World Civ Cheat Essay, Research Paper
S.Asin phiosophies to the West. Third World countries w/ collective widespread lasting poverty in Asia , Africa, South and Cent, Amer. Low life expect. High inf. mortality. Poor health. Underdeveloped, lack of resources create this as well as colonization and exploitation by imperial powers. Trench Warfare (WWI) a new dev’d method of fighting utilizing ditches dug on the western front=deadlock and killing thousands of soldiers for virtual stalemate. 3X Entente-France, Russ, GB (WWI). 3x Alliance- Germany,Austria-Hungary, Italy (WWI) United Nations founded 1945 in final phase of WWII to maintain int’l peace and security, and promote int’l coop’n forum for denunc’n colonial expansion and negotioation of eco. Gain sought by dev’pg countries following polit. Independence. colonial expansion and negotioation of eco. Gain sought by dev’pg countries following polit. Independence. Universal Declaration of Human Rights catalog of rights adopted by UN in 1948. Sum of int’l trading policies, civ. Rights, legal systems ; rights to life, liberty, security of personal freedom from arbitrary arrest, to social security, right to work, education. Versailles treaty- ncluded payment of reparations, admission of german responsiility for the war, loss of several territories in euro. As well as overseas colonies, demmilitar. Of German territory west of the Rhine& limitation of german armed forces to 1,000 troop. Signed in 1919 in Paris. The major pwrs involved were US, GB and France. WaBenzi (Kenya) dom. Class of “state bourgeosie” in Africa; dev’d as state spending generated thousands jobs and gov’t bureaucracies, such as people chauffered in Mercedes-Benz. Warsaw Pact nations including Sov. Union, Poland, E. Ger, Czech, Hung, Rom, Bulg, and Alb. Treaty est. mutual defense org in response to NATO; strengthened Soviet hold on satellite countries. Weimar Republic gov. in Germ. Following WWI unt’l Great Depression. New Gov. of lib’l dem politcians; faced animosity from German pop.. never est.d broad support (pre Third Reich) Yanan Way Yanan (cap;l of Communists’ new Gov. in the NW province of Shaanxi, China. Zaibatsu the large, private, family-run corporations controlling most of Japan’s indust. Capitalin 1919. They joined the bureaucratic and military elites to become Japan’s newest ruling class in place of the Samurai and Daimyo; dual economy; Japan subsidized modern industry at the expense of agr. And sml business. 2-tiered labor force w/in Zaib. Small, skilled male elite, and large force of harsly treated low-paid male and female workers. Zionism Balfour decl. was major vict. For Zionist Org. working since 1896 to cultivate Great Power support for migratin of Jews to Palestine. Supported est. state of Palestine, partitioned into Arab state and Jewish state. Civ. War on May 14, 1948, new state of Israel formed, recognized by US.
A.) Nationalism-powerful force-people identify themselves as a citizen of a country, not just of a local region or class. Began in 19th century; united citizens for gov’t’s goals. – belief developed in modern times that world is divided into culturally distinct groups, which deserve to be independent. – nation has special destiny which must be pursued. – gov’ts shape concept of nation that appeals to populus. Anti-colonial mvmt. Usually begins among literary elite-I.D. roots of nation in language, folk customs, heritage. European innovations fostered nationalism “vehicles of resistance” against Western domination: printing press provided increased dispersion of ideas, missionary schools produced people educated with European political ideas.
Positive: source of solidarity, cultural nationalism – pan-Arab, pan-African
undermine colonial rule-fight against common enemy
rights for oppressed groups (Indian nationalist mvmt. Involved fight for rights of Untouchables
Negative: colonial divisions in Africa tried to make nation out of diverse groups.
Ethnic nationalism – desire for smaller group to have independence-conflicts w/state nationalism
fueled Chinese revolution-humiliation of foreign control-nationalists think old gov’t should be destroyed to preserve nation-Communists
destroys traditional culture (Chinese-”Down w/ Confucius & Sons”, Africa- nations based on colonial territory)
India: independence from Britain w/nonviolence
Germany: racial terms-justify extermination of Jews, Slavs
Africa: end colonial rule- struggle to rule new, artificial states created as European colonies, not going back to traditional communities. Nationalism divides as well as unites- What people constitute a nation (All Africans, colonial territories, ethnic groups?) Difficulty in creating sense of loyalty to nation created from colonial territory. Bloody wars: Algeria, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese colonies)
Portugal: was repressive-won’t negotiate w/colonies. Economic instability in countries where nationalism led to dictatorial rule (ex. Communist China, most African nations)
China: traditional notion of Middle Kingdom/ ethnic superiority helped fuel 20th cen. nationalism. Indignation at colonial division-series of revolutions led way to Mao’s Communist China. Swept away foreign control & traditional culture.-antiforeign groups like Boxers escalated to widespread nationalist sentiment. 1911 revolution- internal collapse.
