Nature Vs, Nurture Essay, Research Paper
Fungi is a group of single celled or multicellular organism which obtain their food by the absorption of nutrient from it s surrounding environment. Food is dissolved by the enzymes from which the fungi excrete and is later absorbed by the fungi s cell walls. Fungi plays an important part in the decaying and decomposition of organisms.
Fungi were once thought of plants and put in the plant kingdom. They were thought of as plants with no stems and leaves. The differences between the two were so great though that scientist crated a whole kingdom for fungi. Fungi are classified as having a eukaryotic cell type, which is they have no internal bound membrane structures .Fungi are usually multicellular and their cell wall is usually made up of chitin. Fungi s mode of nutrition is absorption and they have no nervous system and locomotion.
Most fungi is made up of delicate filamentous tubes called hyphae. In many species of fungus, performed walls, or septa, divide the hyphae into cells. Protoplasm flows through the opening in the septa to provide the cells with needed nutrients, which are then stored in the hyphal walls as glycogen. Hyphae elongates from the bottom tip of the fungi. The collection of hyphae is called mycelium.
Most fungus reproduce by spores, which is small particles of protoplasm enclosed in walls. The common mushroom may produce more than 12 million spores The spores are released through the air and then come down and grow.
The number of phylum in the kingdom fungi depends on the textbook. There are five main phylum Oomycota, Zymycota, Ascomycota, Basidomycota, and Deutermycota. Most fungi are related to the phylum of Ascomycota.
The phylum of Oomycota is made up of algae like fungi. They range from a single cell organism to a complex mass of hyphae that are not to be enclosed off by septa (nonseptate mycelium). Oomycota produces oospores and zoospores. Water olds, white rusts, and downy mildews. Most water molds live on dead animals, but Saprolegnis parasitica invades living fish. In some downy mildews, such as Phytophtora, the spore cases containing the zoospores may be modified to act as conida.
The phylum of Zymycota are usually characterized by the formation of zygospores and sporsngiosproes. One well known species of zygomycota is black bread mold, or Aspergllus niger.
Black bread mold begins as microscopic, airborne spores that
germinates on contact with moist surface of nonliving organic
matter. It spreads fast forming mycelium and then it begins its
absorption of nutrients. Other species are amoebas. This is a
protozoan occurring as a parasite and consisting of an indefinitely
shaped mass of protoplasm.
The phylum of Ascomycota, also called sac fungi, bear a
definite number of ascospores within a bladder like sac called an
ascus. One common form of Ascomycota is bread yeast. This
bread yeast is one of the key ingredient to bread making allowing
the bread to rise.
The phylum of Basidomycota comprises numerous and
varied types of fungi. The species puccinia graminia is a black stem of rust and wheat and other grains.
The last phylum is Deutermycota . They are made up of aspergillis, penicilin and verticillin.