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Sexually Transmitted Disease A Survey Essay Research

Sexually Transmitted Disease A Survey Essay, Research Paper MethodsSubjects Adults (over the age of 18) from the _ company and other people who I know were randomly assigned to receive the survey. The group includes married males and females as well as single male and females. There are 19 female and 31 male subjects.

Sexually Transmitted Disease A Survey Essay, Research Paper

MethodsSubjects Adults (over the age of 18) from the _________ company and other people who I know were randomly assigned to receive the survey. The group includes married males and females as well as single male and females. There are 19 female and 31 male subjects. Measures A survey consisting of twenty statements concerning sexually transmitted disease and HIV infection. The survey was designed by myself . The purpose of the survey is to measure participants awareness of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. I am trying to show that people are not well informed about subjects such as condom use, condom use and alcohol, transmission of sexual diseases, and the magnitude of the AIDS problem. Subjects are asked to choose the level with which they agree or disagree with each statement. There are two levels of agreement and two levels of disagreement. See appendix A. A consent form was signed by all participants. See appendix B. Results t-test*: t (48) = -2.2185, p | | | df cv pv Variable N Mean Std Dev. Minimum MaximumQ1 50 1.420 0 .810 1.00 4.00 Q10 49 1.408 0.810 1.00 4.00 Q15 50 1.320 0 .621 1.00 4.00 Q3 48 3.396 0.869 1.00 4.00 Q9 50 3.240 0.822 1.00 4.00 Q6 50 3.220 0.834 1.00 4.00 Q16 50 3.100 0.621 1.00 4.00MethodsSubjects Adults (over the age of 18) from the Wiremold company and other people who I know were randomly assigned to receive the survey. The group includes married males and females as well as single male and females. There are 19 female and 21 male subjects. Ages ranged from late teens to early fifties, with the majority being in their twenties.Independent variable Questions 6, 9, 13, and 16 on the survey. I would be comfortable eating lunch with someone with HIV or AIDS.I would be comfortable shaking hands with someone who has AIDS.I am very well informed about HIV, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.I would not have unprotected sex with someone unless they got tested first.Dependent Variable. Awareness and education of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease.Operational Definition Awareness and education of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease equals a total score of 12 or higher on questions 6, 9, 13, and 16 of the survey. Procedures A survey consisting of twenty statements concerning sexually transmitted disease and AIDS was given to fifty subjects. A t test was performed on the results as well as a comparison of male vs. Female scores on the Awareness and Education variable. Discussion Results of the survey have shown a need for additional education of males concerning AIDS awareness and education. Females, (89%) did very well on the variable which was measured for satisfactory knowledge and awareness of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease. Males, (65%) did also score well on this variable. This leaves us with 35% of the males needing more education and 11% of the females needing to increase there awareness and education. The rather large number of males needing further education tend to support my hypotheses that yes more education is necessary. I was pleased to see that on the whole, people are better informed than I had originally hypothesized as demonstrated by the scores reported for specific question. The lowest score or strongest disagreement was on the statement that AIDS was no longer a big issue. People also realize that just having one sex partner at a time is not enough to protect you from AIDS as demonstrated by their response to number 10. The strongest agreement with statements on the survey concerned worrying about children’s future.This being the case, why is it that behavior as is described in my research does not reflect this knowledge? People know what they need to do to reduce their chances of exposure to AIDS and sexually transmitted disease but they fail to do it. The research concentrated on students who are exposed to much more information about AIDS than adults who are out of the educational system. Further education about the dangers of unprotected sex is needed as the study suggest, but we also need to understand why education is not enough. We desperately need to develop behaviors which will protect us from sexually transmitted disease and AIDS. Education Needed for AIDS, HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health concern for our country. With the spread of AIDS among so many people, both gay and heterosexual, it is important that we understand how these diseases spread and what we can do to prevent them. Continuing efforts to educate college students about the dangers of unprotected sex have resulted in little evidence of positive change in sexual behavior (Saywer & Moss, 93). During the 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the cause of AIDS, emerged as a leading cause of death in the United.States). In 1993, HIV infection became the most common cause of death among persons aged 25-44 years.(Center for Disease Control) Because of the long latency period for HIV a large number of these people may have become infected during the ages of 18 to 24 the ages of most college students. One of the national health objectives for the year 2000 for the college age population is a reduction in unintended pregnancy and transmission of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, including and HIV /AIDS.. Studies have shown a need for educational interventions and future in-depth studies of college students. An example is a study which showed that a group of college males who had a history of sexually transmitted diseases, high numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent condom use still perceived their risk of HIV/AIDS infection as very low.