloo d

[əυ] sou l

[u:] you

[υ] cou ld

[aυ] thou sand

[Λ ] cou rage

[ɒ] cou gh

: ] ou ght

[Pronunciation and Spelling in Englishı] loy al

[u:] true

[υə] crue l

[(j)u:] jui ce

[ı] biscui t

[aı] buy
Yy [aıə] hya cinth [aı] bye [(j)əυ] yo ga

Principles of Reading Vowel Digraphs

1) The 1st letter is read in its primary long meaning: sea [i:], oa k [əυ], etc.;

2) The 2nd letter is read in its primary long meaning: neu tral [u:], ei ther [aı], etc.;

3) Two letters are read in their primary short meanings, forming a diphthong: bei ge [eı], they [eı], boi l [ɔ I ], oy ster [ɔ I ];

4) One of the letters is read in its primary short or secondary meaning: au nt [ɑ:], theo ry [ıə], etc.

Ex. 5.1 Read the following words with digraphs [ei|ey ]. Identify the sound of each line.

[ ] 1. beige, deign, heinous.

[ ] 2. either, seismograph, deictic.

[ ] 3. seize, inveigle, ceiling, receive, deceive, conceive, perceive.

[ ] 4. heir, heiress.

[ ] 5. leisure, Leicester.

[ ] 6. counterfeit, sovereign, foreign, surfeit, forfeit.

[ ] 7. eight, freight, neighbour, weight, sleigh, weigh.

[ ] 8. height, sleight.

[ ] 9. they, survey, grey, obey.

[ ] 10. eyrie.

[ ] 11. key.

[ ] 12. monkey, money, whisky, hockey, trolley.

Ex. 5.2 Which twelve of these words contain the sound [] (as in chair)? How are the others pronounced? Can you think of any more words with []?

Air, care, dear, fair, hair, her, here, pear, pair, share, tear (verb ), their, there, they’re, were, we’re, where.

Ex. 5.3

a) Read the poem. Explain the reading of vowel combinations.

A little hea lth, a little wea lth

A little hou se and free dom

With some few frie nds for certain ends,

But little cau se to need them.

b) Each word on the left rhymes with one word on the right. Match the words that rhyme and try to write a short poem using some of the rhyming words.

Brain, teeth, lost, foot, boast, suit, weight, slight, death, says, dull, phrase, war, full, chef, leaf, glued Deaf, great, beef, breathe, skull, Les, reign, days, tossed, post, height, wreath, food, shoot, put, law, wool

Ex. 5.4

a) Put the following words in the correct column according to the pronunciation of “ea”. Careful! Three of the words have two different pronunciations (and different meanings).


































10 words


11 words

[ ε ə]

5 words

[ ıə]

5 words

[ 3 : ]

2 words

[e I ]

3 words

b) Give 2 examples of your own to each variant of pronunciation of the given digraph.

[ ıə ] [ ε ə ]

[ e I ]

EA [ɑ :]

[ i:]

[ e ]

Ex. 5.5 Read the following words. Identify the sound of each line.

[ ] 1. food, boot, foolish, boost

[ ] 2. good, cook, took, look

[ ] 3. should, would, could

[ ] 4. blood, flood

[ ] 5. door, four, floor, boor

[ ] 6. moor, tour, poor

[ ] 7. brooch

[ ] 8. round, found, sound, pound

[ ] 9. soul, bowl, mould, shoulder

[ ] 10. touch, rough, nourish, courage

[ ] 11. soup, group, boulevard, goulash

[ ] 12. thought, bought, caught, fought

[ ] 13. you, youth

Ex. 5.6 Pick out the odd word.


Like by ninth live

1. monkey — donkey — whiskey — key

2. feudal — few — sew — queue

3. cook – look – pound – could

4. foot — good — food — cook

5. round — house — ounce — trouble

6. could — would — mould — should

7. seize — receive — deictic – ceiling

8. toilet – tortoise – boycott – buoy

9. joy –oily –voyage – connoisseur

10. annoy – choice – they –joy – poison

11. pear — swear — near — bear

12. door – floor – start – small

13. cream — head — leave — fleet

14. purple – thirsty – journey – there

15. ooze—wood—kangaroo—booze

16. courage — soul — trouble — nourish

17. plaintiff — raider — plaintive — plaid

18. bread – reads – pence – very

19. work – third – person – hair

20. size – grey – life – eye

21. buy – like – rich – kind

22. wear – ear - hear – nearly

23. earn – third – where – dirty

Ex. 5.7 Give 2 examples to each variant of pronunciation of the given digraph .

[ əυ] []

[ u:]

OU [Λ ]

[ ɔ:]

[ Ŋ ]

Ex. 5.8 Underline the words in which the vowel combinations are read according to the basic rule:

Cream, bleed, leave, fleet, death, dean, daily, head, rouge, great, tie, key, few, ceiling, thief, plain.

Oar, fair, fuel, fare, ore, type, ear, prior, giant, pure, fire, here, trial, real.

May, oak, coin, connoisseur, heaven, broad, seize, agree, soar, aid, via, fiery, idiot, lie, peer, fear, lean, Sunday, says, formulae, main, leisure, sea, eagle, receive, triumph, foam, aegis, sieve, needle, people, leopard, die, Leicester, pseudonym, ceiling, holiday, read, clear.

Reading of the digraph “ou” in homographes:

slough – сброшенная кожа змеи, забытая привычка; уныние, депрессия, болото.

wound – рана; крутиться, извиваться (pastofwind)

Ex. 5.9 Translate the sentences and transcribe the underlined words:

1. When I was going through the slough , I saw a slough .

2. Sometimes your slough can remind about itself. We went to the forest and found a slough there.

3. A man was injured, he had a wound . A snake wound in the cage.

4. While he was wounding , somebody wounded him.

Ex. 5.10

Place the following words in the grids according to their vowel sound.

Rich\ curl\ death\ month\ shone\ lawn\ cart\ suit\ breathe\ flashed\ loom\ herd\ still\ earn\ hemmed\ poured\ torn\ scene\ cruise\ floor\ dock\ just\ would\ don\ sword\ hoop\ banned\ rang\ bin\ love\ hat\ bird\ stabbed\ hood\ farm\ ought\ ridge\ ton\ cloth\ chalk\ hoot\ son\ link\ next\ calm\ germ\ hymn\ cab\ wood\ breath\ creep\ itch\ blood\ cough\ should\ could\ black\ said\ pearl\ edge\ shopped\ eve\ barred\ soup\ leaf\ bard\ begged

Short vowel sounds

pit [pI t] pat [pæt] pet [pet] putt [pʌt] pot [pɒt] put [pυt]

Long vowel sounds

peat [pi:t] pert [pз:t] part [pɑ:t] port [pɔ:t] boot [pu:t]

Ex. 5.11

a) Pronounce the words:

foot – booth – flood

booklet – coop – hook

hoof – footer – looter

wooed – wood – moorings

taproom – sooty – woof

doubt – honorable – tough

neighbour – drought – coup

should – soup – pouring

thought – amount – loaches

aloud – louver – brooch

colourist – pounding – coulter

b) Choose the right variant:

[u:] a) wood, b) foolish, c) country

[Λ] a) ooze, b) flood, c) boot

[υ:] a) good, b) brooch, c) floor

[əυ] a) nourish, b) mould, c) koumiss

[Λ] a) cough, b) tough, c) soup

[u:] a) douche, b) bounce, c) sound

c) Find the odd word:

1. plait, plaid, said, aiglet

2. heir, seize, ceiling, inveigle

3. Leicester, either, height, seismograph

4. break, great, steak, bread

5. tear, heart, fear, tear

Ex. 5.12 Give some examples on each of these combinations, but all of them should denote the sound [ei]:

ai ei


ay ey

Ex. 5.13 Pronounce the following pairs of words and write down the sounds:

Pronunciation and Spelling in English[ ] – [ ]:

daughter – Dottie

caution – coughing

naughty – novice

[ ] – [ ]:

joined – John

oyster – ostrich

soiled – solid

[ ] – [ ]:

tomb – tour

view – viewer

queue – cure

[ ] – [ ]:

cleaning – clearly

ease – ears

[ ] – [ ]:

beer – bear

teary – dairy

peer –pair

[ ] – [ ]:

climb – cloud

finder – founder

dry – drought

Ex. 5.14 Divide the words into columns:

[i:] [e] [aiə] [I]

Eel, bread, aegis, seize, leisure, said, quay, says, diet, key, monkey, ion, leopard, formulae, fiery, sweat, agree, giant, biscuit, lion, Leonard, connoisseur, violate, breath, diamond, auntie, pioneer, species, biological, people, jeopardy, piece, triumph, feather, via, friend, achieve, dialogue, mischief, diadem, build.

Ex. 5.15 Insert the suitable word:

fair/fare, buy/bye, waist/waste, flower/flour

1. This man in black is ...

2. When you get on bus you have to pay ...

3. My wife is satisfied with her good ...

4. It is necessary to say “Good ...” when you leave home.

5. It is a ... of time.

6. I am proud of my ...

7. We can’t bake a cake without ...

8. The girl has painted a ...

Ex. 5.16 Find a way from start to finish. You may pass a square only if the word in it has the sound [] . You can move horizontally or vertically only.


Pronunciation and Spelling in English

house sound group about mouth cow
soup out brown mouse bought south
could couple grow low would cloud
know snow touch ought down count
thought should slow blow pound young
soul country though throw town round

Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishPronunciation and Spelling in English


Ex. 5.17 Group the words below according to the pronunciation of the stressed vowels. Compare the meanings of single vowels and vowel combinations. What principle of reading vowel digraphs do the given words illustrate?

1. [e]

2. [eı]

3. [I]

4. [i:]

5. [aı]

6. [əυ]

7. [ɒ]

8. [ɔ I]

9. [u:]

Antennae, beg, beige, believe, brooch, bruise, boy, buy, by, coin, die, dine, either, got, in, key, made, maiden, needle, neutral, obey, pay, people, receive, seat, she, shoulder, soap, sold, soup, steak, tune, true.

