1. Перевод страноведческого текста “Surfacefeatures” с английского языка на русский язык.
2. Перевод предложений (20 предложений) с русского языка на английский язык.
3. Summary порассказу “The end of Christy Tucker”.
4. Рефератнатему “Education in USA”.
ОСОБЕННОСТИ ЗЕМНОЙ ПОВЕРХНОСТИ.
Условно мы можем разделить страну на следующие пять основных географических областей.
1. Атлантика и прибрежная Равнина Мексиканского залива
2. Нагорный район Аппалачи
3. Внутренняя Равнина
4. Нагорный район Кольдильеры или Нагорный Западный район
5. Тихоокеанский Уклон
АТЛАНТИКА И ПРИБРЕЖНАЯ РАВНИНА МЕКСИКАНСКОГО ЗАЛИВА - это низменности и в основном плоские возле берега. Равнина постепенно переходит в холмистый рельеф, когда достигает внутренней части страны. В Новой Англии большая часть равнины находится под водой, и Атлантический океан практически омывает подножья нагорий. Равнина расширяется к югу до более чем пятьсот миль вдоль Мексиканского залива.
По внутренней границе Приатлантической равнины - плавное возвышение, названное “линия водопадов”.
Здесь реки переходят от старых, твердых и более высоких скал внутренних нагорий к более мягким и более низким скалам равнины. По своим течениям они образуют каскад водопадов и порогов. Линия водопадов создает гидроэнергию и в некоторых случаях образует преграду, за пределами которой речные лодки не могут передвигаться.
НАГОРНЫЙ РАЙОН АППАЛАЧИ состоит из четырех поясов. Они почти рядом, между севером и югом в направлении от Новой Англии до Алабамы. Самый восточный пояс - холмистый район, называется Пьемонт, что означает “подножие горы”. Большая часть восточной Новой Англии - северо-восточная протяженность этого холмистого района. Пьемонт поднялся над океаном намного раньше, и он намного старше, чем прибрежная равнина. Область довольно плодородна, кроме мест, где уклон настолько крут, что дожди смыли большую часть почвы.
К западу от Пьемонта - пояс горных цепей. Общий термин для этой области – Голубой хребет. Горы в этом поясе Нагорного района Аппалачей не высокие, но большинство из них крутые, особенно на юге. Множество рек пробивают горы и сформируют водные резервуары. Эти резервуары очень важны, потому что они помогают прокладывать шоссе и железные дороги и проходят по земле. Большая часть этой области покрыта лесами, так как почвы неплодородные и бедные для выращивания зерновых культур.
Западная часть Голубого хребта - это пояс земли, который состоит из длинного, узкого, с севера на юг, горного хребта, отделенного такими же длинными, узкими долинами. Этот район известен всем как Провинция Хребтов и Долин. Самая длинная и широкая долина называется Великая. У нее есть несколько различных местных названий.
Великая долина и большинство долин поменьше в этой области имеют низкие границы, за исключением того, где реки прорезали узкие каналы, или где низкие, скалистые горы поднимаются выше над уровнем долины. Фермы и стратегически важные города занимают большую часть площади долины, а горные хребты покрыты деревьями и там живут совсем небольшое количество людей.
Западная часть Горного хребта и Долины - это большое плато, которое постепенно опускается к западной части реки Миссисипи. Много рек глубоко прорезают плато и придают прочность его поверхности. Холмы и долины крутые и область похожа на низкогорную местность.
Большая часть плато покрыта тонкой, песчаной почвой, которая легко смывается и не годится для зерновых культур. Некоторые большие и провинциальные города появились там, где добывают уголь и нефть или где были открыты фабрики. Но в большей части области проживает мало людей, они живут в отдалении больших городов, этот регион является одним из самых отстающих в развитии в стране.
ВНУТРЕННЯЯ РАВНИНА - главная сельскохозяйственная часть страны. Она простирается от Нагорного района Аппалачи на запад к краю Скалистых гор. Она тянется с севера к южной границе Канады, и с юга к внутренней границе Равнины Мексиканского залива в западном Теннесси, Кентукки, Арканзасе, и Техасе. Часть Внутренней Равнины - Большие равнины, к востоку от Скалистых гор.
У Внутренней Равнины в основном плодородная почва, кроме горных областей. Некоторые части северной равнины, которые были когда-то покрыты большими североамериканскими ледяными пластами, слишком грубые и скалистые, либо слишком песчаные, или болотистые для сельского хозяйства. В западной части равнины поверхность земли поднимается к предгорьям Скалистых гор. Здесь холмистую поверхность и долины глубоких рек не так легко обработать, как большую часть Внутренней Равнины.
