The theme ofcourse work is “Development ofthe technological process ofdry smoked sausage.” In thecourseworktechnology ofdry sausage,patentandanalyticalreviews are presented. The necessary raw materialsforproduction of this typeof sausage,as well as theproduction line are described. Theformula andcalculatedmaterial balance are shown. The Corse work carried outat 40pages, includes10table, 2charts and5 figures.
2.1 Characteristics ofsausages
2.2Characteristicsof raw and auxiliarymaterials
2.3Methods ofproduction ofsausage
3. Technologyof productionof drysausageenzymatic
3.1 Technological chart of dry fermented sausage.
3.2 Technological line for crude smoked sausage production
3.3 Technology introductions of protein of software 500Е
3.4 Grocery calculation dry enzymatic sausages
5Packaging,labeling, storage and transportation ofmeatproducts
Conclusion.. Appendix A
In coursework reference on follow documents are used:
GOST 9958-81 Meats and meat products. Methods of bacteriological analysis
GOST 9957-73 Sausage and pork products, lamb and beef. Methods for determination of sodium chloride
GOST 9792-73 Sausage and pork products, mutton, beef and other kinds of slaughtered animals and birds. Acceptance rules and sampling methods
GOST 16290-86 sausages cooked and smoked. Specifications
GOST 53587-2009 Cooked sausage made of horse meat.
GOST 16131-86 crude smoked sausages. Specifications
GOST 12600-67 smoked sausages supplied for export.
GOST 16351-86 smoked sausages.
GOST 53591-2009 smoked sausages made of horse meat.
GOST 23231-90 sausages and cooked meat products. Method of determining the residual activity of acid phosphatase
GOST 23670-79 Cooked sausage, hot dogs and sausages, meat loaves.
GOST 52479-2005 Sausages cooked meat for baby food. General specifications
GOST 52196-2003 Sausages cooked. Specifications
GOST 23231-90 sausages and cooked meat products. Method of determining the residual activity of acid phosphatase
GOST 16351-86 smoked sausages
GOST 12297-66 Canned meat. Sausage Stuffing amateur.
In this work reductions were used
Etc – et cetera
Fig - figure
Min - minute
Mm - millimeter
m / sec – meter in second
cm - centimeterC – Degrees Celsius
Kg - kilogram
% - percent
G – gram
In this cores work follow terms are given:
Chilled meat is subjected to special thermal treatment in the cooling chamber, is a good raw material for production of sausage.
Sausage product from the sausage meat in the shell, cooked until ready to use.
Frozen meat - meat is subjected to freezing and thawing requires, is ice cream.
Smoked sausages - are the products in the shells, made of minced meat, bacon, salt, spices, and subjected to the draft, smoked and dried.
Cognac - the alcoholic beverage with a special flavor and taste, made from ethyl alcohol, long-aged in oak barrels, and sugar syrup.
Draught sausage - sausage sticks to extract heat treatment in limbo for a fixed time for the seal meat maturation and drying of the shell.
Drying of sausages - removal of moisture from the sausage at certain parameters of air to give them strength during storage.
Minced meat - meat, shredded on top with a hole diameter of the lattices 2-5mm.
Meat is multicomponent type of raw material is represented combination of muscle, fat, connective and bone tissue (or without its).
Clearing of carcasses. Sanitary- veterinary brand, blood coagulum, blood stains and diaphragm are cut from carcasses and half-carcasses.Pollutionsare removed by humidifying cloth. Hair is burned by blowlamp.
Butchering. Carcasses and half-carcasses are divided on anatomic parts: shoulder, hock, thorax, coupling part and neck. Butchering is carried out on pendant ways, hangers or tables. Fat is removed at pork.
Chiselling is separation meat from bones.
Trimming. At trimming of beef and muttonby knife tendons, cartilage, large blood vessels, nerve plexuses, connective-fiber mat, subcutaneous fat and large accumulations of intramuscular fat are removed. At pork intramuscular fat is not removed.
Cutting. Meat is cut on pieces by mass 50-70g and at packing into large tares is cut till 200 g. For cutting meat 2 consistently mounted disk meat cutters are used: first meat cutter cuts meat on strips, second - strip on pieces.
Expansion of assortment on the basis of rational use of raw materials - is today the main task of industrial activity of any sausage shop.