Ex. 5.18 Practice reading the following words.

The letter "a":

pale, dale, rake, navy, table, ladle, staple, cradle, apron, sabre, latch, rack, jacket, quack, yank, jag, carry, parrot, garret, sparrow, barrel, rattle, tangle, sample, angry, fare, Mary, snare, daring, age, sharing, air, hairy, chair, repair, affair, farce, arch, jar, market, scarf, alarm, call. all, also, chalk, walk, tall, augur, sauce, pause, aught, author, caught, taught, claw, crawl, law, yawn, hawk, jaw, draw, day, nail, rain, wait, gait, quail, chain, away, praise, lay;

The letter "o":

nose, probe, Joe, quote, drove, wove, phone, noble, ogre, cobra, joke, ogle, yoke, jog, lodge, wrong, knock, knot, strong, core, shore, wore, oral, score, story, storm, mort, orchard, thorn, force, pork, lorry, horror, borrow, porridge, goggle, jostle, bottle, scallop, foam, coal, load, toast, roach, throat , coach, oak, roam, hold, cold, gold, jolt, stroll, roll, scold, pillow, show, window, snow, glow, crow, yellow, row, know, own, hook, hoys, coil, coy, choice, enjoy, roil, voice, destroy, cook, book, wood, look, stood, rook, coo, wool, soon, moon, zoo, broom, coop, hover, too, wooed, roof, ooze, sooth, out, about, mouth, south, scouts, count, down, town, crowd, crown, clown, howl, jowl, fowl, tower, power, flower, shower, coward, towel, trowel;

The letter "u":

cute, cube, humour, purple, unit, super, student, bugle, bugler, duty, computer, tunic, cure, Ural, pure, dual, obscure, endure, fury, curious, furious, jury, plural, cruel, rural, flue, true, rule, jute, truce, June, lunar, plume, chute, under, cut, run, jump, thunder, just, hungry, hurry, current, burrow, humble, struggle, bungle, uncle, buckle, crumple, cur, hurl, turkey, gurgle, curtains, Thursday, lurch, further, turn;

The letter "e":

bead, these, cede, Eve, recent, scene, secret, legal, sere, zero, sphere, cero, hero, mere, inhere, severe, era, well, text, vet, wet, zest, length, theft, gentle, error, cherry, sherry, Jerry, where, terror, derrick, kettle, temple, nettle, verse, germ, perch, concern, German, mercy, thermos, leap, knead, gleam, streak, teach, quean, streak, easy, wreak, veal, creek, cheep, screed, jeep, breeze, meeting, kneel, seethe, queer, wheedle, ear, tear, clear, weary, hear, rear, beard, smeary, beer, cheer, fleer, jeer, queer, pioneer, few, hew, news, yew, view, stew, newspaper, flew, grew, drew, blew, chew, threw, seize, deceive, conceit, conceive, receive, ceiling;

The letters "i/y":

nice, knife, fly, type, stifle, trifle, fibre, nylon, idle, hydra, cycle, quite, fire, lyre, tyre, quire, wire, byre, require, pick, quick, think, crypt, symbol, myth, system, gym, gyps, with, griddle, little, wiggle, sizzle, scribble, thimble, mirror, chirrup, squirrel, shirk, chirp, thirty, birch, smirch, sir, circle, quirt, Myrtle, bind, kind, mind, wind, grind, behind, high, light, might, knight, bright, thigh, tight, sigh, dial, trial, lion, diary, triumph, pioneer, flyer, giant, quiet, violin, field, grieve, believe, achieve, thief, thieve , piece.

Vowel Letter Combinations

ay, ai

says, quay, certainly, always, holiday, Sunday, certainty, Monday, portrayal, play, clay, aid, straight, against, fair, chair, rain, air, said, aisle, balalaika, curtain, claim, certain, pay, again, plait, plaid, plaintiff, plaintive, quay age, clay


eagle, stream, sea, deal, bread, meal, lean, feather, sweat, breath, breakfast, heaven, pleasure, break, great, steak, fear, idea, tear, theatre, clear, earthly, rear, earthworm, Earn, earn, ear-splitting, Earn Shaw, earring, earnest, eaglet, each, eager, Easter, leave


eel, needle, agree, addressee, employee, peer, beer, beetle, teenager, teem, teetotal, returnee

ei, ey

veil, convey, receive, key, height, eye, either, seismograph, sleight, money, heifer, Reynolds, atheism, deity, heir, heirloom, leitmotif, beige, donkey, eight, Leicester, weight, leisure, ceiling, receive, seize, geyser, they, survey, bogey, monkey, whiskey, weird

eu, ew, iew

feudal, few, masseuse, sew, Freudian, masseur, lieutenant, euphemism, feudalism, queue, pseudonym, neutral, Europe, leukocyte, rheumatism, leukemia, leucotomy, Lucite, Peugeot, Reuter, Reuben, reunion, reusable, Seurat, chew, Tewkesberry, mew, mewl, fewness, Newton, New-York


jeopardy, leopard, Geoffrey, Leonard, people, theory, peony, theology, theorem, reorganize, reopen, Seoul, Leo, Leonardo, Leopold, Leonora, deodar, deoxyribonucleic, deodorant, , Neo-Latin, neologism, neoplasm, neonatal.


piece, tie, fierce, tried, studied, dries, fries, friend, flies, sieve, handkerchief, science, pliers, society, acquiesce, Viennese, happiest, Vietnam, viewpoint, achieve, chief, species, series, mischief, auntie, Freddie, brier, fiery, diet, field, fiesta


food, good, blood, flood, door, moor, poor, brooch, zoology, cooperate, cook, book, wood, floor, ooze, boost, boot, foolish, too, woo, kangaroo, foot, boost, boor, boomerang, boondocks, soothe

oi, oy

noise, boy, patois, turquoise, coin, oily, turmoil, boil, connoisseur, tortoise, loiter, loin, soiree, Boyd, boysenberry, boycott, toy


round, soul, touch, group, could, should, would, thought, through, bough, through, rough, cough, thorough, flour, tourist, four, journey, courage, courier, ounce, oust, house, thousand, account, sound, fountain, youth, soup, boulevard, goulash, you, nourish, trouble, poultry, mould, shoulder, bought, slough, house, wound

Ex. 5.19 Spot the homophones:

Homophones are words (or combinations of words) which sound the same, but are spelled differently and have different meanings: meet and meat, seen and scene. Find the pairs of homophones hidden in the list below.

Side, balls, bear, bowled, cue, ducked, fort, work grate, hair, hare, bales, week, dally, bald, hold, fought, weekly, stoke, walk, missed, air, pure, packed, pear, pore, where, pour, duct, bore, seam, quiet, sought, please, shake, wade, sheikh, pleas, weakly, bold, past, sighed, piece, mist, wear, seem, sight, slay, wake, win, steak, stalk, stroke, stork, daily, stake, weak, bare, holed, wine, pact, bawls, passed, wane, queue, great, heir, pair, whine, grant, sleigh, same, weighed, site, peace.

Some of these words do not form pairs of homophones.

Ex. 5.20 Read the following proverbs:

1. The cook stood still and looked the bush was full of good wood.

2. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

3. A sound mind in a sound body.

4. A green wound is soon healed.

5. I wouldn’t like to be in your shoes.

6. Too many cooks spoil the broth.

7. New brooms sweep clean.

8. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.

9. Too good to be true.

10. A little pot is soon hot.

Ex. 5.21 Try to read these tongue-twisters s quick as possible:

1. A tutor who taught on the flute

Tried to teach two young tooters to toot.

Said the two to the tutor,

Is it harder to toot or

To tutor two tooters to toot?

2. Whatever one toucan can do

Is sooner done by toucans two,

And three toucans (it’s very true)

Can do much more than two can do.

3. How many cookies could a good cook if a good cook could cook cookies?

A good cook could cook as much cookies as a good cook who could cook cookies.


1. Transcribe the following words:
Four, boot, cook, young, couple, good, proud, round, look,foolish, food, sour, moon, loose, pronoun.

2. Sort out the words according to the reading of vowel digraphs:

Borough, brought, tough, bough, thorough, ought, drought, dough, though, bought, sough, slough, pool, root, room, sooth, tootle, took, wooden, hooves, hook, foolhardy, footer, bootlegger, booklet.

3. Translate the following utterances and transcribe the words in bold type:

1. After that she divorced from her husband and left her work, she was in a slough.

2. The wound was fatal and there was no hope for his rescue.


1 . Transcribe the following words:
Nutritious, food, young, neighbour, childhood, fourteen hours, joyous
cousin, wooden house, took, roomy, would.

2. Sort out the words according to the reading of vowel digraphs:

Ooze, poor, floor, enough, choose, soul, book, southern, ounce, blood,

should, account, poultry, flood, too, could, mould, youth, rough,

trouble, mould, broach, bloom, tooth, tourist.

3. Translate the following utterances and transcribe the words in bold type:

1. The little girl very was very frightened, when she saw a slough of a snake on a stone.

2. A man was injured, he had a wound.

6. Reading of Unstressed Vowels

Vowels in unstressed syllables in disyllabic and polysyllabic words usually denote the neutral sound [ə] and short [ı].

1. The letters ‘e ’, ‘i ’, ‘y ’ denote the sound [ı]: rocke t, bandi t, funny .

2. The letters ‘a ’, ‘o ’, ‘u ’ denote the sound [ə]: Pola nd, botto m, cactu s.

BUT -a ge [ı] (message), -a te [ə/ı] (delicate), -i ble [ı/ə] (terrible).

3. The letter combinations ‘vowel + the letter ‘r ” give the neutral [ə]: dollar , dinner , doctor , natur e.

4. In the letter combination ‘vowel + vowel + consonant’ (-ial, -ion, -our, -ous etc.) we pronounce the neutral [ə]: initial , division , labour , generous .

