Ministry of education and science of Ukraine
Kharkiv State Pedagogical University by G.S. Skovoroda
Department: English Philology
Course paper on the topic
The selection and adaptation of the material on the topic “Towns and places”
II. Theoretical part
1. The ways of introducing the topic “Towns and places”
2. Types of activities
III. Practical part
1. The set of the exercises on the topic
a) Towns of the USA
b) Towns of Ukraine
2. The working out of the lessons for students of the 10th form
I . Introduction
This research paper is devoted to the topic “The selection and adaptation of the material on the topic “Towns and places”. The topicality of this subject is brought about that many students travel to other cities, towns and abroad, and they are eager to tell about their impressions, adventures. The topic is closely connected with our life; it is easy for pupils to learn the words, to make up sentences, dialogues. They have discussions, surveys, and questionnaires. To our mind, most of students take part in the role-plays with great pleasure. Such lessons should be very various, intensive, full of joy. At the first lesson students learn new words, expressions, enrich their vocabulary stock. Later they can bring their own albums and describe their trips, cities, towns they’ve visited. There is a wide range of material for teachers, which helps them in teaching such an interesting topic.
The aim of our paper is to work out the system of exercises on the topic “Towns and places” for students of intermediate level.
According to the aim the following tasks are to fulfill:
1) Observe the ways of selections material on the topic;
2) Design a set of activities and exercises, directed on development of writing skills, speaking, listening, reading, on the material from course books adopted by ministry of education and science of Ukraine.
II. Theoretical part
a) The ways of introducing the new material
Whatever the level of the pupils and however language study is organized within ESA teaching sequences, there are four things that need to do with new language: be exposed to it, understand its meaning, understand its form (how it’s constructed) and practice it). Teachers use different wooden blocks of different length and colours there are different visual possibilities too: cards, drawings, and pictures.
Topic “Towns and places” gives wide opportunity for using different kinds of texts about cities and towns of the USA, Great Britain and Ukraine, about the most important places of interest. Types of texts may be quite different, they are encyclopedia – type texts or short stories. The teacher must take the pupils read magazines articles, letters, stories, menus, advertisements, reports, play extracts, instructions, and poems.
There are very different kinds of work with texts:
1) Students are given a number of words from the text. They must guess what city or town it is;
2) They read the text and have to guess where people come from (city, town). Some places of interest are mentioned there;
3) Students read narrative with the end missing. They have to supply their own ending.
As we understand the teacher must choose the material on the “Towns and places” so interesting and useful, that every pupil will work with pleasure, will be interested in learning this topic.
The main condition of learning of the topic is knowing words and expressions. It’s basis. How can pupils remember the new words best of all? They repeat the new words after the teacher. Repetition can be very useful. Chorus repetition allows pupils to try the new words out with everybody else rather than having to risk getting it wrong in front of the class. The pupils repeat the words individually. Choral and individual repetitions are useful for sentences as well.
Practice sessions at this level are likely to be a combination of repetition and simple – making of the kind the teacher is using in this example. With different words and constructions he may not be able to hold up objects or point to them, instead he can use pictures, drawings, mime, gesture, words, etc.
It’s very useful to use invitations. It’s a good chance to make up good dialogues.
- Would you like to visit the museum of water in Chuguyev on Sunday?
- That would be great! I’m sure I’ll be free and we’ll go there.
b) Types of activities
Students need to practice the questions and answer exchange, they work in pairs and make as many invitations and replies as they can. In very large classes, it may be useful to divide the class in half: one half is Sarah; the other half is Joe.
The teacher can conduct the halves so that they can practice the questions and answers.
A much better kind of practice is to ask them to make their own sentences using the words correctly if they make some mistakes.
The main aim of the pupils is to perform some kind of talk about towns and places of interest. There are different kinds of speaking activities from puzzle – like tasks to more involved role-playing.
One type of speaking activity involves the so-called “information gap” – where two speakers have different parts of information making up a whole. Because they have different information there is a gap between them. One popular information gap activity is called “Describe and draw”. In this activity one student has a picture which he or she must not show his or her partner. All the partners have to do is to draw the picture without looking at the original, so the one with the picture will give instructions and descriptions and the “artist” will ask questions.