Middle East: creation of nation-states-mvmts broke Europe political hold, gave rise to strong states-modernization & economic development. 1960’s-many states(Egypt, Algeria) had gov’ts proclaiming allegiance to more radical transformation of society under “Arab socialism”. Oil producing states took advantage of political independence & raise price (revenge on West for economic exploitation). Palestine-Israeli competing nationalisms made Middle East focus of Cold War(overcome Arab divisions). Something special lost for Muslims: centrality of Islam in public life & ethnolinguistic loyalty rather than religion as primary basis of political I.D. State-led programs for modernization were secularizing and Westernizing-Shariah courts, Western legal systems, religious leaders & institutions brought under state control- religious faith relegated to personal domain or margins of public life. Nationalist regimes inadequate to deal w/poverty, population growth. No solution or ability to provide political stability
B.) Results of WWI :
Very few nations won. The U.S. profited economically, but all European nations suffered from incredible death tolls. Over 10 million people died in the war. The Allies, though they technically won, were thrown into grave debt after the war. Even those nations who are recognized as victors in WWI suffered from sever loss of human lives and financial resources.
Advances in military technology only increased the gravity and tragedy of WWI. Trench warfare, the invention of tanks, submarines, chemical warfare, machine guns and other utensils of death made warfare all the less profitable. Such technology not only made the war bloodier, but also prolonged it, as the armies of both sides were reluctant to make advances against the nearly impenetrable defenses of the opposition.
European nations found themselves hard pressed to reconcile their differences after this crisis. Resentment lingered among many of the countries, and the treaties drawn were only sketchy. This animosity was in part a product of the unfortunately high body count of civilians during the war. Civilian attacks bred visceral hatred in members of European nations at all levels.
WWI was a “total war”. That is to say that every nation involved was completely committed to fighting it. The stakes in this large-scale clash were higher than ever, and citizens of all countries found themselves drawn into the war in some way or another.
The aftershocks of this catastrophic battle manifested themselves in the form of civil wars in smaller countries – especially Slavic and Balkan nations. The Arab revolt also followed close on the heels of WWI.
Citizens of European nations had also been promised a profit of another sort – political progress. This promise was left unkept after the war, as few nations progressed towards more just or democratic societies.
The bottom line of WWI is that it provided nations with the first signals of the unprofitability of war. Nations lost more than ever, and were able to gain very little because of stalemates brought about by advances in arms and defense technology.
**Hitler’s exercise of large-scale genocide and military conquest makes it quite apparent that at least several nations did not learn enough from WWI. Germany was left in dire economic and political situation after the first world war, but Hitler’s charisma at the helm of the Nazi movement led many people in Germany to believe that war might still pay. Germany had only narrowly lost WWI, and many of its members were convinced that the nation’s inability to profit from the global catastrophe had only been a fluke.
The emergence of the Cold War directly reflected the realization of the unprofitability of war and its disastrous consequence. **Though the animosity between Communist Russia and the U.S.’s democratic regime was intense, both nations realized that war was uncalled for and far too risky. What lessons WWI failed to teach Western nations WWII adequately made apparent. The Cuban missile crisis was one of the most terrifying climaxes of the Cold War; but even in such an obvious clash, Kruschev bowed his head, at the risk of losing face, to prevent war.
Countries with less military development, on the other hand, still participate in arms races and continue to squabble. Those nations who have not arrived at military endgames continue to hunger for technology and continue to battle back and forth amongst one another. The stakes for these countries remain relatively low, and the ends still seem to justify the means. Examples : Palestine and Israel, civil wars within African nations, Iraq and Kuwait, etc.
D.) Nations are converging. Through international commerce, wars, telecommunications and media, nations around the world are beginning to look and act alike. Commerce brings products and ideas across international borders. Trade exchanges cultures as well as goods. Imports and Exports connect nations to each other through vital supply links and foreign market demand. Wars and foreign occupations mix the culture and practices of the victors with that of the losers. The world is growing more interdependent due to travel and trade.
-Japan: Commerce has westernized urban centers, Jap. Products sold domestically and abroad. WWII brought Japanese culture in contact with America and opened up America as a dominant market for Japanese manufactured goods. Media exchange; Martial arts and Anime have made a profound impact on western culture and entertainment.
-Europe: Aftermath of WWII established the US as a main provider of culture and protection for western Europe. The Eur.Union. has equalized many differences between European currencies and police jurisdiction, and European markets have spread to N. and S. America and Asia.