5. In the letter combinations ‘vowel + consonant + consonant
(+ consonant/vowel)
’ (-able, -ance, -ent etc.) we pronounce [ə]: capable , attendance , student .

6. In the letter combinations ‘consonant + vowel + consonant (+ vowel) ’ we can pronounce:

a) the neutral [ə]: freedom ;

b) the neutral [ə] or short [ı]: careless ;

c) the neutral [ə] or short [υ]: awful .

7. The letters ‘o ’ and ‘u ’ in an open syllable and after a stressed syllable have their primary long meanings: sambo [əυ], costu me [ju:].

8. An unstressed vowel is not pronounced, as a rule, in the following cases:

a) e+ l\n (at the end of a word): seven [\ sevn];

b) i+l (at the end of a word): pupil [\ pju:pl];

c) o+n (at the end of a word): lesson [\ lesn]

Ex. 6.1 Read the riddles. Try to guess the right answer. Transcribe the underlined words, explain the rules.

1) A man looks at the photo and says: “Brothers and sisters I have none, but this man’s father is my father’s son.” What relation is the man in the photograph to the man who is looking at it?

2) There is a question to which you never answer “yes”. What question is it?

3) What is it that looks like a ball,

But stands still and does not fall

off its thin and graceful leg?

Children like to turn it round,

Lakes and rivers are there found.

Countries , states and their towns

You can see on it all round.

Ex. 6.2 ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 6 )

a) Listen to the poem. Circle the words which rhyme.

Pronunciation and Spelling in English

Mr. Porter loves his pasta.

No one else can eat it faster.

Mr. Porter’s sister Rita,

Buys the pasta by the metre.

Mr. Porter’s older daughter,

Boils it all in tubs of water.

b)Learn the rhyme.

The Time-table of Lazy-bones Grundy

Lazy-bones Grundy

Must do sums for Monday.

“And today it is Thursday”,

Says lazy-bones Grundy,

“So I’ll do it on Wednesday,

If not – then on Thursday,

Or even on Friday”,

Says lazy-bones Grundy.

Not very soon comes Friday

And Saturday comes,

But lazy-bones Grundy

Has no time for sums.

“Never mind”, says Grundy,

“I’ll do it on Sunday.”

So this time-table

Of lazy-bones Grundy.

Ex. 6.3 Transcribe the following words and divide them into three columns: [ju:], [əυ], [ə]

Tribune, monotony, statue, samba, cactus, attribute, customs, gratitude, ambulance, monogram, common, also, tempo, recognize.

Ex. 6.4 Pay attention to the full quality of the unstressed vowels and explain the rule:

a) mambo, canto, tempo, dingo, banjo, fresco, motto, tango, salvo, stucco, Plato, photo, solo, memo, credo, veto, Pluto, silo;

b) commune, costume, capsule, formula, circular, occupant.

Ex. 6.5

a) Listen. In each sentence or phrase there are two vowels which are not [ə]. Circle them ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 7 )

Example: an a pple and a bana na

1. from Canada to China

2. The parrot was asleep.

3. The cinema was open.

4. the photographer’s assistant

5. a question and an answer

6. a woman and her husband

7. a pasta salad

b) Write the words in the correct part of the table. Then listen and check ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 8 )

Orange woman return collect market begin visit asleep

Salad teaches needed letter sofa peaches quarter women

Vowel in weak syllable = [ə] Vowel in weak syllable = [І]
woman orange

Ex. 6.6 Compare the reading of the vowels in stressed and unstressed position. Read the following words:

land – Holland

land – Poland

land – Iceland

Man – Frenchman

Man – Dutchman

Man – Scotchman

Us – cactus

Bus – campus

Tom – bottom

Sum – possum

Rack – barrack

Lot – ballot

Bad – ballad

Mock – hammock

Lock – hillock

Ex. 6.7 Pronounce the following words and comment on the reading of unstressed vowels:

Error, terror, horror, chirrup, barrack, mirror;

Ballot, gallop, cactus, census;

Grammar, beggar, collar, cellar, dollar, poplar;

Volga, delta, extra, villa, Sylva, Edna, character, manager;

Baggage, bandage, courage, garbage, message, accurate, adequate, affectionate, approximate, delicate;

Amber, banner, summer, supper, dinner, number, member, butter, pepper, shelter, winter;

Academy, generous, achievement, ailment, golden, deepen, different, patience, fluency, bravery;

Positive, possible, ineligible, invisibility;

Doctor, proctor, tractor, factor, actor.

Ex. 6.8 Read the following words. Note that they have complete vowel reduction.

Britain, curtain, separate, metal, medal;

Interest, model, parcel, travel;

Medicine, professional, revolutionary.

Ex. 6.9 Find the words in which unstressed vowels are not reduced:

1. government, assurance, terrible, crock ware

2. translation, improvable, partial, monotonous

3. meaningless, soluble, wisdom, trainer

4. monkey, canvas, carpet, dismount

Ex. 6.10 Listen and circle the word you hear ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 9 )

1. Woman or women? What time did the woman\women arrive?

2. Dress or address? Where’s Kate’s dress\address ?

3. Manager’s or manages? The team manager’s\manages well.

4. Teacher’s or teaches? The German teaches\teacher’s English.

5. Weight’s or waiter’s? The weight’s\waiter’s heavy.

6. Dancer’s or dances? The woman dancer’s\dances fast.

7. Officer’s or office’s? The officer’s\office’s here.

8. Away or way? Take that away\way .

9. Drive or driver? What a nice driver\drive !

10. Racer’s or races? The racer’s\races finished.

Ex. 6.11 Read the following words and pay attention to the reading of unstressed vowels:

Dizzy, remedial, examination, painful, remedy, extract, fever, giddy, recovery, malady, giddiness, harmful, injury, illness, injection, inflammation capable, record, competitor, chessman, curable, handicap, amateur, sensible, garment, recovery, expert, stressful, careless, judgement, remedy, doctor, patient, medical, inflammation, to operate, ambulance, ointment, prescription, painful, treatment, cancer, ailment.

Ex. 6.12 Write down the unstressed vowels, which the following words have:

clumsy, ointment, stressful, complication, dormitory, treatment, sickness, vitality, surgery, conscious, deficiency, condition, shivery, breathless, ailment, cavity, therapy, bandage, appointment, funny, rocket, nature, dollar, bottom, Poland, costume, samba, attendance, capable, student, message, delicate, freedom, awful, careless.

Ex. 6.13 Choose the words, in which the unstressed vowel is not reduced and has its primary alphabetical meaning. Explain the rule:

Stamina, contest, participant, costume, sedentary, snooker, polo, badminton, racket, victory, samba, hockey.

Ex. 6.14 Extract the words with unstressed vowels and group them according to the sound, which they denote:

Stress is a disease of the twentieth century. Life has never been faster and jobs have never been more stressful than they are today. People have to perform more and more work under difficult and more stressful conditions. Many people suffer from stress and the illness it can cause. But as this situation is becoming recognized, people shouldn’t have to fear comments such as, “He’s had a nervous breakdown. Can’t take the pressure, you know.” This is because more people are recognizing that stress is a natural reaction – it is a reaction of a person’s body to pressure, either from the outside world or from the inner world of emotions and physical organs. We can’t avoid stress. And we can’t help ourselves, or others, until we know more about it. Not all stress is bad and perhaps if we understand it better we could make the most of it.

Ex. 6.15 Find the superfluous word in each group (unstressed vowels):

[ɔ:] – ׀ football, ׀ terror, ׀ record;

[I ] – ׀ phoneme, ׀ profit, ׀ fifties;

[æ] – can׀ teen, fan׀ tastic, sex׀ tet;

[e] – sen׀ sation, ׀ congress, ׀ drawback;

[i:] – re׀ set, re׀ group, e׀ lusive.

Ex. 6.16 Transcribe the following words and explain why the unstressed vowel is reduced or not:

ba׀ nana

׀ profit

pre׀ vented

׀ tribune

ma׀ chine

׀ ticket

׀ statue

po׀ litical

׀ lovely

׀ dangerous

׀ movement

׀ horrible

׀ echo

׀ giddy

Ex. 6.17 Read the limerick and underline the words with [ə], [ I ]:

There once was a student named Bessor

Whose knowledge grew lesser and lesser

It at last grew so small,

He knew nothing at all,

And today he’s a college professor.

Ex. 6.18 Read these twisters and underline the words with [ə], [ I ]:

The hammer man hammers the hammer on the hard highroad.

Little lady Lilly lost her lovely locket. Lucky little Lucy found the lovely locket. Lovely little locket lay in Lucy’s pocket. Lazy little Lucy lost the lovely locket!

Ex. 6.19 Read the proverbs, explain the reading of the unstressed vowels:

1. Appearances are deceitful.

2. Honesty is the best policy.

3. Better late than never.

4. Love is a malady without cure.

5. Little knowledge is a dangerous thing.

6. Don’t make a mountain out of a molehill.

7. Absence makes the heart grow fonder.

8. Accident will happen.

9. Desperate disease must have desperate remedies.

10. Prevention is better than cure.

11. A merry heart is a good medicine.

12. Caution is the parent of cure.

13. To be a cut throat competition.


Ex. 1 Distribute the words into four groups (one and the same word can be in different groups) according to the reading of unstressed vowels:

[ə] [ I ] [ə/ I ] primary alph. meaning

Radio, message, kingdom, hopeless, gratitude, cellar, belong, changeable, divide, downy, also, prepare, deliberate, attribute, deliver, courage, teacher, countable, probable, tempo.

Ex. 2 Find the words with unstressed vowels and explain their reading:

1. Look before you leap.

2. Hasty climbers have sudden falls.

3. If you run after two hares, you’ll catch neither.

4. It’s not cricket.

5. Study sickness, while you are well.

6. Health isn’t valued, till sickness come.

Ex. 3 Transcribe the words:

Samba, gymnastics, glider, contest, spectator, vicious, medical, polo, bicycle, judo, discuss, stamina, marathon, achievement, disqualification.