“Describe and draw” has many of the elements of an ideal speaking activity. It is highly motivating; there is a real purpose for communication.
A further extension of the information gap idea occurs in the story – telling activity.The teacher puts the class into four groups, calling them A, B, C, D. each group receives some pictures of the places of interest of some city or town. The groups memorize everything they can about the pictures. The teacher collects the pictures and asks for one student from each group to form a new four – person group. He tells them that they each seen a different picture, but the picture taken together in some order or other tell a story about the city, may the pupils remember some facts, details about the monuments, museums, etc. the final stories may be different. The groups tell the whole class what their version is, and the teacher can finally re-show the pictures. Their story-telling can, of course be useful as a prelude to written narrative work.One way of provoking conversation opinion exchange is to get students to conduct questionnaires and surveys. If the pupils plan these questionnaires themselves, the activity becomes even more useful. The teacher wants to activate pupils’ knowledge.
- What kind of questionnaire can it be?
- What places of interest do you always try to visit?
- Where do you stop? (a hotel, private flat or a house)
- Have you met any interesting people during your excursion?
- Have you taken any photos?
If you answer ‘yes’, describe the experience. The pupils go round the class questioning other pupils noting down what they say. While they are doing this the teacher listens and prompts where necessary and he then gets them to tell the class of any interesting experience. Encouraging pupils to get up and walk around talking to other classmates has many advantages. It varies the structure of classroom period, allows pupil a bit of physical movement and provides a welcome variety of interaction. Pupils can design and use surveys and questionnaires about any topic – transport, places where you can rest, services in the city, etc.
The change of opinions provokes spontaneous fluent language use. The first thing to remember is that people need time to assemble their thoughts before discussion. The ability to give spontaneous and articulate opinions is challenging in our own language, let alone the language we are struggling to learn.
The teacher starts by asking individual students to name any museums they have visited. Did they enjoy the excursion? Did they learn any interesting facts about the history?Students are broken up into groups. They have a chance to think of ideas. This kind of discussion can be formalized into proper debate-speakers on different sides giving speeches comments.Role – play activities are those where students are asked to imaging that they are in different situations and act accordingly. The teacher may tell them to role-play being guests from another city, travel agents answering customer questions, participants in a public-building project, guides.
For example, the conversation at the travel agency.The teacher asks pupils to ask about details of their traveling. Pupils must stick to the information on their original cards, but can invent new facts, which fit with that information.The teacher now tells the group to start, but sets a time limit for the chairperson to announce the result. While the activity is going on the teacher goes around the groups prompting where necessary and making notes on examples of good and bad English usage that he hears. When the time limit is up, the teacher asks the various chairpeople to say haw their groups voted and why.
The role-game can now lead into a number of possible writing tasks: a segment of the dialogue, a newspaper report, letters to the newspaper, posters, etc.
We want to describe some material, which can de used for teaching pupils. It is divided into two aspects:
1) Cities of English-speaking countries;
2) Cities and town of Ukraine;
III . Practical part. The cities of English speaking countries
The set of the exercises
1. The four guests from Canada have now returned from their visit and are being interviewed on the local radio.
Work in pairs. Before you listen, try to imagine which part of your plan they enjoyed most. Now listen to the 4 visitors talking about their trip. Then fill in the grid below.
|Name||Best part of the trip|
1.Draw a line to match the city sentence on the right. Then combine the two simple sentences into a complex sentence with an adjective clause. Think carefully about using where or which. Write your new sentence on another piece of paper.
b) Some North American Cities
|1. Atlanta is a fast growing city||The Golden Gate Bridge is located here.|
|2. Calgary has a big annual rodeo||It is often called “Big Apple”|
|3. New York City is a great cultural center||Disneyworld, the Epcot Center and Universal Studios are located there.|
|4. Mexico City is the largest city North America||It is located near the foothills the Rocky Mountains|
|5. San Francisco has many steep hills||It’s on the St. Lawrence River|
|6. Denver is called “the Mile High City”||The 1996 Summer Olympics were held there.|
|7. Orlando is a popular tourist destination||The 1996 Supreme Olympics were held there.|
|8. Montreal is the second Largest French speaking city in the world||It is capital of Mexico|
3. Look at the sentences and match them with their meaning
|James has been to Scotland||James is not here, he is in Scotland now|
|James has been in Scotland since 1990||James has visited Scotland but he isn’t here now|
|James has gone to Scotland||James lives in Scotland now|
11) Write sentences using the following words.
