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World View Of Bertrand Russell Essay Research

World View Of Bertrand Russell Essay, Research Paper The World View of Bertrand Russell In today’s world, it is difficult to know just what is correct among the ideas of the universe, what we are and how we came to be, and how we should live as human beings and as a society. Bertrand Russell, an agnostic philosopher, approaches these questions and tries to answer them according to what science has proven throughout history.

World View Of Bertrand Russell Essay, Research Paper

The World View of Bertrand Russell

In today’s world, it is difficult to know just what is correct among the ideas of the universe, what we are and how we came to be, and how we should live as human beings and as a society. Bertrand Russell, an agnostic philosopher, approaches these questions and tries to answer them according to what science has proven throughout history.

In an debate with F. C. Copleston, Bertrand Russell was questioned on the existence of God. Russell states that his view is agnostic (123), meaning he is neutral. He doesn’t say that he is for religion nor does he say that he is against religion. He just believes science must prove there is a God (129). Copleston adds that one should look for the existence of God and saying not to is dogmatic (129). Copleston then questions Russell’s view of the universe. Bertrand Russell answers that “The word “universe” is a handy word in some connections, but I don’t think it stands for anything that has meaning (129).” He then goes on to state that “The universe is just there, and that is all (131).”

In another debate with F. C. Copleston, Bertrand Russell is questioned on the subject of morals. Russell believes to understand if a man’s morals are to be a sign of believing in God that must be proven (138). He believes that distinguishing between good and bad are like seeing the difference in blue and yellow. You distinguish by looking at colors but you distinguish good and bad by feelings (139). People can make mistakes in that as they can in other things. Moral obligation, from Russell’s view is that “One has to take account of the effects, and I think right conduct is that which would probably produce the greatest possible balance in intrinsic value of all the acts possible in the circumstances, and you’ve got to take account of the probable effects of your action in considering what is right (140).” He is explaining that for every action there is a reaction. He believes we should live as humans how we are taught or governed. He believes that conditioned reflexes tell us what we should do and what we shouldn’t.

The body of a man is, from Russell’s point of view, a combination of events (147). These events are clustered into groups. Events that happen in our mind are considered thought while those that happen outside the mind are considered casual events. Mind and body are just convenient ways of organizing events. Of the mind is memory. The memory is thought to survive after death, however, the part of the brain that decays at death ceases to exist meaning that the memory would also. He believes that the materialism opponents are correct in their desires to prove that the mind is immoral and that the ultimate power is mental rather then physical (149).

Russell believes each of us have a different conscience. With this, we all have differing views of what is right and what is wrong. Our conscious can not be relied on to determine what is right. We should live on what we believe such as religion, values, and morals. However, conscience is a product of education, and it can be trained to approve or disapprove as educators see fit (227). It is a proven fact that if we act through desires of intelligence, happiness, and freedom of fear, men can be brought to act more than they do at the present in a manner that is consistent with the general happiness of mankind (242-3). He considers the good life one that is inspired by love and happiness (372). We should live as a society where free competition is in ideas not economics (56) and justice is the arrangement of producing the least envy (55). Russell states that Miss McMillan is training children to create a free community. If this could happen, it would solve our social problems. Yet we must teach children to live and let live from birth. He then goes on to state that “Given men and women who do not desire the things which can only be secured through the misfortunes of others, the obstacles to social freedom will be at an end. (56).”

In my opinion, Bertrand Russell’s central arguments are very strong about the universe, his conception off humans, and how we should live. He makes distinct examples of why we should turn to science to answer questions involving God and religion, our soul and mind, and how we should act in society. If we were to question everything and pursue knowledge to the extent of becoming wise we could learn to get along better with each other in society. Russell states “Intellectual sobriety, therefore, will lead up to scrutinize our beliefs closely, with a view to discovering which of them there is any reason to believe is true (6). I agree to an extent with Russell’s point of view about God and religion. I believe religion is a way for people to comfort themselves. People fear death and a way for them to be at ease is saying death is just the end of the physical and the soul will live on. Russell says that the memory-mind are apart of the brain that ceases to exist after death. If one ceases to exist then the other would also (23). He then goes on to say that “It is not rational arguments but emotions that cause a belief in a future life (26).” I also agree with Russell about values and morals are different to everyone. We all have different preferences. This preference is a matter of taste. One man may like apples while another prefers bananas. Everything revolves around taste. I disagree with Bertrand Russell that God has to be proven to exist. I believe there is a God, however, I am not convinced that Christianity is completely correct. I believe something had to create us and that something is an all-knowing being. I also believe that there is a plan for all of us. We all do things for a reason. We may not know the reason at the moment but in the end we understand why it happened.

I believe from reading and discussing Bertrand Russell’s world view that I have somewhat formulated my own view. I would not call myself a Christian but I do believe in God. I would also state that happiness is the key to living a good life and love is a emotion we all need to give and receive. Russell helped me to evolve my own ideas into something I can willingly share with others. I know we all will have different ideas of what is God and how we approach serenity. I also can state that I have learned from Russell’s philosophy that taking a scientific approach to any situation can better my understanding and broaden my view. Russell states that “The pursuit of philosophy is founded on the belief that knowledge is good, even if what is known is painful (6).”