7. Reading of Consonants

Letter Meaning(s) Examples
Bb [b] Boy, baby

[s] – before e, i, y


[∫] – before unstressed vowels

City, cycle

Come , cat

Social, musician, delicious, special


[d] – after vowels & voiced consonants in endings

[t] – after voiceless consonants in endings

Played, rained

Stopped, watched




Fine, film



[dʒ] – before e, i, y


[ʒ] – in words of French origin

Gy m, ge ntle, ange l

Game !!!girl,get,give

Garage, rouge, beige

Hh [h] Hello, hamster
Jj [dʒ] Jane, joy
Kk [k] Kettle, kitchen
Ll [l] Lemon, little
Mm [m] Money, mirror
Nn [n] Nose, novel
Pp [p] Pepper, pick

[k] – at the end of words


Unique, technique

Qu arrel, qu ality

Rr [r] Right, reality

[s] – at the beginning of words, after voiceless consonants in endings

[z] – after vowels & voiced consonants at the end of a word; between two vowels



Son, stops, caps

Mends , los es , advertis e, pres ent

impression , sugar

Measure , pleasure ,



[t∫]– in words ending in -ure

[∫]–when followed by a letter i in many suffixed words

Take, water

Nature , future ,

Nation , education , initial , ambition

Vv [v] Van, cover
Ww [w] Wood, wet



[gʒ] – before a stressed vowel

Box, fox, mixture

Luxury\ luxurious


Zz [z] Zero, zebra

READING OF “c, g, j”

Ex. 7.1 Read the following words according to the rules and find exceptions:


































Ex. 7.2 Put the words into the right column and find exceptions if there are any:

[k] [s] [g] [d3]

Cc: biscuit, cake, can, cap, car, cat, carpet, carry, chocolate, cinema, city, class, clean, clear, clerk, clever, clock, close, coat, come, concert, cook, cool, count, cousin, cow, cucumber, cup, cure, dance, December, doctor, face, race, factory, ice-cream, pencil, picture, place, quick, second, secretary, uncle.

Gg: august, begin, finger, flag, game, garden, get, girl, give, go, good, goose, grandfather, grass, great, green, grey, ground, jug, jungle, large, leg, orange, page, pig, porridge, tiger, village, engineer, giraffe, cage, German, together, forget, egg, dog, again, agree, angry, England, hungry, glass.

Ex. 7.3 Find the odd word:

1. cap, candle, centre, cosy, council.

2. gold, gum, gossip, game, give.

3. curriculum, century, ceramic, circle, cycle.

4. gentle, gerund, giant, gymnast, get.

5. cake, call, cease, cause.

6. gas, gentleman, ginger, gymnastics.

7. get, gain, give, begin.

8. scissors, scientific, scarf, scene.

Ex. 7.4 Add the word according to the rule:

1. career, car, can, capital, ...

2. century, centre, cite, Cyprus, ...

3. gallery, gamble, garlic, governmental, ...

4. gentle, general, gibber, gymnasium, ...

Ex. 7.5 Indicate how the letter c is pronounced in the words: [s], [∫], [k].

1. success –

2. juice –

3. sufficient –

4. anchor –

5. accept –

6. scientific –

7. chemist –

8. appreciate –

9. balcony –

10. proficiency –

11. decide –

12. clown –

13. precious –

14. tobacco –

Ex. 7.6 Indicate how the letter g is pronounced in the words: [g], [d3].

1. religion –

2. geography –

3. bridge –

4. beggar –

5. gear –

6. figure –

7. hamburger –

8. guilty -

9. engineer –

10. giant –

11. oxygen –

12. guard –

13. gypsy –

14. regulator –

15. bargain –

16. government –

Ex. 7.7 C, k, ck, que or ch for [k]? Complete the words by spelling the sound [k].





























Ex. 7.8 Underline the letters which are pronounced [] in the following sentences.
List the ways you found to spell this sound.

1. If you are an ambitious language learner, you should work hard on pronunciation and dictation.

2. So, after graduation you will be able to do translation and hold conversation taking part in negotiations.

3. He is impatient to go to the exhibition. Its expositions resulted from the exploration of the culture of ancient civilizations.

4. If you are anxious about future generations, please take part in our conversation project.

5. I don’t think I need your permission to go on an excursion.

6. Flies spread infectious disease. You’d better take measures against them.

7. I’m sure we won’t finish our work without financial support from a social organization.

Ex. 7.9 Fill in the missing letters s or z. Some words can be spelt both ways.

1. I must apologi_e for disturbing you so late.

2. Do you want to try on this sweater? I think it’s your si_e.

3. Everybody was surpi_ed at his calm.

4. She received the Nobel Pri_e for phy_ics.

5. What do you think of medicine adverti_ing on TV?

6. The doctor advi_ed him to take more exerci_e.

7. My parents do not sympathi_e with my ambition to go on a stage.

8. I could hardly recogni_e him. He looked different in his new suit.

9. Stop critici_ing everybody! Mind yourself!

10. It was very wi_e of you not to go there.

Ex. 7.10 Read the proverbs. Explain the rules of reading.

1. To let the cat out of the bag .

2. Appearances are deceitful .

3. The devil is not so black as it is painted.

4. The tongue is not steel, yet it cuts .

5. To stew in one’s own juice .

6. Well begun is half done.

7. The game is not worth the candle .


The ending -(e)s of plural forms of nouns and of the 3rd singular present indefinite of verbs is read

how when
a) [s] after voiceless consonants;
b) [z] after vowels, voiced consonants and sonorants;
c) [ız] after [s], [z], [∫], Pronunciation and Spelling in English, [t∫], Pronunciation and Spelling in English.

The ending-(e)d of regular forms of verbs is read

how when
a) [d] after vowels, voiced consonants and sonorants;
b) [t] after voiceless consonants
c) [ıd] after [t], [d]

Ex. 7.11 ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 10 )

Each line contains either verbs or adjectives ending in <-ed>, or verbs or nouns ending in <-s>. Decide which is the odd one out in terms of the way that the ending is pronounced. Then check your answer with the recording.

Example: seas picks pays digs

1 picked stopped robbed taped
2 wanted shaped estimated congratulated
3 shops digs robs codes
4 judges horses names wishes
5 trapped faked hoped faded
6 wicked picked tricked licked

Ex. 7.12 Read the words according to the rule:

a) with the ending -(e)s

inches, hands, chiefs, shoes, maps, boxes, safes, dishes, machines, roofs, classes, wives, babies, benches, books, bottles, boys, brings, burns, buzzes, cages, capes, cars, catches, cats, checks, clashes, clings, clocks, crooks, dates, dishes, doctors, dresses, edges, faces, feeds, fetches, fifths, fingers, foxes, gains, gnats, hooks, hopes, horses, jobs, kites, knives, knows, ladies, leaps, lies, matches, moths, noses, nurses, pages, papers, parts, phones, pies, picks, pipes, places, pumps, roses, seats, sites, skies, sofas, swims, taxes, teachers, thinks, ties, trays, wages, waves, weeks, wives, writers.

b) with the ending -(e)d

acted, added, advised, agreed, begged, called, camped, carried, compiled, composed, concreted, concurred, crashed, decided, defended, diffe­red, dressed, ended, enjoyed, entered, explained, failed, finished, fired, followed, founded, handed, hoped, hurried, joked, listed, listened, looked, marked, mended, opened, packed, painted, placed, pronounced, pumped, reminded, rested, roun­ded, sacked, shouted, seemed, seized, skated, smoked, started, stayed, robbed, tacked, talked, turned, typed, waited, walked, washed, packed, arrived, moved, worked, played, needed, smashed, ended.

Ex. 7.13 Put the words into columns:

a) with the ending -(e)s

[s] [z] [Iz]

Cats, touches, drops, pencils, coats, poses, gods, cured, ports, causes, fits, its, adds, tends, courses, boxes, mottos, toes, heroes, saves, boxes, spies, memories, tomatoes, drivers, potatoes, matches, plays, pockets, fingers, sources, marches, invalids, secrets.

b) with the ending -(e)d

[t] [d] [Id]

Forced, recorded, swamped, saved, treated, brushed, connected, viewed, waited, stopped, used, enjoyed, needed, tended, dressed, helped, danced, opened, played, counted, decided, answered, wanted, cried, studied, traveled, used, skipped, stopped, hated, trusted, published, switched, named, sounded.

Ex. 7.14 Find the odd word:

1) noses, pieces, years, dresses, dollies.

2) stopped, used, traveled, smelled, agreed.

3) pens, hens, pets, lessons, heads.

4) coasted, ended, resulted, resisted, suffered.

5) tips, backs, points, models.

6) places, matches, cases, shocks.

7) passed, worked, dropped, needed.

8) hated, promoted, landed, licked.

Ex. 7.15 Add the word according to the rule:

1) toys, arms, fingers, hairs, ...

2) displeased, smelled, pervaded, ...

3) secrets, tickets, shocks, foots, ...

4) hands, legs, years, eyes, ...

Ex. 7.16 Find a way from Start to Finish. You may not pass a square if the word contains the sound [z]. You can move horizontally or vertically only.


spots squares prize since six sports
streets wise sells sits exact escapes
rice rise sense science lose lost
oasis desert smokes songs crisps box
place face snacks seas voice boxes
plays phase nose smiles focus concert


Ex. 7.17 The pronunciation of the possessive “s” is the same as for plural endings. For example: Peter’s [z], John’s [z], Philips [s], Steph’s [s], Gearge’s [ I z], Alice’s [ I z].

