Australia is lying south-east of Asia, between the Pacific and Indian oceans. It is the world's smallest continent which is almost completely surrounded by ocean expanses. Its total area is 7,682,300 sq.km. The continent of Australia is divided into four general topographic regions: a low, sandy eastern coastal plain, the eastern highlands, the central plain, and the western plateau. Although Australia has a wide diversity of climatic conditions, the climate of Australia is generally warm and dry, with no extreme cold and little frost. It changes from comfortably mild in the south to hot in the central inferior and north. The total population in 1986 was about 16 mln people with the average population density of about 2 persons per sq.km. Most Australians are of British or Irish ancestry. More than 99% of the population speaks English. The capital of Australia is Canberra. Australia has a federal parliamentary government. The Australian federation was formed on January 1, 1901, from six former British colonies, which thereupon became states. The Australian constitution combines the traditions of British parliamentary monarchy with important elements of the US federal system. Powers of the federal government are enumerated and limited. The government consists of the British sovereign and the Australian Parliament. Australia is the world's largest wool producer and one of the world's largest wheat exporters. The main sources of foreign earnings are wool, food and minerals which also provide raw materials for home processing industry.
New Zealand is situated in the southwest Pacific Ocean on two large islands: the North Island and the South Island. Its total area is 268,112 sq.km. Less than 1/4 of the territory of the country lies below the 200 m contour line. The South Island is significantly more mountainous than the North Island. New Zealand has a temperate,moist ocean climate without marked seasonal variations in temperature or rainfall. The total population in 1986 was about 3.3 mln people with the average population density of about 12 persons per sq.km. About 85 % of the population is classified as Europeans. Most of them are of British descend. English is the universal language. The capital of New Zealand is Wellington. Like the United Kingdom New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy. Officially the head of the state is the British Queen (or the King) whose representative, the governor-general, is appointed for a five-year term. The government of New Zealand is democratic and modeled on that of the United Kingdom. The economy of New Zealand has traditionally been based on pastoral farming. The last decades seen a large expansion in the light industries. New Zealand draws many thousands of tourists to its shores because of the beauty, diversity, and compactness of its natural attractions.
Canada consists of almost all of the North American continent north of the US except Alaska. Its total land area of more than 9 mln sq. km makes it the second largest country in the world. Canada's topography is dominated by the Canadian Shield, an ice-scoured area covering half the country. Most of northern Canada has subarctic or arctic climates, with long cold winters lasting 8 to 11 month, short sunny summers, and little precipitation. In contrast, the populated south has a variety of climatological landscapes. The total population according to the census 1981 was about 24 mln people with the average population density of 2.8 per sq. km. English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all governmental institutions. Canada is a federation of 10_provinces and 2 northern territo ries. The federal Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leader of the party that wins the largest number of seats in a newly elected House of Commons is asked to form the government. The civil law follows English common law everywhere except in Quebec, where it follows the Napoleonic Code. Canada is a world leader in the production of asbestos, nickel and different other elements, forestry products, and ranks first in the world in export of minerals. Although no longer the foremost sector of the economy, agriculture is of major importance to the economy as a whole and still is basic in many areas. Canada is among the world's leading wheat producers and is second in the export of wheat. Basically, Canada has a free-enterprise economy. A recurrent problem for Canada has been the dominant position of US corporations and investors.
All traditions, customs, habits are connected with the development of history and culture of the country. There are certain traditional holidays, festivals, anniversaries and ceremonies which have become existed over centuries in the country. There are 5 public in Great Britain such as: Christmas Day, Boxing Day, Good Friday, Easter, Bank Holidays. People need not go to work on these days. They are movable (except Christmas and Boxing Day), that is they do not fall on the same day each year. -Christmas Everything is rush and bustle. There is a great air of expectation. The British decorate trees with tinsel, various baubles and colored lights. They decorate their houses with holly and mistletoes. Christmas cards are arranged everywhere. In small towns and villages people sing carols. They expect a few pennies or coppers from their musical efforts which are then donated to destitute old people. Boxing Day People visit friends, go for a long walk or just sit around recovering from too much food after Christmas dinner. Everything to eat is cold. In the country there is fox-hunting. Easter It is the time when certain old traditions are observed. It is the time for giving and receiving presents traditionally in the form of:an Easter egg;hot cross buns;fluffy little chicks;baby rabbits; spring - time flowers to signify nature's reawakening. It is celebrated as the start of spring or a religious festival. Bank Holidays 4 times a year the banks are closed on Monday apart from traditional week - ends. The townsfolk usually flock into the country and to the coast. Bank Holiday is also an occasion for big sport meetings, mainly all kinds of athletics. There are also horse race meetings all over the country and most traditional of all these are large fairs. There fairs are pitched on open spaces of common land, and the most famous of them is the huge one on Hampstead Health. There is also much boating activity on the Thames.
