Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University Foreign Language Chair Work paper The cheese production technology Fulfilled by student: Istratova.D.S Group T-23
Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University
Foreign Language Chair
The cheese production technology
Fulfilled by student: Istratova.D.S
Checked by: Golovushina Y.A
1. Introduction: the characteristic of cheese and short classification
2. Secrets of manufacture of cheese
3. The first step in сыроварении
3.1 Preparation of milk
4. Cheese reception
4.1 Cheese takes the form
4.2 Salt - for the aid to useful microflora and taste
5. Cheese maturing
Cheese – one of the most nutritious and high-calorie foodstuff. His nutritional value is caused by high concentration of fiber and fat, presence of irreplaceable amino acids, vitamins, salts of calcium and the phosphorus necessary for normal development of a human body. Cheese is useful to people of any age and especially for children.
In cheese contains from 18 to 25 % of fiber, and his considerable part is in the soluble form, therefore is well acquired by an organism. In solid of many kinds of cheeses 45-55 % of fat, from 1,5 to 3,5 % of mineral salts contain. Caloric content of cheese fluctuates from 2500 to 4500 calories. The maintenance of vitamins in mature cheeses (in 100г cheese) makes mkg: vitamin A – 600-1300, В1 – 40-80, В2 – 300-900, РР – 20-40.
2. Secrets of manufacture of cheese
Ancient Roman agriculturist Lutsy Kolumella named founders of cheese magicians and wizards. Remarkable transformations which occur at cheese preparation.
Сыроделу it is not necessary to choose raw materials from which to make cheese, he uses only one kind of raw materials - milk, and receives tens kinds of the cheese, differing both taste and a consistence and drawing.
The person, is a lot of centuries back casually found out in a stomach of the killed calf the curtailed milk, for the first time has touched secrets сыроделия. Subsequently it was found out that one of four departments of a stomach of a calf or a lamb allocates abomasum - enzyme which curtails milk, decomposes fibers. This natural phenomenon, as well as others, people have placed of themselves in the service.
Now from сычугов prepare a preparation named rennet enzyme.
Long time was considered that introduction rennet enzyme in milk is main, if not the unique reason of his transformation into qualitatively new product. And only after the person has learnt a microcosm, the miracle role in creation of cheese of specific species of microorganisms - lactic bacteria has been revealed.
Opinion of scientists converge that these bacteria and their enzymes influence the main thing on process of manufacture of cheese lasting many days. And at the same time to researchers all new parties influence rennet enzyme open, the role of enzymes of the milk, their actions interconnected with lactic bacteria comes to light.
3. The first step in cheese cooking
3.1 Preparation of milk
On сыродельном factory the tank with an inscription "Milk" which has just arrived, first of all is met by the laboratorian, he selects tests of milk for definition of his taste and a smell, a consistence, temperatures, acidities, cleanliness, fat contents etc. Periodically on сыродельном factory define as degree of bacterial security of milk, structure of microflora being in her, his ability to be curtailed сычужным enzyme.
Happens so from milk, apparently, normal on basic indicators, difficultly, and sometimes not probably to develop good cheese if in him many harmful microorganisms or it is badly curtailed сычужным by enzyme.
For development of standard cheese on a chemical compound, milk normalise under the fat maintenance, preliminary having mixed from 15-20 % of mature milk for improvement of quality of cheese. Maturing of a part of milk spend at temperature 8-17 C, before acidity increase on 1 T. Zatem milk pasteurise at temperature 71-74 C with endurance 20-25С, and cool to temperature заквашивания. It creates conditions for the further normal ability to live of useful microflora - lactic bacteria. «Cheese-it the matured milk» - was written in 1937году by Englishman Edward Bjunard. The author in
this case supposes certain poetic licence, and is more exact, cheese is formed of dense particles which appear in milk in process of his maturing. This maturing fast to what speed from which fresh milk turns sour testifies. Сыроварение is a way of monitoring and change of process for the purpose of reception of the product capable to maturing instead of simple rotting.
In сыродельную a bath filled with milk bring ferment is a pleasant drink, moderately dense, with pure sour-milk taste and the aroma, reminding the sour cream, "filled" with lactic bacteria.
In ferment the quantity of lactic bacteria reaches hundreds millions in one ml. Having got to the favorable environment (warm milk), bacteria begin the main process сыродельного manufactures - lactic fermentation.
Following stage is entering into milk сычужного enzyme. In сыродельной to a bath of 5 tons of milk, and bring only nearby 100 gramme сычужного enzyme in a solution. One part of enzyme on 50000 parts of milk, through 5-10минут all milk starts to get thick quickly. Also the gentle clot gradually condensed is soon formed. It occurs division of milk into soft slices of cottage cheese and liquid whey. If approximately through 30-40минут to enter into him шпатель (a special metal plate), he in this place as though breaks up, baring equal фарфоровидные edges and transparent greenish whey which consists of various proteins, sugar, minerals and water.