Put the words in italics in the correct column, according to the pronunciation of the possessive “s”.

a month’s holiday

Jane’s dog

the horse’s mouth

Joe’s ambition

Uncle Toby’s

Mr. Walsh’s car

Beth’s doll

the judge’s decision

Liz’s mother

the Jones’s children

the government’s duty

the boys’ father

the world’s resources

a wasp’s nest

a week’s pay

[z] [s] [ I z]

Ex. 7.18 Read the text, underline the past verbs with –ed ending and explain the rule of reading.

Robin Tailor was born in Birmingham on the 27th of December 1958. His mother died the same day. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor adopted him. In 1960, the Taylor family immigrated to Perth in Western Australia. Last year, Robin was in Britain on holiday. He traveled to Birmingham and asked about his family. He discovered that he had a twin brother! Robin phoned a BBC radio programme and told his story. He asked for information about his brother. That afternoon he received a phone call from Perth in Scotland. The next day he went to Scotland and met his brother for the first time.

Ex. 7.19 Read the proverbs. Explain the rules of reading.

1. He laughs best who laughs last.

2. What can’t be cured must be endured.

3. Exception proves the rule.

4. Nothing ventured, nothing gained.

5. Where the shoe pinches.

6. When in Rome, do as the Romans do.

7. It’s the early bird that catches the worm.

8. The devil is not so black as it’s painted.

9. Still waters run deep.


Letter combination Sound Examples

O + ld

Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishI+ld


Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishIgh

A+ s + consonant

A+ n + consonant

A+ th

Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishA+ll













[əυ], [aυ]

Cold, gold

Wild, child

Kind, find

High, night

Class, past

Plant, dance

Path, father

All, ball, wall

Talk, walk, chalk

Want, was

War, warm


Row, cow

Ex. 7.20 Read the following words containing combination of vowels and consonants:

[əυ] cold, fold, hold, bold, gold, told, sold;

[aı] wild, mild, child,;

[aı] kind, mind, find, bind, blind, rind.

[a:] class, fast, ask, plant, bath, pass, past, task, grant, path, glass, cast, bask, can’t, father, grass, vast, basket, shan’t, brass, mask, branch.

[ɔ:] all, small, ball, fall, call, stall, tall, wall.

[ɒ] was, wash, what, want, watch, quality;

[aυ] now, how, cow, down, town, clown, brown, crowd, crown, flower, power, tower;

[əυ] row, own, slow, grow, snow, glow, show, throw, know

Ex. 7.21 Which word in the pair has more predictable spelling?

warm –charm

cork – work

wart –dart

worm – storm

window - binding

worm – squirm

want – pant

word – lord

call – shall

eight – height

Ex. 7.22 Find the odd word:

Target, farm, warm, market, barking.

Word, work, world, war, worse.

Behind, bind, wind, mind, blind.

Call, shall, tall, also, always.

Howl, jowl, crown, throw, coward.

Own, borrow, pillow, tower, crow.

Dance, can’t, bathroom, past, east.

Warship, quality, watch, wash, was.

Pond, gold, sold, behold, scold.

Ex. 7.23 Find the homophones:

side/ stalk/ hold/ might/ bold/ knight/ sight/ won/ site/ holed/ stork/ bowled/ night/ one/ sighed/ mite

Ex 7.24 Find the rhymes:

a) warm/ calm/ heard/ polite/ want/ show/ world/ aunts/ what/ work/ stalk/ bite

b) ago/ farm/ dance/ fight/ pot/ pond/ whirled/ perk/ night/ fork/ storm/ word

Ex. 7.25 ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 11 )

Listen to the recording and decide which names you hear.

Example: I’ve invited ____Pete ___to join us.

a) Pete b) Peter c) Pet

1. I’ve just been talking to __________________.

a) Jan Lipman b) Jane Lipman c) Jane Leapman d) Jan Leapman

2. I’ve just got a letter from __________________.

a) Eryl b) Meryl

3. Can I speak to _____________, please?

a) Mick Wilson b) Mike Wilson c) Mack Wilson d) Mark Wilson

4. I haven’t seen ____________ for ages.

a) Mary b) Marie

5. Could you give this to __________, please?

a) Lucille b) Lucy

6. I think that’s ___________ over there.

a) Peter Bales b) Peter Vales c)Pete Bales d) Pete Vales

7. Have you met _________________?

a) Barbara Eaton b) Barbara Heaton c) Barbie Eaton d) Barbie Heaton

8. I’ve invited _______________ as well.

a) Joe Newman b) Joan Newman

9. That’s _________________, I think.

a) Sir Ralph b) Sir Alf

10. I think that’s ____________over there.

a) Sue Weedon b) Sue Eden

11. Is ___________ here today?

a) Gert b) Curt

12. I’m going with ___________ to the cinema.

a) Alec b) Alex

13. Have you seen ____________ recently?

a) Rita b) Lita

14. I hear that ___________has got a new job.

a) Bet b) Beth c) Betty d) Bess

15. Isn’t that ________over there?

a) Carl b) Carla

Ex. 7.26 ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 12 )

Look at and listen to these pairs of words.

a. Peter and pepper. These start with the same consonant sound [p], but the following vowel sound is different: [׀ pi:tə], [׀ pepə].

b. Peter and pizza. These start with the same three sounds: [׀ pi:tə] and [׀ pi:tsə].

Now read the following pairs of words. How many identical sounds do they start with? Listen to the recording to check how they are pronounced.


Peter/ pepper – 1 Peter/pizza – 3

1. Kate \ cake __ 9. Penny \ pizza __

2. Charles \ chocolate ___ 10. Margery \margarine ___

3. Oliver \ olives ___ 11. Barbara \ bananas ___

4. Tom \ tomatoes ___ 12. Sam \ salmon ___

5. Susan \ sugar ___ 13. Colin \ cola ___

6. Salome \ salami ___ 14. Brenda \ bread ___

7. Pat \ pasta ___ 15. Jim \ gin ___

8. Patty \ pastry ___ 16. Raymond \ radishes ___

Ex. 7.27

a) Put the following words into the correct column according to the pronunciation of”-ough”:

Cough, through, plough, fought, thought, tough, nought, ought, drought, borough, bough, sought, bought, dough, though, enough, rough, thorough

[ ɔ : ] [ ʌ f] [ ɒ f] [u:] [ə] ʊ] [ a ʊ]

b) Add two more words into each group:

caught, cuff, burglar, glow, stew, toffee, groan, snuff, warn, queue, terror, doubt, frown, off.

8. Mute Consonants

Mute letter Combinations of letters Examples



Doubt, subtle,climb but: obtain

Bomb, comb, lamb, tomb

c sc Scissors, scene, muscle
d Before consonants Wednesday, handsome



Sign, sovereign, gnat, resign, but: pregnant, magnet

Paradigm, gnome



rh, h



Which, white, where, what

Rhyme, hour, exhibition, honor

Ghost, gherkin

Khaki, khan

gh igh High, light, weight, fight
k kn Know, knife, knight, knee

ld (only in words)




Could, would, should

Half, calf, but: golf, wolf

Talk, walk, chalk

Calm, psalm, but: film

n nm Autumn, column, condemn




Pneumonia, pneumatic

Receipt, but: helicopter, September, raptorial

Psychology, psalm, but: laps, perhaps

r after vowels Far, farm, girl, turn, term
s sl Island, isle




Often, soften

Whistle, castle

Listen, fasten


wh (before –o)



Who, whose, whom, whole

Writer, playwright, wrong, wrestling

Answer, but: swallow, swan, sweet

Ex. 8.1 Find the homophones:

Lamb/ wood/ receipt/ rime/ hole/right/ reseat/ knew/ fought/ whine/ reign/ lam/ rain/ new/ fort/ wine/ would/ rhyme/ write/ whole.

Ex. 8.2 Find the rhymes:

Farm, boom, delight, hurl, gate, design, sign, who, calm, threw, court, reign, alarm, height, gloom, bite, polite, refine, weight, whirl, pine, chew, caught, refrain, incite, womb, psalm, night, charm, tomb, through, balm.

Ex. 8.3 Choose the odd word:

when, which, whose, where

lump, limb, lamb, comb

calm, palm, film, balm

knapsack, knowledge, knick-knack, acknowledge

Gypsy, pseud, perhaps, eclipse

pseudonym, psychosis, trapshooting, psyche.

Ex. 8.4 Choose the appropriate word:

1. That was really a very courageous _______.

a) knight b) night

2. She doesn’t _____ _____ her necklace is.

a) no, were b) know, where

3. He ______ his father was coming home because he heard his horse’s _______.

a) new, slay b) knew, sleigh

4. He became an ________ of a tremendous fortune after his ________ death.

a) heir, father’s b) air, father’s

5. The troops had to _____ the river.

a) wade b) weight

6. The rose was very beautiful but the thorns on the _______ hurt my fingers.

a) stork b) stalk

7. The king’s ________ his spouse’s glance and understood everything.

a) court b) caught

8. It was the first day of ______ for the ______.

a) rain, shake b) reign, sheikh

Ex. 8.5 Correct the mistakes:

I got court in the reign this morning and got wet threw.

I’d like to get some fire-would.

I no wot you mean.

I always get aches and peigns in winter.

We booked the tickets threw the Internet.

She can’t weight for you.

It’s very hot there, she won’t knead her fur-coat.

Rite! That’s the correct variant.

Ex. 8.6 Complete the word by adding the silent letter.

1 . An _onest man never tells lies.

2. _hose spectacles are these?

3. A bom_ exploded just near the bridge.

4. The spirit of a dead person is called a g_ost.

5. Do you hear someone _nocking at the window?

6. His _nowledge of the subject is rather poor.

7. The clock strikes every _our.

8. I’m afraid he’s caught _neumonia.

9. You’d better _rap her present up.

10. If you don’t want to forget, tie _not in your handkerchief.

9. Reading of English Consonant Clusters

English sibilants and interdental sounds which don’t have their equivalents in the Latin alphabet are denoted by combinations of consonants, the second element of which is “h”, e. g. she, chain, thus, three.