Now certain lifting meat conversion the industries including sausage manufacture, that develop in several directions is observed:
1. Use of new kinds of raw materials and food additives;
2. Expansion of assortment of production;
3. Development of the new equipment and technologies .
Meat and meat products are one of the major components of a food of the person, it is a source of proteins and the vitamins necessary for normal development of an organism. At a long absence in a diet of meat and meat products, other sources of animal protein albuminous insufficiency which negatively influences health can develop: function кроветворения is broken, the exchange of fats and vitamins, decreases resistibility to infectious and простудным to diseases. Meat is one of the basic sources of animal fats in a food of the person. Sausage products and smoked products occupy the big relative density in a population food, and their manufacture is one of the major in the meat industry.
Due to environmental degradation, increasing stress on human rights and other unfavorable factors, the importance now is the problem of improving the quality, safety and medical-preventive properties of meat products.
One of the main choice of food additives and ingredients that are included in the formulations of meat products is the use of substances of natural origin, affecting not only the functional and technological properties of raw materials, but high biological and physiological activity in humans. The introduction of dietary fiber in foods reduces the risk of diseases such as diverticulosis, colon cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, thrombosis, and the maintenance of normal intestinal micro flora can be achieved through the use of substances that stimulate the development of bifid bacteria in the human gut. In recent years, have been widely used natural food natural food colors.
In our country the set of names of sausage products of following kinds is developed: stuffed, boiled sausages, sausages, sausages, meat corn, ливерные, blood sausages, pastes, jellies, semi-smoked, boiled-smoked, crude smoked and crudedried sausages. These are products on the basis of mincemeat with salt, spices and additives, in a cover or without it and subjected to thermal processing to readiness for the use. Distinctions between them are caused by a kind and properties of raw materials, a structure compounding, character and features of the technological processing, specific external properties and product structure. Thus in most cases, major importance properties of raw materials have.
Crude smoked sausages are products in the covers, prepared of mincemeat, the salted pork fat, salt, spices and subjected a deposit, to smoking and drying. These sausages the most proof at storage Preparation for the use in food is carried out at the expense of a long fermentation of meat at all stages of manufacture of sausages. These sausages differ a dense consistence, pleasant aroma and sharp saltish taste. Thanks to considerable dehydration they can be stored long time. By manufacture crude smoked sausages great attention give to quality of raw materials, careful trimming meat as sausages do not subject to thermal processing. The attention to age of an animal, carefulness of cooling, a parity of beef and pork, especially pork fat as its excessive quantity makes adverse impact on connecting ability of forcemeat is paid.
Sausage products should be, certainly good-quality. And unsuitable for the use in food products – with obvious signs notfresh forcemeat or rancid of fat, a product in which harmful microorganisms or larvae of insects, and also extraneous, hazardous to health inclusions (slices of glass, metal etc. are found out) are substandard and containing nitrites in the quantity exceeding established norms. In the presence of some defects it is not authorised to let out in a trading network and suitable in food sausage products. The defects reducing food value concern their number (extraneous smack and a smell) and storages influencing duration (the big emptiness in the forcemeat, the burst cover, strongly deformed and broken long loafs)
I will stop on a method of introduction of protein «PP500Е» in сырокопченые sausages. Using correct technology it is possible to improve profitability of manufacture, raising exits at simultaneous decrease in expenses, and also to achieve favorable influence on a structure of a ready product, improving linkage between fat and meat particles at protein application «Purin500Е».
1 Analytical part
The modern word "sausage" (sausage) comes from the Latin word "salsus", which means salty. Probably, in ancient times, this term has a broader meaning to mean not only hot dogs and sausages in our submission, but all the salty, or just canned meat. Then it was not possible to keep the meat cold, and cooking sausages (cooked and smoked), it was a good way to save it.
Centuries went by, and people are more and more perfected the process of making sausage. So, depending on the geographic location in different parts of the world there are various recipes of sausage, which is best, suited for a particular climate. For the cool regions of northern Europe, where the raw meat can be stored for a long time without special cooling, has been more suitable raw sausage. In order to keep the meat in the warmer months, smoking was used. Probably, and there were summer sausage.
Start of production of sausages can be attributed to the Middle Ages, when they began manufacturing in central Europe (Germany).
Over time, sausages are one of the main types of meat products produced in Kazakhstan and by 1990, production totaled 3.4 million tons. Transition to market relations has led to a sharp reduction in their production, due primarily to increased prices for meat and change the demand. In 1993, production of sausage products in Kazakhstan fell by 17%. According to the forecasts will decrease the level of meat sales in its pure form. Will increase production of semi-finished products: frankfurters, sausages for diet and infant nutrition, long-term storage of sausages: smoked, boiled-smoked, smoked, while reducing the production of cooked sausage .
