BIO Notes On Organic Chemistry Essay Research

BIO Notes On Organic Chemistry Essay, Research Paper The chemistry of life (Living things made mostly of carbohydrates, fat and protein) CARBOHYDRATES energy producer

BIO Notes On Organic Chemistry Essay, Research Paper

The chemistry of life

(Living things made mostly of carbohydrates, fat and protein)

CARBOHYDRATES energy producer

· Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

· Glucose is the simplest (dissolves easily in water) monosaccharide

· Starch is also common (solid, lots of glucose molecules in a chain (condensation)) disaccharide

· Starch is broken down into glucose as well (add wateràhydrolysis)

FAT energy producer insulation and energy store

· Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

· Contains more carbon + hydrogen

· Fat molecule is made up of glycerol and fatty acids.

· Condensation and hydrolysis play parts here?

PROTEIN

· Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen (and sulphur)

· Made of blocks (amino acids) and links (peptide links)

· 22 amino acids in nature

· Hydrolysis à chain of proteins split (polypeptides) then broken to small amino acids

· Reverse in condensation

· Soluble proteins make up enzymes.

· Denaturalisation occurs when molecule shape changes when heated.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

· Occur mainly in gut and cells

· Reactions in cells is metabolism

· Breaking down or joining options

· All reactions are catalysed by enzymes.

Enzymes

IMPORTANCE

· To speed up reactions

· They are biological catalysts

· TYPES

Extracellular enzymes are produced and leave cell to work outside

· Intracellular enzymes work inside cell

ENZYME CONTROLLED REACTION

· Maltose (substrate) àmaltase (enzyme) à glucose (product)

PROPERTIES

· Always proteins

· Specific

· Reusable

· Destroyed by heat over 45 Celsius

· Sensitive to pH

HOW DO THEY WORK?

· Enzyme molecule has active site

· Substrate fits into active site

· Reaction takes place

· Products leave site.

HELPING HINDERING

· Anything which helps substrate reach enzyme speeds up reaction

· Poisons stop temporarily/ permanently the active site

ENZYME USE

· Biological washing powders

· Tenderising meats, skinning fish, removing hairs

· Softening vegetables, removing seed coats

· Syrups, fruit-juices, chocolates

Food and Diet

OUR DIET

· Carbohydrates

· Fats

· Proteins

· Water

· Minerals

· Vitamins

CARBOHYDRATES

· Sugar gives energy

· Starch are normally found in small grains called starch granules they also give us energy

· Cellulose for plants make a cell wall for humans it makes a dietary fibre keeping the food moving along the gut

FATS

· Mainly give us energy

· Saturated means that there is no more room for atoms to add on to the existing molecule.

· Unsaturated is the opposite.

PROTEINS

· Needed for growth repair and slight amounts of energy

· Kwashiorkor à disease with the lack of protein

· Proteins are made of amino acids

· Essential amino acids are ones we cannot make but instead take in digestively

WATER

· Absolutely essential

· Needed in all life forms and contained in mostly all substances

MINERALS

· Sodium. Is a salt. It helps messages to be sent and muscle contraction. Lack of causes cramps in muscles

· Calcium used for hardening our bones and teeth. Hardening can only take place when they take up calcium phosphate and carbonate (calcification). Lack of causes rickets (soft, weak, deformed bones).

· Phosphorus. We need it to be absorbed into the calcium. It occurs in membranes.

· Iron. Present in haemoglobin (transports O2). Lack of cause anaemia: less O2 transported, less energy.

· Iodine. Trace element: needed in tiniest quantities. We get from sea food and drinking water. Needed to make thyroxine. Lack of causes goitre or ?Derbyshire neck?: swelling of thyroid gland next to Adam?s apple.

· Fluorine. Trace element. Prevents tooth decay.

VITAMINS

· Collection of organic substances which control reactions in the body.

