Facisc Essay, Research Paper
When the word ?fascism? is mentioned people usually associate the word with German Nazis?. There is more to fascism than just German Nazis.? Fascism is an interesting topic that should be further examined and explained so it is no longer simply associated with German Nazis?. This essay will explain what fascism is (definition), how fascism groups are run, the ideology of fascism, and some past examples of how fascist governments operated.
Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first arose in the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a response to the rapid social and political changes brought about by the devastation of World War I and the spread of socialism and communism. The name fascism originated in Italy. The term comes from the Italian word fascio, which referred to the names of radical new social and political organizations. ?Fascism is a philosophy or a system of government that advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership, together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism?(Baradat pg.850). In other words, fascism is a form government that emphasizes a nation or particular race to rule over all other nations or races, simply because they are different. The fascism ideology will even use violent means to accomplish their goals and maintain the loyalty toward the fascist group. ?Fascism approaches politics in two central areas, populist and elitist. Populist in that it seeks to activate ?the people? as a whole against noticed enemies and to create a nation of unity. An elitist approach because fascism works by putting the people?s will on one select group, or most often one supreme leader, from whom all power precedes downward.?(Lyons pg.10)
Fascism values human nature in a group for the benefit of the community. Fascism?s approach to politics is to organize a mass movement in a drive to seize state power. Fascism also uses this mass movement as a system of control using organized violence to stop opposition. When the power is in firm grip of the ruler, the government will be used to control the population and everything in it so the community will be benefited. The two most recognized names that go along with fascism are Italy?s Benito Mussolini and Germany?s Adolf Hitler, which will be explained, in further detail later in the paper.
Fascism?s ideal government would be built around the good of the community or nation. Everyone would work for the benefit of the nation and that is all. Regularly this would take place with the merging of the state and business leadership, with concern only of the nation. This nation would also take care of its members if need should arise. This could be money, shelter, food, or any other need that might come about.
The ideology of Fascism has been identified with totalitarianism, state terror, arranged violence, and blind obedience. Adolf Hitler established his own personal ideology of fascism while he was in prison and not yet in power. Mussolini fashioned his ideology after he took control of Italy. Despite their two different angles on the use of fascism, Hitler and Mussolini both worked similarly on how they would establish their principles in the same basic manner. Their principles came from basic responses to various issues that other leaders faced.
Fascism was first detected after World War I in Italy. After the war, the people of Italy were ready for a new political aspect. Benito Mussolini was the man who brought this fascist ideology to Italy. Mussolini has been looking for the perfect opportunity to take complete control of a country and now was the time to do so. ?In 1919 Mussolini and his followers, mostly war veterans, were organized along paramilitary lines and wore black shirts and uniforms.?(Halsall pg.2) After defeats at the polls Mussolini used his new financial backing to clothe a gang of thugs who would attack other street gangs supporting other ideologies that Mussolini disliked. Mussolini?s gang of thugs also, vandalized, terrorized, bullied, and on occasion took control of self-governing governments by force. Paralyzed by these violent occurrences, the government did little to combat Mussolini?s fascist parties. Mussolini furthered his popularity by supporting eight-hour days, elimination of class privileges and tax advantages.
Another popular, probably the most, fascist leader was Adolf Hitler. Adolf Hitler?s Nazi (Nation Socialist German Worker?s Party) party is the most recognized example of fascism. Nazism is the ideology and policies of Hitler and his party that lasted from 1921 to 1945. Nazism also stressed the superiority of the Aryan race, calling for the unification of all German speaking people into one single empire. Unlike fascism though, the state was second in importance, behind only racial purity for the nation. Hitler?s ideology didn?t become a factor until January of 1933, when he was named Chancellor of Germany. By the end of the year, Hitler had concentrated his power as a fascist dictator and began a campaign for a racially pure nation that eventually led to the holocaust. In order for Hitler to maintain his ability to control the German people he had to organize several militia groups. Hitler even wrote down important points of the Nazi party that had to be enforced in order for his fascist government to work properly.
Hitler, using modern technology, furthered his power. He used the microphone, radio, and newspaper to create an appearance that fascism was to be the new political power in the twentieth century. He accomplished this feat by use of the microphone, speaking to thousands at once in order to rally support for his cause. He used the power of the airwaves and print of the newspaper to setup a strong hatred of Jews, blacks, and the physical handicaps, calling them all imperfections of society and stating tat they must be destroyed. Hitler used the media in the sense that he and his leaders had to approve anything that was being published, allowing for selective material to be let about the party and other world events. Hitler had mastered the ideology of fascism.
Mussolini?s gang of thugs and Hitler?s Nazi?s are not the only right wing groups to have an influence in today?s society. There are numerous other groups who have their own agenda to deal with. Even though these groups have many differences, generally they all do agree on certain main issues. ?With the groups main concern on anti-government, some other issues are gun control, taxes, Constitutional liberties, and federal regulations. These militia groups believe that the government is tyrannical, and there is a secret elite conspiracy on controlling government, the economy, the culture, or all three.?(Payne, pg. 156)
One idea shared by all fascist movements is the lack of a consistent political standard behind the ideology. Each individual leader who was associated with a fascist movement would handle every situation a little differently with no sense of tradition or law. However, one very ordinary aspect of fascism is the unmerciful drive to achieve and maintain state power and supremacy. On that road to conquest, fascists are willing to abandon any principle and adopt an issue more in acceptance and more likely to gain them followers.
In conclusion, fascism has proved to be a burden on our history. Although not everyone is informed on exactly what fascism is, everyone should be aware of how fascist movements are started and how dangerous they can be. Hopefully after reading this paper, the reader will have gained a better knowledge of fascism and will know how to spot examples.