Drug Testing Essay Research Paper Although many

Drug Testing Essay, Research Paper

Although many people think that drug testing is a nuscience, it is essentialto

improve the workplace. Seventy-four percent of all drug users are employed,and

one out of every six has a serious drug problem! Would you want them working

for you? Plus, the financial impact on business is severely staggering because

of drug using employees (Psychemedics, 1).

According to federal experts, ten to twenty-three percent of Americans

have used or currently using dangerous drugs while on the job, and forty-four

percent of drug users even admit to selling drugs on the job. Drug abusers cost


employer on average $7,000 to $10,000 per employee annually (Jussim, 14)

(Psychemedics,1). Today, millions of workplaces have begun giving test, hoping

to eliminate drugs from the employees and the workplace. The majority of drug

testing is done in large factories and offices or on people who transport goods


such as by truck or plane (Jussim, 11). The large companies that use testing


is Exxon, IBM, Federal Express, United Airlines, AT&T and the New York Times

(Jussim, 12). The tests usually look for drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, heroin,

PCP, barbiturates and amphetamines (Jussim, 11). In most companies applicants

applying for new jobs that test positive are given a second chance to apply


13). About sixty-eight percent of companies do mandatory screenings before they

hire a person, such as if they were a candidate for the job, rather than part

of their

application. A variety of test can be given. About eighty-two percent of

companies use urine test, the most popular because they are inexpensive. Twelve

percent use the blood test for an even more accurate reading. Hair testing is


by about one percent of companies. This method is one of the most accurate tests

because it can detect any drug used in the past ninety days (1994, 1), this

test is

used by about 1,700 corporations alone (Psychemedics, 5). Only about one

percent use performance testing, such as walking in a straight line or having


person touch his nose with his finger (1994, 1).

Employers claim that workers who use drugs have lower productivity rates

and an increased number of days missed, sixteen times more to be exact. As well,

they are at a greater risk of getting themselves injured or injuring a co-worker

(Jussim, 13). When this happens it is bad for the company because it may have


lawsuit filed against them, costing the company even more money (Jussim, 14).

Furthermore, lost productivity by drug users costs business an estimated

one-hundred billion dollars each year, because they are one-third less productive

that other workers (Hospitals,1) (Psychemedics, 1). Workers who use drugs also

make more medical claims than others (Jussim, 13). In fact, they cost their

employer 300 percent more in medical costs and benefits than non drug using

employees (Psychemedics, 1). Thus, they drive up the premiums of health

insurance paid for by the company (Jussim, 13). In addition, it is a proven

fact that

drug addicts are more likely to cheat their companies or even steal from them,

which eighteen percent admitted doing (Jussim, 14) (Psychemedics, 1).

The percentage of workplaces that give drug tests rose from about

eighty-five percent to eighty-eight percent in just one year alone. The number


tests given has risen 300 percent in a ten year period (1994, 1). Since companies

have started using tests they say that they have seen a major improvement in


quality, discipline and employee morale (Jussim, 15).

Secondly, drug testing promotes better health for all people. Increasing the

number of drug tests in the U.S. will give potential drug users a very good


not to start using them. Since drug tests are becoming cheaper and more common,

people are starting to invest in them more (Jussim,11). The tests that are currently

done today are include urinalysis and bloodanalyze, along with tests on hair,


brain waves, breathe, and some even keep it as simple as to walk a line (Jussim,

12). As the technology increases in this world so does the accuracy of the tools

we use. In the future, it can be assumed that the drug tests will diminish most



As soon as drug testing was introduced, the usage of drugs and the positive

test rate began falling steadily (1994, 1). The fear of being caught is a major

deterrent for not using drugs. People know that if they use drugs now, they

have a

lesser chance of getting a good, high paying job in the future. Not only is


testing being given to employees, but is also being given to students, prisoners


arrestees (Jussim, 13). This is probably a good idea because drug usage hinders

the progress of a students learning.

Now days people argue that drug testing is a violation of privacy, but those

people don?t know the true effects of drug use (Buddy, 1). The people who are

giving the tests are hoping that the person being tested is clean because they


him healthy so he is not at risk for himself or others (Jussim, 15). Furthermore,

they also claim the tests are not fair because they monitor the employees? off


activities, and they believe that is their own business (Jussim, 13). However,


long as a person is employed by a company, that has the right to keep checking


on a person to make sure he is not putting himself or others at risk. Plus,

it is

cheaper for the company to give the tests than to have workers that are high


drugs and not making much progress (Psychemedics, 5). In addition, there is


better example of caring for a person?s health than parents giving their children

these tests. Parents don?t want to have their children harm themselves in any


and they just want to do what is right and the best for them (Jussim, 13). Not

many parents give home drug tests, instead most of the testing goes on in clinics

and other treatment centers (Jussim, 11).

People still argue that drug testing is unfair because they say it is

inaccurate, it makes them prove they?re using drugs and a person should be

innocent until proven guilty (Buddy,1) (Jussim, 16). This doesn?t make sense

because if the test is actually inaccurate, the person can repeal it and take


test. As for the innocent until proven guilty theory, it is a persons choice

to take

the test, but if he refuses he might not have a job. It is the employer?s right


know if a person is currently capable of completing the tasks that are needed.


the person is not able to he is costing the company money and putting everyone



Lastly, drug testing must be done because it promotes a better society for

everyone. By using these tests, more people will think twice about using drugs.

They know that drug use may keep them from getting the job they dream of.

There is evedence that this is working, for it is known that the number of people

that use drugs is on a steady decline. By detouring people away from drug use


can make a safer, more perfect society.

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act

was passed by Congress in1996. This act authorizes states to impose mandatory

drug screening on all welfare recipients. Then in 1999 the Michigan state

legislature passed a bill that required welfare recipients to submit monthly


tests to see if they are using drugs. If they refuse to give the urine samples


benefits will be denied, and if they continue to refused to take the tests,


benefits will be terminated. Experts say that the incidents of drug use among

welfare recipients is about the same as the general public, but the state doesn?t

want the money they give them to go to the purchase of drugs. Today the only

state doing this is Michigan, but experts hope that the trend will catch on

in others


In Charleston, South Carolina, a hospital, in cooperation with the local

police department, requires that health care providers give positive drug test

results of pregnant woman to the police. While it is not unusual for laws to


health care providers to report evidence of child abuse, this concept is not


applied to pregnant women who abuse their fetuses by taking illegal street drugs.

This is a pretty good idea for the most part, but using this method might scare

woman who use drugs from going to the doctor or any health care providers. This

could possibly harm the child even more. This case is now in the Supreme Court

to see if it qualifies under the search and seizure or discrimination laws in


Constitution of the United States (Gould, 1).

Furthermore, Major League Baseball, the National Football League and

several other sport organizations, both professional and amateur, have teamed


to crack down on players that use illegal drugs. They are following the example

set by the Olympic Games. If a player tests positive for using drugs he is usually

suspended for a few games and given a fine, but in the Olympics athletes who


drugs are not allowed to compete and are a disgrace to the country (Jussim,