Better to say, створаживание is a process at which there is a reproduction of certain bacteria present at crude milk; these are the so-called lactic bacteria capable without assistance to condense casein (the main dairy fiber). But at milk pasteurisation (fast heating to 70С) are killed not only harmful bacteria, but also useful. To help process сырообразования, one more component is added. It is the sychug-extract received from a stomach of dairy calfs and applied in a kind янтарно of the painted liquid or in the dehydrated form (a powder or tablets). Besides acceleration of process of branch of cottage cheese weight from whey, сычуг does casein insoluble that promotes reception of firmer curdled weight.
4. Cheese reception
So, сычужный enzyme has begun the work. The received clot split up, and so-called cheese grain-albuminous of a particle in the size 3-6мм is formed. Cheese grain swimming in whey heat up, it is very responsible operation as her purpose - to create conditions for development of certain species of microorganisms. The heating temperature lies and at the heart of industrial classification of cheeses. Features of development of large cheeses is application of high temperature of heating (54-58С).
4.1 Cheese takes the form
Weight separate from whey, a method of her premise in the special porous container. Submit in сыроизготовитель, and from him on the pipeline cheese grain arrives in
быстровращающийся the device which submits it to forms.
The second way: the condensed cheese weight cut pieces (from a thickness of the cut pieces the cheese rating is defined) and place in forms which depending on a cheese kind can be the cylinder (high small diameter or low большего diameter) и.т.д.
During pressing process of consolidation proceeds and the remained whey leaves. But not everything, humidity of cheese weight should be optimum. The sharp deviation from the established moisture content (even 2-3 %) can lead to change of a course of biochemical processes, and cheese will be not typical, and his quality will worsen.
To pressing on сыродельных factories are applied pneumatic the press, working under the influence of compressed air. In a press place some tens cylinders or cheese whetstones. Passes 12-18 hours when large cheeses and this process are pressed comes to an end. Cheese gets the form which he has in a ready kind, a smooth and equal surface. However it yet cheese true - his colour white, taste - empty, weight rough резинистая. But already at this time in him the new phase of transformations - transformation of cheese weight to cheese begins.
4.2 Salt - the help to useful microflora and taste
Cheese leaves pressing branch with the original metrics: in his surface впрессованы the figures showing day of his birth, i.e. date of development and her number.
As almost each foodstuff, cheese salt. For this purpose at modern factories him stack on regiments of special containers which by means of mechanisms omit in солильные pools. In солильном branch some numbers of concrete pools in which the brine of certain concentration and temperature circulates. Cheese is in him some days, thus his taste becomes not only more sharply, but also more richly, the consistence improves. The salt solution positively operates on microbiological processes - they continue to develop in the necessary direction, the harmful microflora which has got to cheese weight chokes.
Salt very slowly gets into thickness of cheese, and only in some days after him will take out from pool, salt will reach the head centre, being in regular intervals distributed on all weight. At some factories salt not cheeses, and cheese grain that allows to do without солильных premises. Thus, посолка, anyhow, promotes process of maturing of cheese, creation of his flavouring bouquet.
Soon after посолки cheese arrives in сырохранилище, here him for long time leave alone.
5. Cheese maturing
Cырохранилище where cheese - an inner sanctum сыродельного factory ripens. Here there are chambers - refrigerating and warm. In them heads accurately laid on regiments, cylinders, cheese whetstones. On racks - thermometers and психрометры,
air temperature is supported to within 1-2С, humidity to 2-3 %.
In chambers сырохранилища under action сычужного enzyme and microflora enzymes proceeds and practically process of maturing of cheese which has begun still in сыродельной to a bath comes to the end.
Character of maturing is approximately identical, but for each kind of cheese he has the features which define, in particular, and duration of this process. Firm сычужные cheeses, for example Swiss, Soviet, Kostroma etc., ripen till 180 days. The reason, of course, not in different volume and weight of these kinds of cheese, and in the same microorganisms.
Some months while cheese is on regiments, do not cease to care of him. Cheese periodically overturn, that his form was not broke, the crust was better, salt was in regular intervals distributed; wash, when will find out on him a mould; sometimes transfer to other branch of storehouse, where other temperature conditions.
Cheese maturing is a process during which time cheese gets the yellowish colour specific, characteristic taste for his each kind, more or less gentle consistence and so-called drawing - eyes of round, oval or other form, a cheese crust becomes dense and at the same time elastic. For example, in Swiss cheese the volume of emptiness can reach to 20 % of all volume. And some cheeses cover with a paraffin mix, it means that the end of his maturing at factory approaches.
Here cheese is ready. Him pack into boxes and send on base or in the refrigerator where store at temperature 2-6С and humidity of air of 85-87 %. From here he arrives in shops.
6. The conclusion
Cheese is высокоценным the foodstuff containing a considerable quantity легкоусвояемых of high-grade fibers, dairy fat, various salts and vitamins.
For each kind of cheese the technological features which finally and define specificity of a ready product are peculiar.
The microflora applied at development and maturing of cheeses, defines a kind and prominent features of soft cheeses, causes a direction microbiological, biochemical (ферментативных) the processes proceeding in milk, cheese weight, influences education of taste and aroma of cheese, his physical and chemical structure.
1. Brilevsky O.A.Tovarovedenie of articles of food.
2. V.A.Kniga's runners about cheese. "Food-processing industry" of 1974
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