1. Capital, population, to be;
2. to be situated, river, mouth;
3. home, many famous men, to be;
4. period, fruitful life
5. sightseeing, tour, about the city, to like
6. to be famous for, building
4. Translate such sentences into English:
1. Лондон – одно из наибольших городов Европы
2. Этот парк славится своими фонтанами
3. В Вестминстерском аббатстве похоронены известные ученые и писатели
4. Крепость Тауэр была много лет крепостью и тюрьмо
5. Туристы осмотрели достопримечательности этого большого и красивого города
1. “My Neibourhood”
Read the text describing places, and fill in the gaps with suitable prepositions from the list below
Through, outside, from, opposite, on, near, in.
My flat is (1)….. the 5th floor of a high – rise block which is (2) ….. a busy road. During the day we can hear the traffic passing (3) …… which can be quite disturbing, but fortunately there is a park just (4) ……. Our building, so we have a pleasant view of grass and trees (5) …… our living room windows. I often walk (6) …… the park to get to the other side. The center of the town is quite (7) ….. my flat, so it’s convenient for both shopping and entertainment.
3. You and partner are members of a committee responsible for twinning your town. You want to twin your town with a small town in England called Budleigh Salterton. So you have invited four people from Budleigh Salterton to your town.
Read the information about two of your guests and fill in the form opposite.
Thank you for your letter. I’m looking forward for my trip.
I work at home, I’m married. I have two small children. I make sweets desserts for restaurants in the area. I would be interested in visiting local restaurants and picking up traditional recipes as well as meeting self-employed people. I’d like to visit your native town.
I’d love to do some sightseeing but not museums.
Your friend Jane
I work closely with Emergency Services and would appreciate the opportunity of finding out more about how your police, fire and ambulance services function.
I would also like to visit any sports centers in your town. Perhaps next year we could organize a football, basketball or tennis match between our teams ?
1) Your sincerely Simon
2) Now ask your partner about other two visitors. Answer your partner’s questions and fill in the rest of the form.
3) Then with your partner plan two exciting and informative days for the visitors to your town. Try to keep together as much as possible, but also try to keep everyone happy. When you are planning their itinerary remember to include travel time, means of transport, etc.
|Time||Day 1||Day 2|
|Dinner and evening|
Across, in, behind, on, through.
My hometown is situated (1)….. the south coast of England. It is very picturesque, with wooden hills (2)….. it and a river running (3)….. it. Most of the buildings (4) …… the High Street are old and quaint, and there are several beautiful old bridges. (5) ….. the river you’ll find the newer part of the town, which is also attractive. I think my town is one of the prettiest in England.
Our local library
Through, across, in, inside, at.
Our local library which is situated at the edge of the park (1)….. the road from my house is a surprisingly good one. The outside is quite modern, and (2) …. The atmosphere is very quiet and relaxed. Books are arranged neatly (3)….. the shelves, and people sit (4)….. tables or (5)….. comfortable armchairs, reading and taking notes. (6)…. the windows you can see the green trees of the park, I love spending time there, and go whenever I can.
4. Fill in the correct preposition
1. I wanted to go to the park …… foot, but my sister insisted that we should go ….. taxi because it was so far away. However, once we were … the taxi, we realized that it would have been quicker to walk, because there was so much traffic.
2. the building used to be a warehouse. It has now been transformed …. Into a restaurant and it’s wellknown …. Its delicious food.
3. My brother went to Spain …. plane last month. He was a bit scared as he had never flown before, but once he was …. the plane, he forgot all his fears and enjoyed the flight.