All the combinations of consonants, except “sh ”, have the primary and the secondary sound meanings. The combinations of consonants are read in the primary sound meaning in most English words. In the words of foreign origin they are read in their secondary meaning.

Cluster Sound Where Examples






Geek and Latin


cheap, chair, watch

ache, school

machinery, chef

sandwich, spinach






word end and beginning

proper names

between and before vowels

throw, tooth

Thomas, Thailand

this, leather




Greek and Latin


philosophy, phonetics

sh [∫] shelf, wash

READING OF “ng, nk”

Cluster Sound Where Examples
ng [ŋ] In final position or before suffixes –er, -est, -ed, -ing Sing, singing, singer
ng [ŋg] In the middle of a root word Anger, hunger but angel, conglomerate, congratulate
nk [ŋk] Any position Ink, pink


The leter “n” denotes:

[n] in prefixes – con, - non, - in, -un (income, nonsense, confident, unread)

[ŋ] before: c, k ([k] function, tank), ck, qu ([k] conquer, ancker), xi ([k∫] anxious),
g ([g] England, longer), the suffixes and endings –er, -est, -ed, -ing (sing, singer, singing).

Ex. 9.1 Read the words with letter “n”:



















Ex. 9.2 Transcribe the following words and divide them into groups according to the reading of the combinations of consonants:

linked, wings, inkpot, jungle, anxious, mounting, singer, single, anger, anxious, nonsense, eating, finger, income, function, conquer, having, confident, eaten, English, concentration, nonplus, indirect, frank, hanger, linked, wings, jungle, anxious, mounting, condition, nonunion, invisible, tank, function, belonged, nice, can't, sing, incredible, land, giant, pane, strong, bringing, long, banker.

Ex. 9.3 Find the odd word:

1. jungle, nonsense, Frank, sorting, single.

2. uneasy, nonplus, convention, English, irritation.

3. ring, tongue, boring, chunk, conversion.

4. dinner, convenient, nonstop, involve, undid.

5. unclaimed, nonsense, link, inhale.

6. finger, hang, frank, stronger.

7. singer, hanger, belonged, doing.

Ex. 9.4 Add the word according to the rule:

1. informal, non-aggression, unable, ...

2. tank, frank, hank, ...

3. longer, stronger, younger, ...

4. sung, wing, finger, ...

5. consult, industry, indulge, ...

6. stinks, tank, inkpot, ...

7. boring, sorting, lying, ...

Ex. 9.5 Find the way from Start to Finish. You may pass a square only if the word
in it has the sound [ŋ]. You can move horizontally or vertically only.

Start ↓

sing think thick strong wrong rung
sign uncle unless drug strange comb
thanks angry signal drank English finger
anxious angel single monkey money young
language tongue skiing skin came ink
lounge danger band dream swim wing

↑ Finish

Ex. 9.6 Explain the rules of reading in these proverbs:

1. What is done cannot be undone.

2. Wars the sport of kings.

3. He who swims in sin will sink in sorrow.

4. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.

5. Better unborn than untaught.

6. Honey is sweet but the bee stings.

Ex. 9.7 Join consonant clusters with the sounds they can denote. There are 4 sounds that don’t fit here.

[d3] [t] [t∫] [v] [ð]



[ŋk] [h]
[f] [θ]
[g] [ŋ] [∫] [k] [ŋg]

Find the word with each sound:

Chandelier, worth, anger, triumph, Anthony, sandwich, cheekbone, Stephen, shrewd, bang, Frank, than, monarchy

Ex. 9.8 Find the odd word according to the way of the reading of consonant clusters:

1. accept, success, soccer, accede, access, accent.

2. anchor, young, conquer, conclude, function.

3. think, thunder, throne, thyme, thick, thing.

4. chaos, chord, stomach, monarchy, chaste.

5. tooth, scythe, truth, thumb, throw, thin.

6. go, gargle, gage, glove, stage, give.

7. chef, chic, champagne, charade, chick.

Ex. 9.9 Sort out the words into columns according to the reading of consonant clusters.

Machinery, scheme, scythe, child, Thames, weather, chef, Christmas, Thompson, chick, than, chic, chord, chalice, cliché, Chaos, neither, thyme, thrift, cheek, though, thorn, thaw, thief.

Ex. 9.10 Find a way from start to finish. You may pass a square only if the word in it has the sound [θ]. You can move horizontally of vertically.

Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishStart

north northern either weather breathe those
south bath bathe thought breath youth
southern third their through though thumb
Thailand cloth path fifth with worth
month clothes these brother that teeth
throw thing author other they Pronunciation and Spelling in Englishwealth


Ex. 9.11 Complete this rhyme using words from the box. Then listen and check ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 13 )

Earth another Heather together brother birth neither either mothers brothers

Arthur had a brother

And he didn’t want another.

And of the brothers, ______

Wanted sisters _____ .

The last thing on this_____

They wanted was a _____.

So Arthur’s mother _____

Got them both _____,

And told them all good _____

Should learn to share their _____.

Ex. 9.12 Listen and circle the word you hear ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 14 )

1. Youth or use? There’s no youth\use talking about that.

2. Thought or taught? I don’t know what she thought\taught.

3. Free or three? Free\Three refills with each packet!

4. Closed or clothed? They weren’t fully closed\clothed .

5. Breeding or breathing? They’ve stopped breeding\breathing .

6. These are or visa? These are\Visa problems we can deal with later.

Ex. 9.13 Practice reading the following words observing the rules of reading of consonant clusters:

a) Sheep, fish, Lewisham, mishap, ghost, rough, high, eight, daughter, Ghana, ghastly, ghee, gherkin, ghetto, ghillie, ghoul, Ghana, ghee, gharry, ghoulish, shoulder, shovel, show off, shrewd, shrink, Zhirinovsky, Zhukov, Zhivago, Zhejiang, Zhang, Zhuhai, photograph, shepherd, Stephen, Clapham, nephew, cheap, chair, charm, scheme, school, ache, cholesterol, chemistry, machinery, clef, sandwich, Charles, charter, charka, charivari, chateau, chauffeur, cheekbone, Chaucer, chauvinism, Chihuahua, chloral, choir, cholera, cholinesterase, pharmacology, pharyngeal, phoneme, phonetic, physiotherapy, phthisis, phylum

b) Wristband, knout, wryneck, Khachaturian, wreathe, Khan, Khyber, khanate, pneumothorax, Knox, knuckle, wrongheaded, Khrushchev, knurl, knockdown.

Ex. 9.14 Read the proverbs; explain the reading of consonant clusters:

Th e tong ue is not steel, yet it c uts .

Exc eption proves th e rule.

Wh ere th e sh oe pinch es.

Don’t cross th e bridg e till you get to it.

Ph ysic ians mend or end us.

Neith er fish nor flesh .

A bird in th e hand is worth two in the bush .

A watch ed pot never boils .

A drowning man will catch at a straw.

Little knowledg e is a dang erous th ing.

Ex. 9.15 Practice reading the following homophones:

Homophones are words (or combinations of words)

-which sound the same, but are spelled differently and have different meanings: e.g. meet and meat, seen and scene.

-There are some examples of one word sounding like a combination of words: e.g. heed and he’d.

-Sometimes three words (or combinations of words) sound exactly the same: e.g. I’ll, isle and aisle.

-scent – a distinctive smell, sent – the past tense of send

-scene – the place where an event takes place, seen – the past tense of see

-site – a piece of land, cite – to quote

-session – the meeting of a court, cession – the act of ceding

-scull – rowing motion, skull – head bone

-sic – to set upon, sick - ill

-sink – to submerge, synch – together in time

-soared – to have sailed through the air, sword – long fighting blade

-sucker – one who sucks, succor – relief

-plum – purple fruit, plumb – straight up and down

-profit – money earned, prophet – seer

-bark – outer sheath of a tree, barque – square-rigged sailing ship

-bloc – an alliance, block – square object

-bold – brave, bowled – knocked over

-boll – round seed pod, bowl – dish

-borough – township, burrow – dig into the ground

-bough – tree branch, bow – front of a ship, respectful bend

-burger – meat sandwich, burgher – merchant

-but – excepting, butt – the thick end

Ex. 9.16

Spot the homophones 1

isle / bard / beer / bored / caught / night / pale / cawed / chord / sly / died / dyer / cored/ dough / flawed / toed / pear / meal / floored / teas / knew / heard / soar / heal / lacks / lax / male / steer / we’ll / maize / might / slay / dead / stair / mite / breaks / knight / towed / dire / knit / weight / herd / seam / aisle / he’ll / nit / tees / new / pail / bier / board / barred / pare / doe / pair / rain court / bared / dyed / heel / reign / saw / mail / sore / I’ll / seem / maze / sleigh / stare / tease / toad / wait / wheel

Some of these words do not form pairs of homophones.

Ex. 9.17

Spot the homophones 2

In the following conversation a large number of words have been replaced by homophones. Spot where they have been used and decide how the words should be written.

- Lousy whether we’ve been having recently. (=Lousy weather …)

- We haven’t been having much son, that’s for shore. I got court in the reign this mourning and got wet threw.

- Me two. And how about that cold missed first thing? I went out bear headed to get sum fire-would and haven’t bean warm since. And my hands got quite saw as well. Really roar, they feel.

- I no watcher mean. I always get aches and panes in the winter. Anyway, weir off to get some son necks tweak. Weave booked a few daze in Singerpoor.

- Yes, I herd you had. Lucky yew! Still, I shouldn’t mown. We flue to Florida last cheer, witch was really nice, and it’s only fore weeks till we visit my sun and daughter-in lore in Roam. Haven’t scene them for rages. We only maid the booking yesterday, threw the internet. Mary’s already pact; she can’t weight.

- Well, tell her she won’t knead her fir coat any weigh.

- Rite. Oh Kay. Aisle sea you later.

- Buy. See ewe a round.

Some of the homophones show that this is fast, informal speech.

