How To Preform Cpr Essay, Research Paper
How to Administer Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation
Knowledge of how to perform cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is very pertinent. Seventy- five percent of all cardiac arrests occur in the home, CPR doubles a person s chance of survival from one of these arrests. In the instance of a cardiac arrest, the heart goes from a normal, steady heartbeat to an unsteady rhythm; the uneasy rhythm is called ventricular fibrillation (VF). VF occurs in two thirds of all cardiac arrests. VF can also be fatal unless defibrillation (an electric shock) is given. CPR does not cease fibrillation but it does provide a window of time for defibrillation to be effective. CPR also provides a small amount of oxygenated blood to the brain and heart and keeps these organs alive until defibrillation can shock the heartbeat back to a normal pace. If CPR is started within four minutes of collapse and defibrillation is provided within ten minutes a person has a 40% chance of survival.
There are special guidelines for performing CPR on different age groups, because of the size of the rib cage and fragility of the bones. To perform CPR on an adult, the first thing to do is to check for responsiveness in the victim, if there is no response, phone 911 and return to the victim. The second step is to tilt the victim s head back and listen for breathing. If the victim is not breathing normally cover their mouth with yours and blow until the chest rises. Give two breaths, each should take two seconds. The third step is to push down on the chest, with two hands on top of each other one and a half to two inches 15 times right between the nipples. Pump at the rate of 100 pumps per minute, faster than once per second. Continue with two breaths and 15 pumps until help arrives.
To perform CPR on children, ages one to eight the steps are very similar to those of the adult procedure. If you are alone with the child victim give one minute of CPR before calling 911. Instead of using two hands use the heel of one hand for chest compressions. Also the sternum should be pressed down only one to one and a half inches, not one and a half to two. Instead of two breaths, only one should be given along with only five compressions. Infant CPR for children under age one includes a few other procedures. The first step is to shout and gently tap the infant on the shoulder, if there is no response position the infant on his or her back. The next step is to open the airway; this can be done by tilting the head back by the chin (make sure the head is not tilted too far back). If the baby is not breathing, give two small gentle breaths. While giving the breaths make sure your mouth is over the baby s mouth and nose, each breath should be 1.5 to 2 seconds long. You should be able to see the baby s chest rise with each breath. After administering the two breaths, give five gentle chest compressions at the rate of 100 per minute. To do this position your third and fourth fingers in the center of the chest half an inch below the nipples. Be sure to press down only one half to one inch. Repeat with one breath and five compressions, after one minute of repeated cycles call 911. If you feel a pulse, discontinue compressions and give only one breath every three seconds.
It is very important that the guidelines for child and infant CPR are followed. If CPR is not done properly the victim could be injured very badly. Especially on infants, their small and fragile rib cages could be easily broken. It is also important when giving CPR to an adult that the septum not be pushed very hard. This small bone can be easily broken. Everyone should learn CPR because it could save a life.