· (A). Retinol: important for our eyes. Lack of causes night-blindness or xerophthalmia. Fat soluble

· (B). Niacin (nicotinic acid). Lack of: Pellagra. Thiamine: lack of is Beri-beri. Riboflavin: causes sores in skin around mouth. Water soluble

· (C). Ascorbic acid. Keep epithelia healthy. Lack of cause scurvy: bleeding in various parts of the body. Water soluble

· (D). Calciferol. Helps child?s bones become strong. Lack of cause rickets. Can be obtained from fish liver oil or the body through sunlight. Fat soluble

· (E). Found in milk and egg yolk. Lack of cause sterility. Fat soluble

· (K). Helps blood clot. Lack of causes internal, external bleeding. Fat-soluble.

· Composition of different foods helps us identify useful substances.

· Vegetarian: eats no animal meat but does eat products. Vegans do not eat animal products.

· Food additives: substances that are added to food. Some give change to colour, taste, preservation or consistency.

How substances are stored

WHY DO ORGANISMS STORE SUBSTANCES?

· So that they can survive when food is unavailable or scarce

· Man can survive several weeks

WHERE ARE SUBSTANCES STORED?

· The main storage place is the liver for humans.

· For plants they swell up and make the swelling the storage place. The plant storage organ can survive harsh conditions then a new plant spouts and the food is moved there.

PLANTS STORAGE SYSTEM

· Green plants produce glucose that is either used straight away or turned into starch and converted back to glucose when needed.

· Other substances can be made from glucose in plants (oil, sugar)

REQUIREMENTS FOR TURNING STARCH INTO GLUCOSE

· Enzyme

· Can be tested with starch

HOW STARCH IS TURNED INTO GLUCOSE

· Glucose molecules join together and coil up forming a starch grain (condensation)

· The starch grain can de-coil and split up forming Glucose (hydrolysis)

ANIMALS STORAGE SYSTEM

· Get glucose from food

· They turn glucose into glycogen

· Glycogen is a bondage of glucose molecules linked together

· Stored in the liver

· It is also stored as fat

MOBILISATION

· This is when a solid form of food has to be transported and it is broken down into a solution.

· Starch and glycogen are broken down into glucose.

· Fat is broken down into fatty acids and glycerol

IMPORTANCE OF FOOD STORES

· Storage of food in organisms usually mean they are going to be packed together closely, this means anything like this can be a rich source for humans

Obtaining energy from food

FOOD CONTAINING ENERGY

· We can check this by burning food and estimating the amount of heat given out. (kJ)

· kJ per Gram carbohydrates-17, fat-39, protein-18

ENERGY CONTAINED IN FOOD

· determines how it should be cooked

· Depends on substances inside the food.

ENERGY PER DAY

· Basal metabolic rate: rate at which body processes take place

· Roughly 7000kj per day if lying down doing nothing

· At least 9200 kJ per day for doing nothing but essential tasks

EXCESS EATING

· Most excess not used is turned into fat. Body weight increases

· Obesity is when we take in more energy (through food) than we give out.

· More exercise, consumption of less energy-containing foods stop or decrease obesity

MINIMAL EATING (STARVATION)

· First energy stores from fat will be used up.

· Takes energy from muscles

· Becomes thin and weak

· Anorexia nervosa: psychological loss of appetite

· Marasmus wasting away due to starvation

Energy release-respiration

FOOD BURNING

· Oxygen is needed

· Carbon dioxide, water and heat are produced

ENERGY PRODUCTION IN HUMANS

· C6H12O6 + 6O2à 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY

· We can check the relationship between O2+CO2 and breaking down of food by using radioactive tracers and mice.

ENERGY USES

· Animal-movement, messages, transportation, warmth, growth, cell division, osmosis, and life!

· Plants taking up mineral salts, opening/closing stomata, transporting food substances, growth, cell division, osmosis, and life!

CHEMISTRY OF RESPIRATION

· Respirometer measures amount of oxygen taken in

· Energy produced from glucose is linked to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

· Breakdown of glucose is used to make ATP

· ATP not Glucose gives energy towards muscle contractions