(Sawyer and Moss, 93). College students are thought to be at high risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases because of their high level of sexual activity and their potential for multiple sex partners Studies have shown that even students who consider themselves in long term relationships often experience casual sex with another partner ( Sawyer and Moss,93 ). Multiple partners seem to be the norm rather than the exception. Sawyer and Moss (1993), reported that 21% of the men sampled have had 2 to 3 sexual partners,33% 4 to 6 partners and 39% 7 or more sexual partners. Another study reported an average of 6 different lifetime partners among female college students. ( Kusseling, Wenger and Shapiro 95 ) It becomes very obvious that with this type of activity occurring, the need for protection from STD is very important. The most obvious and easiest course of action would be for college students to abstain from sex, have a monogamous relationship with someone who is not infected, or reduce the risk of infection by using condoms, but this is not happening as the following studies have shown. Nicholas D. Ritchie, PhD, and Adelaide Getty, RN, BHS, CHES (1994). Francoise S. Kusseling, MOB; Neil S. Wenger, MD, MPH; and Martin F. Shapiro, MD, PhD. (1995). Barbara A De Buono,M.D., M.P.H., Stephen H Zinner, M.D., Maxim Daamen, M.D., and William M. McCormack, M.D. (1989). Anita Raj, M.S., and Robert H Pollack, PhD., (1995). Tina M. Brien,MSEd; Dennis L. Thombs, PhD; Colleen A. Mahoney,PhD; and Larry Wallnau, PhD. (1993) Robin G Sawyer,Phd, and Donald J. Moss, MD. (1993) Condom use by female college students was reported to be 23% initially and 27% after a six month follow up, in a study of women attending a health clinic ( Kusseling, Wenger and Shapiro 95 ) Another study designed to compare college women’s sexual activity before and after the start of the current HIV and genital herpes virus epidemic, concluded that there had been little change is sexual practices with the exception of increased use of condoms which still had not reached the 50% point (DeBuno, Zinner, Daamen, McCormack 90). Another study of college females done in 95 showed that 64% did not regularly use condoms ( Raj and Pollack ,95 ). In one study done by Sawyer and Moss,(1993 ) of college men reporting to a clinic for treatment of an Sexually Transmitted Diseases 75% of the subjects reported never or only occasionally using condoms. One of the reasons that students do not use condoms is because they consume alcohol before they engage in sex. The alcohol acts as a disinhibitor effecting the students judgment to have sex and whether or not to use condoms for protection. In one study of 243 college students 81% of students over 21 said that they had at least once had sex because of intoxication. ( Butcher,Manning,O’Neal, 91have sex due to intoxication. Over 18% of students in another study said that they had abandoned safe sex techniques due to alcohol (Meilmand, (1993). The dangerous interaction between alcohol use and high risk sexual activities suggested that college HIV prevention efforts should make the connection between the two risk factors explicit. ( Butcher,Manning,O’Neal, 91). Other reasons for the lack of condom use among college students are their lack of confidence in discussing and using condoms. Some of the lack of confidence in discussing condom use is that many students are afraid that their partner will think that either they have a disease or that they are afraid of catching one from them . Either way they feel there is a very high chance of rejection if the topic of condoms were brought up. Communication self- efficacy was the best discriminator between those who initiate discussion about condom use and those who don’t. They felt confident in their ability to insist on condom use and to handle any arguments that might come up.(Brien, Thombs, Mahoney, and Wallnau. 1993). It is important that we recognize the need for education about AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases . This study will investigate peoples understanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. It will show that more education is necessary to help control the spread of these diseases . Students have been given the most education about AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases yet they do not have an accurate understanding of their chances of getting AIDS. The general population doesn’t have exposure to all of the AIDS awareness training that the students do so I feel that they will know even less. The hypothesis for this research is the following. People do not have an accurate understanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. More education is needed for the general population. Education Needed for AIDS, HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases _____________________ Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health concern for our country. With the spread of AIDS among so many people, both gay and heterosexual, it is important that we understand how these diseases spread and what we can do to prevent them. During the 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the cause of AIDS, emerged as a leading cause of death in the United.States). In 1993, HIV infection became the most common cause of death among persons aged 25-44 years.(Center for Disease Control) Studies have shown a need for educational interventions and future in-depth studies of college students. An example is a study which showed that a group of college males who had a history of sexually transmitted diseases, high numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent condom use still perceived their risk of HIV/AIDS infection as very low.(Sawyer and Moss, 93).This study will investigate peoples understanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. It will show that more education is necessary to help control the spread of these diseases .The hypothesis for this research is the following. People do not have an accurate understanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. More education is needed for the general population. Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health concern for our country. With the spread of AIDS among so many people, both gay and heterosexual, it is important that we understand how these diseases spread and what we can do to prevent them. During the 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the cause of AIDS, emerged as a leading cause of death in the United.States). In 1993, HIV infection became the most common cause of death among persons aged 25-44 years.(Center for Disease Control) Studies have shown a need for educational interventions and future in-depth studies of college students. An example is a study which showed that a group of college males who had a history of sexually transmitted diseases, high numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent condom use still perceived their risk of HIV/AIDS infection as very low.(Sawyer and Moss, 93).College students are probably the best informed about AIDS and yet they still need more education as their sexual behavior indicates. If this group of well educated individuals needs more education, what does the general public need in the area of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease education. The way most people learn is through the news, magazines and the newspaper. I do not think that this is enough.This study will investigate peoples understanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. It will show that more education is necessary to help control the spread of these diseases .The hypothesis for this research is the following. People do not have an accurate understanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. More education is needed for the general population.