I was left with questions after discussing and reading about Russell’s world view. He leaves me questioning Christianity and science. I believe that he does this due to how we can only prove certain things. I feel I must question everything and from this I will be able to gain knowledge.

Erica L. Tabor

Intro to Philosophy

9-12-99

The World View of Bertrand Russell

In today’s world, it is difficult to know just what is correct among the ideas of the universe, what we are and how we came to be, and how we should live as human beings and as a society. Bertrand Russell, an agnostic philosopher, approaches these questions and tries to answer them according to what science has proven throughout history.

In an debate with F. C. Copleston, Bertrand Russell was questioned on the existence of God. Russell states that his view is agnostic (123), meaning he is neutral. He doesn’t say that he is for religion nor does he say that he is against religion. He just believes science must prove there is a God (129). Copleston adds that one should look for the existence of God and saying not to is dogmatic (129). Copleston then questions Russell’s view of the universe. Bertrand Russell answers that “The word “universe” is a handy word in some connections, but I don’t think it stands for anything that has meaning (129).” He then goes on to state that “The universe is just there, and that is all (131).”

In another debate with F. C. Copleston, Bertrand Russell is questioned on the subject of morals. Russell believes to understand if a man’s morals are to be a sign of believing in God that must be proven (138). He believes that distinguishing between good and bad are like seeing the difference in blue and yellow. You distinguish by looking at colors but you distinguish good and bad by feelings (139). People can make mistakes in that as they can in other things. Moral obligation, from Russell’s view is that “One has to take account of the effects, and I think right conduct is that which would probably produce the greatest possible balance in intrinsic value of all the acts possible in the circumstances, and you’ve got to take account of the probable effects of your action in considering what is right (140).” He is explaining that for every action there is a reaction. He believes we should live as humans how we are taught or governed. He believes that conditioned reflexes tell us what we should do and what we shouldn’t.

The body of a man is, from Russell’s point of view, a combination of events (147). These events are clustered into groups. Events that happen in our mind are considered thought while those that happen outside the mind are considered casual events. Mind and body are just convenient ways of organizing events. Of the mind is memory. The memory is thought to survive after death, however, the part of the brain that decays at death ceases to exist meaning that the memory would also. He believes that the materialism opponents are correct in their desires to prove that the mind is immoral and that the ultimate power is mental rather then physical (149).

Russell believes each of us have a different conscience. With this, we all have differing views of what is right and what is wrong. Our conscious can not be relied on to determine what is right. We should live on what we believe such as religion, values, and morals. However, conscience is a product of education, and it can be trained to approve or disapprove as educators see fit (227). It is a proven fact that if we act through desires of intelligence, happiness, and freedom of fear, men can be brought to act more than they do at the present in a manner that is consistent with the general happiness of mankind (242-3). He considers the good life one that is inspired by love and happiness (372). We should live as a society where free competition is in ideas not economics (56) and justice is the arrangement of producing the least envy (55). Russell states that Miss McMillan is training children to create a free community. If this could happen, it would solve our social problems. Yet we must teach children to live and let live from birth. He then goes on to state that “Given men and women who do not desire the things which can only be secured through the misfortunes of others, the obstacles to social freedom will be at an end. (56).”

In my opinion, Bertrand Russell’s central arguments are very strong about the universe, his conception off humans, and how we should live. He makes distinct examples of why we should turn to science to answer questions involving God and religion, our soul and mind, and how we should act in society. If we were to question everything and pursue knowledge to the extent of becoming wise we could learn to get along better with each other in society. Russell states “Intellectual sobriety, therefore, will lead up to scrutinize our beliefs closely, with a view to discovering which of them there is any reason to believe is true (6). I agree to an extent with Russell’s point of view about God and religion. I believe religion is a way for people to comfort themselves. People fear death and a way for them to be at ease is saying death is just the end of the physical and the soul will live on. Russell says that the memory-mind are apart of the brain that ceases to exist after death. If one ceases to exist then the other would also (23). He then goes on to say that “It is not rational arguments but emotions that cause a belief in a future life (26).” I also agree with Russell about values and morals are different to everyone. We all have different preferences. This preference is a matter of taste. One man may like apples while another prefers bananas. Everything revolves around taste. I disagree with Bertrand Russell that God has to be proven to exist. I believe there is a God, however, I am not convinced that Christianity is completely correct. I believe something had to create us and that something is an all-knowing being. I also believe that there is a plan for all of us. We all do things for a reason. We may not know the reason at the moment but in the end we understand why it happened.

I believe from reading and discussing Bertrand Russell’s world view that I have somewhat formulated my own view. I would not call myself a Christian but I do believe in God. I would also state that happiness is the key to living a good life and love is a emotion we all need to give and receive. Russell helped me to evolve my own ideas into something I can willingly share with others. I know we all will have different ideas of what is God and how we approach serenity. I also can state that I have learned from Russell’s philosophy that taking a scientific approach to any situation can better my understanding and broaden my view. Russell states that “The pursuit of philosophy is founded on the belief that knowledge is good, even if what is known is painful (6).”

I was left with questions after discussing and reading about Russell’s world view. He leaves me questioning Christianity and science. I believe that he does this due to how we can only prove certain things. I feel I must question everything and from this I will be able to gain knowledge.

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