The United States of America
After its 200th birthday the United States of America still holds the leading position in the western world. A country that inspired many appellations — "Land of Opportunity," "Melting Pot," "God's Country," is still referred to us as a land of superlatives — "the richest," "the greatest," "the most." What makes the USA the leader of the western world is its economic, political and military dominance over other countries. The United States lies in the central part of the North American Continent between the two oceans: the Atlantic Ocean to the East and the Pacific Ocean to the West. Friendly Canada to the north and friendly Mexico to the south are the only countries bordering it. The USA consists of three separate parts. They are the Hawaiian Islands, situated in the central part of the Pacific Ocean, Alaska separated by the Canadian territory and the rest major part of the USA. The states differ very much in size, population and economic development.. There are many big cities and towns in the USA: New York, San Francisco, Washington, Chicago, Los Angeles are the biggest of them. The United States of America is a parliamentary republic. The government divided into three branches: legislative (the US Congress), executive President and his Administration) and judicial (the US Supreme Court). There are two main political parties in the USA: the Democratic (symbolized by a "donkey") and the Republican (its symbol is an "elephant"). The US President is both head of state and government. He is „ elected for a four-year term. Presidential elections are held every leap' year on first Tuesday after first Monday in November. The Congress of the United State is composed of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives".' The Senate represents the states and the House represents the population according to its distribution among the states: All states have, electoral requirements of the same nature. First of all they are residence requirements. Each of the fifty states of the USA has a constitution patterned after the federal Constitution, with its divisions of power: legislative, executive, and judicial.
When we think of Paris, Rome, Madrid, Lisbon and other European capitals, we think of them as "cities'. When we think of the whole of modern London, the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, that great area covering several hundred square kilometers, we do not think of it as 'a city, not even as a city and its suburbs. Modem London is not one city that has steadily become larger through the centuries; it is a number of cities, towns, and villages that have, during the past centuries, grown together to make one vast urban area. London is situated upon both banks of the River Thames; it is the largest city in Britain and one of the largest in the world. Its population is about 7 million people. London dominates the life of Britain. It is the chief port of the country and the most important commercial, manufacturing and cultural centre. There is little heavy industry in London, but there is a wide range of light industry in Greater London. London consists of three parts: the City of London, the West End and the East End. The City extends over an area of about 2.6 square kilometers in the heart of London. About half a million people work in the City but only less than 6000 live here. It is the financial centre of the UK with many banks, offices and Stock Exchange. But the City is also a market for goods of almost every kind, from all parts of the world. The name "West End" came to be associated with wealth, luxury, and goods of high quality. It is the area of the largest department stores, cinemas and hotels. There are about 40 theatres, several concert halls, many museums including the British Museum, and the best art galleries. It is in the West End where the University of London is centered with Bloomsbury as London's student quarter. The West End can be called the centre of Tendon. Here are the historical palaces as well as the famous parks. Hyde Park with its Speaker's Comer is also here. Among other parks are Kensington Gardens, St. James's Park. In the West End is Buckingham Palace. Which are the Queen's residence, and the Palace of Westminster which is the seat of Parliament. The best-known streets here are Whitehall with important Government offices. Downing Street, the London residence of Prime Minister and the place where the Cabinet meets. Fleet Street where most newspapers have their offices, Harley Street where the highest paid doctors live, and some others. Trafalgar Square is named so in commemoration of Nelson's great victory. In tire middle stands the famous Nelson Column with the statue of Nelson 170 feet high so as to; allow йт a view of the sea. The column stands in the geographical centre of the city. It is one of the best open air platforms for public meetings and demonstrations. One of the "musts" for the sightseer is the Houses of Parliament, facing the Thames, on one side, and Parliament Square and Westminster Abbey, on the other. The House of Commons sits to the side of the Clock Tower (Big Ben), the House of Lords - to the Victoria Tower side. The Port of London is to the east of the City. Today are kilometers and kilometers of docks, and the great industrial areas that defend upon shipping. This is the East End of London, unattractive in appearance, but very important to the country's commerce.