1. He may know his address.
2. They may be still here.
3. You musn’t touch anything in the garden!
4. He couldn’t solve the problem.
5. He couldn’t have said it to you.
6. They didn’t except him to ask about it.
7. I heard his name mention several times at the meeting.
8. I don’t know who this company was founded by.
9. Children musn’t watch TV so late.
10. All the furniture in my parents’ house is made of wood.
1. Having heard the steps, she rose her head.
2. What were you doing during an interval? – We went to the refreshment room.
3. This play is worth seeing.
4. This dress fits you very well.
5. In summer I am going to visit as much sights in Moscow as possible.
6. I was surprised at, having seen her in the hall.
7. The book didn’t impress me at all.
8. Everything around was covered with snow.
9. I would like to be in the fresh air now.
10. It isn’t worth thinking about it.
This story is called “The end of Christy Tucker” and it is written by Erskine Caldwell.
This story is about a black man Christy Tucker who lives at the plantation owned by Lee Crossman.
The main characters are Christy Tucker and Lee Crossman.
The action takes place at the plantation. Lee Crossman is greedy and cruel. He hates black men and treats them like animals. He sends for Christy. Christy rides on the mule to the plantation office. He says Lee that he can raise many more cotton on that land with a gang plow. Christy tells his boss that he buys the radio on time, catches a few rabbits and sells their hides for a little money, repairs the fence around his house and his wife raises a few chickens. But Lee Crossman considers Christy a biggity man and he wants to be as white men. Lee Crossman is angry very much and strikes Christy with a heavy strap. Christy says that he isn’t doing anything except catching a few rabbits and raising a few chickens and things like that. Christy thinks Mr. Lee will be pleased if he puts some new pickets in his fence. Lee is so angry he can’t speak after that. He runs to the closet and gets his pistol. He turns around and fires it at Christy three times.
The main idea of this story is racism. Lee Crossman is a racist and he hates black men very much. He supposes he can do anything with black people, or “niggers” as he calls them. He kills Christy Tucker for no special reason, just because he is angry with Christy.
EDUCATION IN USA
If all good people were clever and all clever people were good, the world would be nicer than ever.
I think that education is a key to a good future. And schools are the first step on the education-way. Schools help young people to choose their career, to prepare for their future life; they make pupils clever and well-educated. They give pupils the opportunity to fulfill their talent.
Americans place a high value on education. Universal access to quality education has been one of the nation’s historic goals. American’s first college, Harward, was founded in 1636. In 1865 education was becoming available to all. The peculiar feature of American education is the absence of national administration. Each of the 50 states controls and directs its own school.
GENERAL PATTERN OF EDUCATION IN THE USA.
The general pattern of education in the USA is an eight-year elementary school, followed by a four-year high school. This has been called 8-4 plan organization. It is preceded, in many localities, by nursery schools and kindergartens. It is followed by a four-year college and professional schools. This traditional pattern, however, has been varied in many different ways. The 6-3-3 plan consists of a six-year elementary school, a three-year junior high school, and a three-year senior high school. Another variation is a 6-6 plan organization, with a six-year elementary school followed by a six-year secondary school.
American education provides a program for children, beginning at the age of 6 and continuing up to the age of 16 in some of the states, and to 18 in others.
The elementary school in the United States is generally considered to include the first six or eight grades of the common-school system, depending upon the organization that has been accepted for the secondary school. It has been called the "grade school" or the "grammar school".
There is no single governmental agency to prescribe for the American school system; different types of organization and of curriculum are tried out.
The length of the school year varies among the states. Wide variation exists also in the length of the school day. A common practice is to have school in session from 9:00 to 12:00 in the morning and from 1:00 to 3:30 in the afternoon, Monday through Friday. The school day for the lower grades is often from 30 minutes to an hour shorter. Most schools require some homework to be done by elementary pupils.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, HIGH SCHOOLS AND INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING
There are eight years of elementary schooling. The elementary school is followed by four years of secondary school, or high school. Often the last two years of elementary and the first years of secondary school are combined into a junior high school.
The school year is nine months in length, beginning early in September and sometimes a shorter one in spring. There are slight variations from place to place. Students enter the first grade at the age of six and attendance is compulsory in most states until the age of sixteen or until the student has finished the eighth grade.
The elementary schools tend to be small. The high schools are generally larger and accommodate pupils from four or five elementary schools. A small town generally has several elementary schools and one high school. In some rural communities the one-room country school house still exists. Here may be found from five to twenty-five pupils in grades one through eight, all taught by the same teacher.
Admission to the American high school is automatic on completion of the elementary school. During the four-year high school program the student studies four or five major subjects per year, and classes in each of these subjects meet for an hour a day, five days a week. In addition, the student usually has classes in physical education, music, and art several times a week. If he fails a course, he repeats only that course and not the work of the entire year. Students must complete a certain number of courses in order to receive a diploma, or a certificate of graduation.
Institutions of higher learning supported by public funds are not absolutely free. The state colleges and universities charge a fee for tuition or registration. This fee is higher for those who come from outside the state. Working one's way through college is commonplace.
