Contraception Essay Research Paper Robert Stonum

Contraception Essay, Research Paper

Robert Stonum

Eng. Writing 101

M W 1 – 2:15


Almost 3,500 years ago, men in Egypt wore condom-like sheaths as attractive and

eye-catching penis covers. By the 18th century, condoms were being made from sheep

intestines. In Victorian England, sexual stimulation was believed to shorten one’s life, so

sex once a month was considered more than enough. In the ancient Middle East, Arabs

placed pebbles in the uteruses of female camels when they set off on long journeys. They

thought that a foreign object in the uterus prevented pregnancy. In today’s society, there

are many types of contraceptives designed to fit our changing lifestyles. Eighty-five

percent of women who don’t use contraceptives during vaginal intercourse become

pregnant each year. The only guarantee against pregnancy is not having intercourse, but if

used correctly the modern methods of contraception can reduce the risk of pregnancy.

Except for abstinence, the male condom, which is made of a tight material that

covers the entire penis, is the safest way to prevent AIDS and STDs. They are also nearly

one-hundred percent effective in preventing pregnancy when used properly and with

spermicide. The failure rate of a condom, when used correctly and by itself, is about two

percent. More often they fail around twelve percent of the time. There are a few different

types of materials that condoms are made of . The most popular are made of latex.

Polyurethane or animal skin are also used. The latex condom is the strongest of the three.

The many kinds of condoms on the market are lubricated, non-lubricated, ribbed, and

lubricated with spermicide. They also come in a wide variety of sizes. All of these can be

purchased at local drug stores, gas stations, grocery stores, health clinics, and many

doctors’ offices.

A more recent type of birth control is the female condom, which is sold in the

United States under the name Reality. It is a polyurethane tube that looks a bit like a big

male condom. One end goes inside the vagina, covering the cervix, and the other rests

outside, which creates a little plastic tunnel. The cost is about three times of a male

condom and some people find it creepy looking. This condom is a good method for those

women whose partners refuse to wear a condom or have trouble sustaining an erection

when they use a condom. It is also good for the females who are sensitive to latex. This

is the only other birth control method besides the male condom that offers STD and HIV

protection. The failure rate is about twenty-six percent, but some test show that it is more

reliable if used consistently and correctly.

The pill is also another commonly used form of birth control. It is a tiny little pill

that should be taken at the same time everyday. If used in the proper manor, they are

almost one-hundred percent effective, but they don’t offer any protection against HIV and

STDs. If the user sometimes forgets to take them, take them at different times everyday

or use antibiotics while on the pill, then they are about ninety percent effective. Some

women experience side effects, such as, painful breasts, weight gain, nausea, headaches,

and depression, while others experience no side effects. There are different varieties of the

Pill so a switch can be made if the user is having problems. One good note for women

with painful periods is that the Pill often makes their time of the month almost cramp-free

and shorter. The Pill may protect against ovarian cancer, but nobody knows the effects of

using daily hormones for a long time. The Pill has also been linked to heart attacks,

strokes, breast cancer, and cervical cancer. The Pill is a little more expensive than either

of the condoms which will cost approximately $200 a year, plus the clinic visit, but all of

this may be covered by insurance or Medicaid.

Another form of contraception is Norplant, which consists of six match-size

capsules that are implanted in the upper arm. Over five years, they slowly release

synthetic progestin. Only about four percent of the woman who use Norplant for the

complete five years get pregnant. The teenagers who use Norplant are less likely to get

pregnant than the ones who use the Pill simply because they forget to take it. Smokers

should avoid using Norplant because it increases the risk of cardiovascular problems. Like

the Pill, it has also been linked the breast cancer About seventy-five percent of the women

who use Norplant have irregular menstration for the first year, and some have serious

spotting in between menstration cycles. This method does not offer STD or HIV

protection. Noplant may be less effective for women who way more than 154 pounds.

The cost ranges from about $345 to $370 for a five year period.

Depo-Provera is another treatment for birth control. This an injection of synthetic

progestin, which seeps into the bloodstream gradually over the next three months. It is

ninety-nine percent effective and research show that it causes fewer health problems than

the Pill. Some women have menstrual irregularities and weight gain, and it may also

increase the risk of breast cancer in younger women. This method does not offer

prevention against STDs and HIV. The cost is normally around $120 a year.

The diaphragm, one of the oldest forms of birth control, is a disk shaped shallow

cup that is filled with spermicidal cream or jelly and is inserted into the vaginal cavity prior

to having sex. It is about ninety-four percent effective if used consistently and correctly.

There are almost no side effects or dangers and it offers some protection against the

gonorrhea and trichomoniasis. It costs around $20 plus the clinic costs.

Finally, Spermicides are great to use with a condom but they are not as safe when

they are used alone. They increase your protection against gonorrhea and chlamydia.

Spermicidal foams and suppositories seem to work better than creams or jellies, which are

usually designed to be used with a diaphragm. When used alone the effectiveness ranges

from 3 to 21 pregnancies per 100 users.

In conclusion, there are many different types of birth control methods in today’s

society. Not all of them are made for every individual out there. It all depends on the

risks and side effects that you want to take. Some are more reliable and healthy while

others are unpredictable and strenuous on the body. The costs can range from 75 cents a

day to $200 a year. Nothing is 100 percent effective against pregnancy, STDs, and HIV,

except for abstinence.


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