-Africa: Westernized cities with high-rise apartments now replace the tribal villages of decades past. Foreign investment and technological advances have brought many parts of Africa up to speed with the rest of the world. Global markets and the arts have increased awareness of all things African and pan-Africanism is on the rise again.
-India: colonization by British has introduced India to western products and consumer goods. Development and manufacturing have increased India’s importance to the world market and have increased its similarity to other industrialized nations.
-Middle East: Oil exports have brought large amounts of money into the Middle East, and the shared religion of Islam has linked the different nations of the M.E. together.
Nations are distinct though many nations share the same products, facilities and movies, most nations have separate or distinct languages and customs. Differences in religion also play a large part in separating otherwise closely related countries and peoples. Finally, race and ethnicity have played a large part in helping nations retain their own identities. People tend to group together with others like them and feel a unity of spirit and nationalism which is distinct and not likely to disappear in the near future.
-Japan: unique language and customs separate it from others
-Europe is rich in distinct culture. Languages and identities separate countries in Europe.
-Africa: is made up of diverse cultures and groups (Igbo and Bantu) which are very different.
-India: differences in religions (Islam and Hindu) have resulted in massive bloodshed, and the Hindu caste system is very different from what exists elsewhere.
-China: Communist politics and different language keep it separate and distinct.
-Middle East: Religious differences between Arabs and Hebrews and lack of industrialization E. Revolution can be defined as a rapid, basic transformation that permeates society. Naturally, the scale of such a change must be large enough to alter the fabric of a culture, and must come in a quick spurt, rather than a gradual shift.
E.) Revolution can be defined as a rapid, basic transformation that permeates society. The scale of such a change must be large enough to alter the fabric of a culture, and must come in a quick spurt rather than a gradual shift.
First case: Africa
Transition from colonial rule to a multitude of independent nations, some of which were capitalist, some of which were socialist.
Many nations reverted to more traditional styles of life. However, no organized political systems had been present in some original traditional African societies. While social hierarchies had been in place in a number of tribes, nations and empires, many governments had to be built using only the blueprints of existing political systems elsewhere.
Colonial powers were left with no say in government. Such a transfer of power from colonial nations to traditional African systems must be considered revolutionary. The transition was most pronounced in Portuguese colonies, which had been infamously repressive and restrictive prior to African independence. English and French colonies did not experience as dramatic of changes, as they both sponsored the practice of traditional customs in their colonies and helped foster nationalism among their African satellites. Nevertheless, all scenarios are the product of a rapid political change at not only a national, but a continental level. The political contexts of all African nations were altered after the African independence movement.
Second case: Russia
Russia was subjected to imperialistic pressure from Western nations. and suffered military defeats at the hands of the Japanese and various European nations. The revolt came on the heels of WWI, when the Russian masses realized that the tsarist regime was insensitive to their needs. The Russian public had been vocally opposed to the nation’s entry into WWI, and the government’s participation in it resulted in major loss of peasant lives. When the Russian state collapsed in 1917, the Bolsheviks ushered in a Marxist ideology unlike anything both Russia and the entire globe had seen. These communist ideas coincided with a peasant revolution which aided in redistribution of land. Such rebellions were normal in the autonomous feudal states of Russia, though the last one proved more permanent. The revolution was a violent social upheaval which occurred at most levels of Russian society except the highest. It can be considered a genuine social revolution, as it brought about rapid change in the entire social fabric, and was the product of movements of all parts of society. Russian’s economic tendencies underwent revolution as well, as the nation shifted from an agricultural focus to an industrial one.
Third case: China
Very similar to Russia.. Victim of imperialistic pressure, beaten by Japanese and European militaries. Q’ing dynasty collapsed in 1911, and the ensuing rebellions were led by a handful of educated strategists (like Mao), though revolutionary focus consisted mainly of peasant participants. Like Russia’s revolt, China’s occurred from the bottom-up. The rebellion was bloody. It overthrew the traditional dynastic cycle and created a powerful and centralized republic. In many places, there was a shift from agricultural development and agrarian practices to industrial production. Aside from a change in the political and economic fabrics of China, the revolution defied traditional Confucian beliefs and practices long subscribed to by China’s citizens. While Mao’s installment of a communist regime took many years, the upheaval of the dynastic cycle was brief, and change came rapidly. The transitions definitely occurred on a large-scale and national level.
Fourth case: India
Separated Muslims and Hindus, though they were essentially separated to begin with. This revolution only further pronounced the boundaries between the two.
Not really a revolution, because the movement served simply to restore traditional ways of life. Resistance was passive not bloody, change was gradual not rapid. Wanted to return to traditional economic foundations, like cloth production. The English government reluctantly aided India in preparation for its independence. The Government of India Act passed in 1935 and the first elections were held in 1937. Britain decided to abandon India entirely after WWII.