Usually there is no admission examination required by a state university for those who have finished high school within the state.
Sometimes a certain pattern of high school studies is necessary, however, and some state universities require a certain scholastic average, or average of high school grades.
Private colleges and universities, especially the larger, well-known ones such as Harvard, Princeton, and Yale, have rigid scholastic requirements for entrance, including an examination.
A student aspiring to study in the USA can gain admission as an undergraduate, graduate or a post graduate student.
1. Bachelors program.
Generally, it takes four years of undergraduate study to earn a Bachelors degree.
The 4 year undergraduate program consists of:
1st Year is called Freshman Year.
2nd Year is called Sophomore Year.
3rd Year is called Junior Year.
4th Year is called Senior Year.
There are various subjects you can choose to study in an undergraduate college. The first two years mostly cover general subjects. A junior year student must choose a "major" field of study. They must take a certain number of courses in their field. In some schools, students also choose a "minor" field. There is usually time for students to choose several other "elective" (extra) courses in other subjects. Each student is assigned a "faculty advisor", who teaches their major subjects, and also assists them to select a particular program of study.
An international student will also have an "International Student Advisor" who helps them to adjust to U.S. life, handles visa and other paperwork problems. They also organize activities for them.
2. Graduate Study:
It is calls as postgraduate education. All master degrees are graduate degrees.
Master’s Degree: This degree is usually required in fields such as Engineering, Library science, Business Administration or Social work.
Mostly master’s degree is a 2 year program, but some subjects like journalism, may need just one year.
A Doctorate degree (Ph.D.) usually takes five to seven years to complete. Unlike undergraduates, graduate students begin specialized study from the first day.
3. Professional Training Programs:
These are many specific training programs for professional subjects. Some of them include Printing technology, Orthoptics, fashion and textile technology.
Fourteen step plan, if you want to go for graduate studies in USA.
Different types of education centers in USA:
1. State College or University: These schools are supported and run by the State Government. Each U.S. state operates at least one state university, and several state colleges.
2. Private College or Universities: These schools are privately owned/operated institutes. Tuition fee is usually higher than the state government schools. Normally these colleges and universities are smaller in size.
3. Community Colleges: Community colleges are local i.e. a city or county colleges. They also conduct evening classes for students who work during the day. Normally, community colleges welcome international students. But few countries do not recognize degrees from such community colleges.
4. Professional Schools: These are professional schools to train students in professional fields such as Art, Music, Engineering, Business, etc. They can be a part of a university or may be a separate school. Some offer graduate programs as well.
5. Institute of Technology: These are technical schools which conduct atleast four years of study in the science and technology fields. Some of them offer graduate programs too.
6. Schools run by Church: Many U.S. colleges and universities were founded by religious groups and are run by local religious organizations. Nearly all these schools welcome students of all religions and belief, but may give preference to members of their own religious group. Traditionally, many church related schools insist all the students to take Bible courses and attend chapel services.
Community colleges offer a wide range of vocational (job training) programs in hundreds of fields from Business Administration and Computer Programming to Nursing, Fashion Design, Hotel and Restaurant Management, Secretarial, Commercial Photography, Engineering or Advertising Art. Students who complete these courses get degrees or certificates.
International students can attend community colleges. Community college can be a starting point to earn a four year or graduate degree from a U.S. university. Community colleges are a popular alternative for the first two years of a bachelor's degree. These first two years are designed to provide a strong foundation of general knowledge, before a student begins concentrating on a major field of study.
What is the difference in Community College and regular four year College?
Community colleges meet the educational and vocational needs of local communities. Usually they are run by a state government, by maintaining an "open door policy" with low tuition costs and few entrance requirements.
Universities on the other hand are bigger educational centers which offer wide range of courses, and caters to a larger area. But due to the competition and a complicated admission process, it is difficult to get an admission here.
Still, many Americans are not satisfied with the condition of higher education in their country. Perhaps the most widespread complaint has to do with the college curriculum as a whole and with the wide range of electives in particular. In the middle of 1980s, the Association of American Colleges issued a report that called for teaching a body of common knowledge to all college students. The National Institute of Education (NIE) issued a somewhat similar report, “Involvement in Learning”. In its report, the NIE concluded that the college curriculum has become “excessively vocational and work-related”. The report also warned that college education may no longer be developing in students “the shared values and knowledge” that traditionally bind Americans together.
Americans cherish their right to express opinions on such issues. But the people of the United States are also painfully aware of how complex such issues are. To take part in dealing with new problems, most Americans feel they need all the information they can get. Colleges and universities are the most important centers of such learning. And whatever improvements may be demanded, their future is almost guaranteed by the American thirst to advance and be well informed. In fact, the next charge in American education may be a trend for people to continue their education in college – for a lifetime.
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