Sphinx Essay, Research Paper
During this great age of information and transportation, in a world moving so fast that our reflections are nothing save a blur on the cosmic mirror, who has the time logically dispute the dating of ancient monument. Egyptologists have done the research and concluded that the monuments located in the Giza plateau can be attributed to the fourth dynasty (2900-2750 BC). Why should we waste our limited time reinvestigating what appears to be a closed case?
Egyptologists have conclude that the structures located at the Giza plateau can be attributed to forth dynasty pharaohs Khufu (large pyramid), Menkaure (small pyramid), and latter Khafre (sphinx and medium pyramid.) The stone quarried to build these edifices were brought from as far away as Tura (casing stones) which is located five miles east, Aswan (granite), and the majority of the stone used was from the plateau itself. Egyptologists say that a majority of the stone taken from the plateau for Khufu s pyramid originated around the current site of the Sphinx. The pyramids entombed their respective pharaohs bodies, yet the sphinx and its adjacent buildings have no apparent purpose. These monuments have changed in appearance since construction, the pyramids having lost their highly polished casing s (pilfered by Arabs after 13th century earthquake), and both the pyramids and sphinx have sustained substantial weather damage. The weather erosion however is not consistent in all structures; the pyramids have horizontal weathering as a result of prolonged exposure to strong winds and sandstorms, while the sphinx and its adjacent structures have both horizontal and vertical damage. What could cause both horizontal and vertical weathering? Egyptologists attribute the odd weathering to surface groundwater movement, chemical weathering, and exfoliation.
The Giza plateau has a southeasterly contour, with the Sphinx occupying a position at the low lying, easterly edge of the plateau. A number of Egyptologists suggest that Sphinx was carved from a block left over from the quarrying undertaken by Khufu, hence the south-easterly dip in terrain. Topographical research has proven this claim false, presenting evidence that the topography of the Giza plateau was a result of natural process. The Giza area was inundated by a surge of the Mediterranean Sea during the Pliocene era (2 to 7 million years ago), resulting in the plateau and the north and eastward facing cliffs that surround it. Although arid conditions have dominated most of the dynastic period of Egyptian history, wetter periods are known to have existed, with current arid conditions not fully established until the end of the fifth dynasty. During the transition period however, arid conditions were interrupted by seasonal rain. Given the little vegetation or sub-soil cover, sporadic heavy rainfall would quickly saturate the plateau, seeing how under the sand is rock. The water would flow down the sloping topography east and hit the Sphinx on the western side causing erosion. Although both western and eastern exposures of the Sphinx are the same age, erosion on the west is significantly more sever. As both archaeological and climate indicate, Giza was subject to rain and rain run-off during the forth and part of the fifth dynasty. So this fact alone does not, in itself, require a revision of the Sphinx s birthday.
Located to the west (uphill) of the Sphinx an archaeological excavation revealed a 480-foot long (twice as long as Sphinx) quarry filled by windblown sand. Upon total excavation, quarry inscriptions were found attributing it to Khufu. This large hole consisted of highly permeable unconsolidated sand that would have surely intercepted all the run-off water from its west, that would have previously raced towards the Sphinx. This, however, lies in contradiction to the Sphinx s severe water erosion on the western side. I feel this means that the construction of the Sphinx pre-dates Khufu s quarrying, and subsequent pyramid.
I do, however, feel that the fourth dynasty played a partial hand in the present appearance of the Sphinx. Khufu s successor Djedfe, was the first Pharaoh to incorporate the name Re into royal title. Djedfe taught that pharaohs were living examples of gods, particularly Re , the sun god. This teaching is maintained throughout all of the following dynasties. Certainly by the time Khafre, the dogma of the Pharaoh as the earthly manifestation of the sun god had developed further. To fortify his correlation with Re , he commissioned masons and sculptors transform the lion head to that of his own likeness. This theory has given the credit of the Sphinx to Khafre, and certainly explains why the head is proportionally much smaller in relation to the body and significantly more preserved. Egyptologist refute that the head was re-carved by Khafre, but concede that the head was re-sculpted at some point in its existence to resemble a Pharaoh. One such Egyptologist is Ahmed Fayed who believes that the well-known Tutankhamen ordered the facelift.
If the builders where not ancient Egyptians, than who built it, and what was its purpose. A universal tongue that transcends all cultural and linguistics boundaries is the stars, or astronomy and astrology. The procession of the equinox tells us that the cosmos, in relation to us, constantly changes in a grand cycle of 26,000 years. Why did these mysterious builders carve a lion in the terrain facing east? Astrologers have noted that the age of Leo began at 10,500 BC, and astronomers have calculated that a coincidental celestial event would also happen that year. At dawn before sunrise on the day of the spring (vernal) equinox, the age of Leo would be ushered in by the celestial lion resting due east just above the horizon, in perfect alignment with the Sphinx. Egyptologist confronted with these facts brush them off as coincidental and irrelevant, seeing as they believe the Sphinx was constructed in the Fourth dynasty.
Pharaohs who build monuments expected and received praise for their creations. To preserve their reign and remind people of the future just how power-full and omnipotent they were they adorned practically every inch of their creations with hieroglyphics. These hieroglyphics are found throughout all of the dynasties and on the hundreds of pyramids and structures found in Egypt, except for one. Throughout the Sphinx and its adjacent temples not a single in inscription, carving, or any other hieroglyphics identified Khafre, our anyone else for that matter as the creator. Egyptologist’s, admittedly have no explanation for this phenomena.
I feel that the field of Egyptology has a fatal flaw. When confronted with evidence that does not neatly fit into their pre-conceived conceptions or dogmas of history, they attempt to de-bunk it. The alternative to dismissing evidence, is the collapse of a majority of theories that they, and countless others before them, have regarded as sacred truth. I feel that this practice slaughters the virtue of objectivity in the name of heritage and dogma. To accept the evidence above would in fact reposition this major monument away from the Egyptian people and bestow it upon a mysterious and ancient culture. Egyptologist claim there is no evidence of this ancient culture ; to them I present exhibit 1, the Sphinx.