Sausages are popular among consumers due to their high quality and nutritional value. Development of new kinds of raw materials, primarily due to the use eat soy protein (flour, concentrate, isolate), playing the role of emulators and stabilizers meat, improving its structure and replaced by an equivalent portion of meat. In addition, soy proteins have a positive effect on human health, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer morbidity, increase body resistance.
In addition to supplements, replacements of animal protein increasing application in meat products finds the use of biologically active substances. According to Bogatyrev , using of dietary supplements, is a concentrate of natural or identical to natural substances. The most commonly used supplements of egg, milk and soy proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and vitamins. The application, which is an effective form of prevention and comprehensive treatment of common chronic diseases - obesity, atherosclerosis, badquality, immunodeficient states.
Another promising direction - the creation and use for the production of meat products of biologically active substances on the basis of metabolic products of microorganisms. Such preparations for the Roubaix-pulp known as the starter culture and are widely used in sausage production. For use in the meat industry, a new bacterial preparation of PB-MP, the current basis of which is lactic acid bacteria. He has high acidifying ability and produces large amount of carbonyl and four carbon compounds that can create distinctive taste and aroma of meat product, has antibiotic activity against coliform. The presence of denitrifying microorganisms in the product leads to the formation of the required number of nitrozopigments stabilizing the color of meat products, while dry sausage ripening period be reduced to 17-19 days. .
One of the urgent problems of sausage production is to increase the shelf life of sausages. To this end, stuffing the addition of specially designed substances - preservatives, representing the original composition of the mixture of different food acids that may be used in the meat industry. They inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms with respect to, prevent the formation of toxins and are easy to use .
Another direction of extending the shelf life sausages is to develop new packaging technologies that enable more reliable than the traditional, to protect finished products from the change in organoleptic properties, moisture loss and bacterial spoilage. In most data meet the requirements of multi-shrinkable polyamide and polivinildihloridnye envelope to ensure preservation of quality indicators-governmental sausages with snoring and allow con-dit sterilization .
In recent years there has been an active development of meat products for baby food, recipes which should be tailored to the specific metabolic, physiological and biochemical processes of the child's body and include quantitative restrictions on the nutritional content key elements of vitamins and minerals. The Co-utilization of high quality raw meat in combination with the components of plant and dairy origin and edible hull of providing high nutritive and biological value of these sausages .
Further development of the sausage production will be associated with technical and technological re-equipment of enterprises, with the use of the latest. Most foreign equipment and technology and their own know-how, enabling to produce products with high consumer qualities of the individual.
For most successful businesses they need persistent advertising of its products, market expansion of its sales, opening branches in other regions, creating its own network of shops. Significantly also adhere to the principle of modern marketing: notto defend from competitors and learn from them, to fight for the consumer, choosing the main tool to combat product quality .
Sausage, as well as other meat products, arethe main sourceof protein, so their nutritional value should be defined as the total content of protein, and the number of essential proteins. The amount of fat should be within the limits under which improves the quality indicators of sausages (taste, texture), as excessively large amounts of fat affects the taste of the products and their digestibility. In compiling recipes sausages should also be considered content in the finished products of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, macro-and micronutrients, vitamins and digestible bridge.
Invention of boiled sausage object of the present invention is to improve product quality by improving its taste and organoleptic properties and increase product yield. The problem is solved by the fact that in a certain mode of production of cooked sausage. The essence of the product. Method differs in that the salting of pig heads, drumsticks, or gubernaculums is carried out with a brine concentration of 10% salt content and sodium nitrite was 0.075%.
Another difference is that the main beef is prepared in a cutter with a ratio of pork trimmed bold, trimmed pork fat and soy protein hydrated 4,5:4,5:1, respectively, while in the stuffing added phosphatecontaining complex mixture of spices, salt, nitrite or cookbook in the amount of 2 kg and a solution of sodium nitrite in an amount of 7.5 g per 100 kg of raw material and cuttering wire first by adding 50% ice of the total contributed amount until the meat temperature 10oC, then add the remaining 50% of the ice cutter until a temperature minced 5oC.
The technical result in the implementation of the method is achieved due to the fact that when cooking ground meat used in certain ratios of all of the following components: beef tendon removed bold, pork tendon removed fat and soy protein hydrated. Clearly, in this case we use raw meat of better quality compared to the prototype. In this case, soy protein hydrated in almost equal in nutritional value and nutritional value of animal proteins, due to the presence of essential amino acids, similar in composition to the amino acids of high-quality animal proteins.