Ex. 9.18 Transcribe the following words:

Shop, fish, this, English, shot, three, cheese, something, thus, months, catch, through, that, child, chef, these, those, thirst, third, chop, shelf, anxious, trophy, scholarship, changes, England, machinery, gage, judge, science, echo, tongues, income, scheme.

Ex. 9.19 ( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 15 )

A In each line, identify the word that has a different first consonant sound. Read them first, then listen to the recording to check.

Example: friend priest physical philosophy

1 kettle car circle catch
2 these thank think thread
3 when which whose where
4 church choir cheap chart
5 plenty prince piano pneumatic
6 number know moon gnaw

B In each line, identify the word that has a different final consonant sound. Then listen to the recording to check.

1 picked rubbed fact bought
2 dragged road dropped hide
3 cough safe roof of
4 packs ox begs pats
5 lump chasm limb name
6 sock music arch ache

Ex. 9.20 Practice reading the following twisters:

1. Have judgement not to judge this judgement judging by people’s judgement.

2. Each child has much chance to become the champion of the match.

3. This is a thick thimble.

4. A handsome singer sang an exciting song in English.


I. Find the odd word in the line:

1. Guide, gas, general, glass, globe

2. Crimson, music, lens, always, research

3. Initiative, negotiate, transition, completion, station.

II. Explain assimilation(s) in the following words:

Cupboard, nice shoes, twice, try, sweet, plane, pray

III. Mark stresses:







IV. Transcribe the following words:

Psychiatrist, appointment, therapy, tranquilizer, medicinal, malaria, typhoid, hang gliding, windsurf, athletics, steeplechase, draughts, rink, oar, tournament.

10. Revision and Consolidation Practice

Ex. 10.1 Practise the following poem, which illustrates the irregular spelling of English.


I take it you already know

Of tough and bough and cough and dough ?

Others may stumble but not you,

On hiccough , thorough, laugh and through

Well done! And now you wish, perhaps,

To learn of less familiar traps.

Beware of heard : a dreadful word

That looks like beard and sounds like bird .

And dead : it’s said like bed not bead

For goodness’ sake don’t call it deed .

Watch out for meat and great and threat

(They rhyme with suite and straight and debt !)

A moth is not a moth in mother;

Nor both in bother , broth in brothe r;

And here is not a match for there ,

Nor dear and fear for bear and pear .

And then there’s dose and rose and lose

(Just look them up) and goose and choose,

And cork and work and card and ward ,

And font and front and word and sword,

And do and go and thwart and cart

Come, come! I’ve hardly made a start.

A dreadful language? Man alive!

I’d mastered it when I was five!

I will teach you in my verse

Words like corps, corks, horse , and worse .

For this phonetic labyrinth

Gives monkey, donkey, ninth and plinth ;

Woun ded, roun ded, grieve and sieve ;

Friend and fiend; alive and live .

Query does not rhyme with very,

Nor does fury sound like bury .

Dies and diet; lord and word ,

Earth and hearth and clerk and herd;

Evil, devil, tomb, bomb, comb;

Doll, roll, dull, bull, some and home.

Finally – for I’ve said enough –

Through though thorough plo ug h cough tough!

While hiccough has the sound of cup…

My advice is: GIVE IT UP!

Put the words which are wholly or partially in italics on the correct line, according
to the pronunciation of the italicized vowel sound. Some have been done for you.

[ʌ] tough
[aʊ] bough
[ ɒ] cough
[ əʊ]
[ ə]
[ ɑ:]
[ u:]
[ ɜ:]
[ ɪə]
[ e]
[ i:]
[ ɛə]
[ ɔ:]
[ ɪ]
[ ʊ]

Ex. 10.2 Group the letters of the English alphabet according to their pronunciation:





U The Alphabet B Q R






[ i: ] [ e ] [ e I ] [ u: ] [ a I ] [ əu ] [ ɑ : ]

Ex. 10.3 There is one spelling mistake in each word in the following text. Underline every word which is wrongly spelt. Then write the correct spelling in the space provided at the end of the sentence.

The moon is a natural satellite that travels around the earth (_______). As the moon moves, it seemes to change shape (______). But it does not change sheipe (_____). It has no ligth of its own (_____). When we see the moon, we see sonlight reflected off it (______). We can see the moon only if the lighted part is torned towards Earth (_____). During the full moon, the lighted part of the moon is torned towards Earth (_____). There is no eaar on the moon (____). And it is very hot in the day-time on it (____). It appeares to have no live (_____). Many people wanted to lean more about the moon (_____). Long ago, people used only there eyes to look at the moon (_____). They could not see the moon’s land clealy (_____). Later, a telescope was invanted (______). Since then, people have used telescops to study the moon (_____).

Ex. 10.4 There is one spelling mistake in each line in the following text. Underline every word which is wrongly spelt. Then write the correct spelling in the space provided at the end of the sentence.

Have you ever thought that a person’s apperance ____________

revels more than we realise? According to some _____________

experts, a persons’ face, head, and body can_________________

reveal a great deal about personallity. ______________________

The art of frenology studies the form of the _________________

head, to be more acurate, the bumps on it. __________________

Phrenologists have identified forty bumps of varios ___________

shapes and sises on the human head. They “read _____________

these bumps to identifie a person’s talents and _______________

charactor. For exmple, a bump between the nose _____________

and forhead is said to be present in people who ______________

have natural elegence and love of beauty. A bump ____________

behind the cirve of the ear is the sign of ____________________

a courageous and adventerous person. _____________________

Ex. 10.5 The two words that are written after each sentence sound alike, but have different meanings and spellings (they are called homophones). Fill in the blanks with the correct words to complete each sentence.

1. The _______ spent the ______ in the castle.

A) knight B) night

2. Be sure to ______ your surname on the ______ line.

A) write B) right

3. Have you heard the fairy ______ about the cat with no ______ ?

A) tale B) tail

4. Didn’t you ______ Ann ask you to put the plate______ .

A) here B) hear

5. The ______ on a ______ is called fur.

A) hare B) hair

6. Yesterday the sky was clear ______ and the wind ______ from the north.

A) blue B) blew

7. He decided to ______ his new belt, but he doesn’t know ______ he put it.

A) where B) wear

8. From ______ hundred flowers the prince had to find the flower before it was ______ late.

A) too B) two

9. It is not ______ if some people do not pay their bus ______ .

A) fair B) fare

10. The coach announced which ______ of the teams ______ the game.

A) won B) one

11. We brought a ______ of cool water to the ______ traveler.

A) pail B) pale

12. Do you always ______ the skin off a ______ before you eat it?

A) pare B) pear

13. The Indians wrote the ______ treaty on a ______ of bark.

A) piece B) peace

14. After his illness John felt ______ for a ______ .

A) week B) weak

15. The boat sailed ______ through the ______ .

A) straight B) strait

Ex. 10.6 Correct the spelling mistakes in the letter below:

Deer Jane,

Hear I am in Siberia. We’ve been hear for too weaks now, and I can’t bare the thought of staying in this country any longer.

What dreadful whether! It’s bitterly cold out. When I’m chilled to the bone, I think I’ll never warm up.

Wee leave in a wooden house. It is surrounded with a huge would. The hunter, who lives with us, says that the would is full of beasts. You can walk their and meat a dear or a bear. As for me, I saw a hair’s sine.

Do you think it is fare to leave me hear! I can’t even sleep in piece. Can’t you come and stay with me? The air fair is really not very expensive. Hope to sea you soon. Your Jack.

Ex. 10.7 Find the pairs of homophones hidden in the list below:

Side/ balls/ bear/ bowled/ cue/ ducked/ fort/ work/ grate/ hair/ hare/ bales/ week/ dally/ bald/ hold/ fought/ weekly/ stoke/ walk/ missed/ air/ pure/ packed/ pear/ pore/ where/ pour/ duct/ bore/ seam/ quiet/ sought/ please/ shake/ wade/ sheikh/ pleas/ weakly/ bold/ past/ sighed/ piece/ mist/ wear/ seem/ sight/ slay/ wake/ win/ steak/ stalk/ stroke/ stork/ daily/ stake/ weak/ bare/ holed/ wine/ pact/ bawls/ passed/ wane/ queue/ great/ heir/ pair/ whine/ grant/ sleigh/ same/ weighed/ site/ peace

Ex. 10.8 Each line contains three words that rhyme and one word that doesn’t. Choose the odd one out.

Example: steel peal stale peel

Bert Curt shirt Bart
coot loot soot shoot
relate fete weight height
spook took look rook
food mood brewed good
sewed glued chewed nude
jerk clerk work shirk
packed backed baked fact
scene sign mean convene
laze phase days size
peak steak leak cheek
soot cut put foot
height tight weight might
stalk work fork cork
quite night lied light
clear bear hare fair
barred bared hard yard
duke spook look Luke
taught court snort coughed
priced missed fist kissed

Ex. 10.9 Spelling tests:

a) Each word here has the sound [e]. How many ways are there to spell this sound?
Arrange the words into the groups:



















b) Tick the words that have the vowel sound [ ɒ]:



















c) Each word here has the sound [ Λ ]. How many ways are there to spell this sound?
Arrange the words into the groups:



















d) Each word here has the sound [f]. How many ways are there to spell this sound?
Arrange the words into the groups:
















e) Each word here has the sound [e I ]. How many ways are there to spell this sound? Arrange the words into the groups:
















f) Each word here has the sound [i:]. How many ways are there to spell this sound?
Arrange the words into the groups:
















g) Each word here has the sound [a I ]. How many ways are there to spell this sound? Arrange the words into the groups:
















h) Each word here has the sound [əυ]. How many ways are there to spell this sound? Arrange the words into the groups:
















i) Each word here has the sound [u:]. How many ways are there to spell this sound? Arrange the words into the groups:



















Ex. 10.10 Find the rhymes

Here are some very short, two-line poems, but the rhyming words are missing. Try to guess the missing words which complete each poem. If you can’t think of any, choose from the list.
(The list contains some words which rhyme, but which do not make sense in the poems.)


Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishPronunciation and Spelling in English

I think you ___________ She’s learned to ___________

To leave the __________ In just a __________________

Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishPronunciation and Spelling in English

You haven’t ________ It’s always ___________

A single ___________ Down on the __________

Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishI like a ________

Last thing at ____

bike/ bird/ bite/ bought/ byte/ calm/ caught/ charm/ court/ farm/ feel/ fight/ harm/ heard/ herd/ leak/ leek/ light/ like/ listened/ meal/ might/night/ ought/ right/ should/ sight/ speak/ spoken/ talk/ taught/ token/walk/ weak/ week/ wood/ word/ work


Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishPronunciation and Spelling in English

This shirt you ______ I think I’ll __________

Is rather __________ A pound of _________

Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishPronunciation and Spelling in English

He’s learned to _______ It’s not too __________

In just one __________ To lose some ________

Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishI wish the ___________

Would make less ______

bought/ boys/ buy/ by/ caught/ day/ height/ kids/ late/ light/ mate/ meat/ meet/ night/ noise/ play/ poem/ read/ reed/ right/ shake/ short/ soon/ sound/ steak/ take/ toys/ wait/ weigh/ weight/ write


Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishPronunciation and Spelling in English

I think the ______ It might make _____

Would like to _____ To build a ________

Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishPronunciation and Spelling in English

My youngest ________ I’ll try to __________

Sure likes to _________ To get a __________

Pronunciation and Spelling in EnglishHe’s too ___________

To want to _________

alone/ aunts/ bone/ box/ dames/ dance/ fence/ fight/ friendly/ fun/ girls/ loan/ lone/ none/ one/ pence/ phone/ polite/ right/ run/ scared/ sense/ sight/ son/ sun/ trance

11. Additional Practice in Reading and Memory Work

( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 16 )


Oscar Wilde

The sea is flecked with bars of grey

The dull dead wind is out of tune,

And like a withered leaf the moon

Is blown across the stormy bay.

Etched clear upon the pallid sand

The black boat lies: a sailor boy

Clambers aboard in careless joy

With laughing face and gleaming hand.

And overhead the curlews cry,

Where through the dusky upland grass

The young brown-throated reapers pass,

Like silhouettes against the sky.

( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 17 )


Oscar Wilde

Tread lightly, she is near

Under the snow,

Speak gently, she can hear

The daisies grow.

All her bright golden hair

Tarnished with rust,

She that was young and fair

Fallen to dust.

Lily-like, white as snow,

She hardly knew

She was a woman, so

Sweetly she grew.

Coffin-board, heavy stone,

Lie on her breast,

I vex my heart alone

She is at rest.

Peace, Peace, she cannot hear

Lyre or sonnet,

All my life's buried here,

Heap earth upon it.

( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 18 )

(MR= Marta Rodriguez)

MR Good morning, everyone. Thanks for coming to my presentation. My name’s Marta Rodriguez. I’m Personnel Director of Tara Fashions. I’m going to talk to you today about our company. First, I’ll give you some basic information about Tara Fashions. Then I’ll talk about our overseas stores. After that I’ll outline the strengths of the company. Next I’ll talk about career opportunities with Tara. And finally I’ll mention our future plans. I’ll be pleased to answer any questions at the end of my talk.

Let me start with some basic facts about Tara. The company started in 1978. We are a family-owned business and our head office is in Cordoba, Spain. We sell clothes for men and women, and our customers are mainly fashion-conscious people aged 20 to 35. We have 15 stores in Spain. All the stores are very profitable.

Right, those are the basic facts.

Let me add a few figures. We have an annual turnover of about 260 million euro. Our net profits last year were approximately 16 million euro. We have a workforce of just over 2,000 employees. So those are the numbers. Now about our overseas stores. We have four large stores in France and another ten in other European countries. We are planning to open five new stores next year. What are our strengths? We keep up with fashion trends. If we spot a trend, we can bring out a new design in 15 days. And we get it to the stores very quickly. We deliver to stores twice a week. And we sell our designs at the right price.

OK, now what about career opportunities? It’s quite simple. If you are ambitious and fashion-conscious, we have opportunities in all areas of our business. We will welcome you with open arms.

Finally, a few words about our new projects. We are planning to open a new store in New York next year – on Fifth Avenue. This will give us a foothold in the US market. We’re very excited about this new development.

Well, thanks very much for listening to my talk. Are there any questions?

( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 19 )

(I=Inge, Ka=Katharina, Ke=Kenneth, N=Nada, J=Julia)

I Right, can we start, please? The main aim of the meeting is to decide the date of the launch. After that, we’ll talk about our marketing strategy and decide which sales outlets we should target. OK, when are we going to launch the goggles? Katharina, what do you think? Should it be early next year or should we wait until the summer?

Ka I’m in favour of February or March. There’s a gap in the market for our products. Why wait any longer? The goggles are technically advanced – let’s just cash in on that.

I Thanks, Katharina. OK, let’s hear a few more views. Kenneth, what’s your opinion?

Ke Mmm, I don’t know about February. It’s a bit early in the year. I suggest we launch in May or June. People go on holiday then. It’s a peak period for buying goggles.

I Thanks, Kenneth. Nadia, what’s your view? You’re a keen swimmer, I know.

N In my opinion, February’s best time. We could promote them in swimming pools and opticians. The price should be high. I’d say, at least 50 pounds.

Ka Hold on a minute. I thought we were talking about the launch date, not about promotion or price.

I You’re right, Katharina. Let’s get back to the point. OK everyone, I think on balance we agree – we prefer the earlier date. Let’s move on now to marketing. Julia, which outlets do you think we should target?

J I think we should start with the specialist stores. That’s were most swimmers buy their goggles.

I What do you mean by specialist stores, Julia? Are you thinking of sports goods outlets, you know, stores which only sell sports equipment?

J Exactly. They should be our main target.

( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 20 )

Now, I’d like to move on to our most successful products, Protean. As I’m sure you know, our new fabric was named after Proteus, the Greek sea god who was able to take on different roles and shapes. Indeed, Protean can be used for a wide variety of products because it is extremely flexible. Let me give you some basic information about Protean’s three main features.

Firstly, it is made from fibres that are similar to nylon and polyester. These fibres are coated with a metallic substance, so that the fabric can conduct electricity. In addition, the fabric can be made very thick or very thin – so thin in fact as to become translucent, - to let some light pass through.

Secondly, as you can experience for yourselves from the samples that are going round, not only is it very soft to the touch, but it’s also strong and long-lasting.

Finally, it can be made in absolutely any colour.

To conclude my presentation, I’d like to tell you about our future plans.

We at Fabtek believe that Protean has enormous sales potential. We are currently trying to increase sales by licensing other manufacturers to produce interesting new products with Protean. We already have a licensing agreement with Azra, a Swiss firm, which has created some award-winning products using Protean. You can find the details of some of those products in the leaflet in your folder.

( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 21 )

(V=Vincent, M=Monica, T=Tanya)

V I think we should do a lot more to improve our staff’s health and fitness. What do you think, Monica?

M I agree. There are all sorts of things we could do to help staff to become more healthy and stay healthy. For one thing, we could offer them a free medical checkup every year.

V Right. That’s a good idea. A lot of firms do that. And how about having a no-smoking policy in the staff restaurant? What do you think about that, Tanya?

T Mm, I don’t think I like the idea very much. It wouldn’t be good for morale. A lot of our staff smoke – they’d be against it, I’m sure of that. I think we should improve the food. A lot of the dishes aren’t healthy – there’s far too much fatty food, not enough fish, fruit and vegetables.

V True. We could change the menus and offer healthier meals. I like that idea.

M what about setting up a counseling service, Vincent? Some staff are under a lot of stress. It affects their work and they need professional help.

V I don’t know, Monica. It’d be very expensive to set up a service like that. Anyway, we have a company doctor. That’s her job, isn’t it?

( Pronunciation and Spelling in English , track 22 )

(V=Vincent, T=Tanya, M=Monica)

V I’ve got another suggestion. We could talk to the manager of our local sports centre and arrange a company membership. What do you think, Tanya?

T Mm, I don’t know. It sounds interesting, but it could be very expensive. A group fee for all our staff would probably cost a fortune.

V What’s your opinion, Monica?

M I think you’re right, Tanya. It’s cost a lot and I’m not sure how many staff would actually use the centre. Some people say it hasn’t got many facilities.

V I can’t agree with you there. It’s got a very good pool and sauna. If we could negotiate a low membership fee, it might be worth considering, surely.

T Yes, it’s worth checking out, I suppose. A lot of staff might enjoy having a swim at lunchtime or after work. And a sauna is very relaxing, I must admit.

M Maybe, but there are so many other things we could do. Things which are less expensive, but they’d improve people’s health just as much. Let me tell you about a few ideas I have…


Cotton D. Market Leader. Pre-Intermediate Business English. Longman, 2007.

Hancock M. English Pronunciation in Use. Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Hornby A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Compass. Oxford University Press, 2005.

Kelly J. How to Teach Pronunciation. Longman, 2003.

Vaughan-Rees M. Test Your Pronunciation, Penguin English, 2006.


1.The Syllable. The Principles of Syllable Division. 5

2.The Primary and the Secondary Meaning of Letters. 9

3.The Primary Sound Meanings of Vowels in Different Types of Syllables. 10

4.Reading of Stressed Vowels in Combination with the Letter ”r”. 19

5.Reading of Vowel Digraphs*. 24

6.Reading of Unstressed Vowels. 35

7.Reading of Consonants. 41

8.Mute Consonants. 50

9.Reading of English Consonant Clusters. 52

10.Revision and Consolidation Practice. 59

11.Additional Practice in Reading and Memory Work. 67


* Digraph [daıgræf] – a pair of letters that represent one sound