SURVEY Survey instructions The following questions are a survey being done for a Psychology 221 research course. There are 20 questions about your ideas, beliefs and sexual behavior related to HIV and Sexually transmitted diseases. The time to complete this survey should be 15 to 20 minutes, so please take your time and consider each question carefully and try to answer as truthfully as possible. The survey is completely confidential as I will not ask for your name or student ID. Number. The purpose of this survey is to better understand the need for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases education. If at any time you do not feel comfortable responding to a statement you may skip it or decide to stop taking the survey. If you decide to stop taking the survey and leave please take the unfinished survey with you to discard to assure your privacy. Each statement is responded to by circling the most correct number under each statement. Your answers are numbered from 1 through 4. Below is a chart explaining the rating for each answer. 1. Totally disagree or None of the time2. Disagree somewhat or Sometimes3. Agree somewhat or Usually4. Totally agree or All the time Consent Form Date____________ I, _________________________, state that I am over 18 years of age and that I voluntarily agree to participate in a research project conducted by ______________ psychology student at ______. The research is being conducted in order to better understand the need for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Disease education. The specific task I will perform requires me to fill out a survey about my beliefs about HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, my chances of getting the HIV virus and my beliefs concerning condom use and safe sex practices.. I will not be asked to identify myself in relation to the survey which I fill out. I acknowledge that ______________ has explained the task to me fully; has informed me that I may withdraw from participation at any time without prejudice or penalty; has offered to answer any questions I might have concerning the research procedure; has assured me that any information that I give will be used for research purposes only and will be kept confidential. I also acknowledge that the benefits derived from, or rewards given for, my participation have been fully explained to me-as well as alternative methods if available, for earning these rewards-and that I have been promised, upon completion of the research task, a brief description of the role my specific performance plays in this project. There will be no reimbursement for your participation from me (_____________) or the school. __________________________ ___________________________SIGNATURE OF RESEARCHER SIGNATURE OF PARTICIPANT __________________ Education Needed for AIDS, HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Central Connecticut State University Abstract Results of the survey have shown a need for additional education of males concerning AIDS awareness and education. Females, (89%) did very well on the variable which was measured for satisfactory knowledge and awareness of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease. Males, (65%) did also score well on this variable. This leaves us with 35% of the males needing more education and 11% of the females needing to increase there awareness and education. The rather large number of males needing further education tend to support my hypotheses that yes more education is necessary. On the whole, people are better informed than had originally been hypothesized. Measures SurveyMy age is___________My sex is___________My education level is______________Check one, I am single _________, married __________, divorced __________I have children and their ages are 1-10 _____, 11-15______, 16-20_____, 21+ _____ 1. Aids is a lower income and gay problem, I don’t need to worry.2. I would never go out with someone who was HIV positive, or who had AIDS.3. I worry about my children’s future and them getting AIDS or other sexually transmitted diseases.4. People now have fewer sex partners due to AIDS.5. People use condoms more frequently because of AIDS.6. I would be comfortable eating lunch with someone with HIV or AIDS.7. People do not use condoms as much after they have been drinking.8. People know enough about AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases.9. I would be comfortable shaking hands with someone who has AIDS.10. As long as you only have one sex partner you are safe.11. I don’t worry about sexually transmitted diseases.12. I believe that our educational system has been effective in presenting AIDS related information to students.13. I am very well informed about HIV, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.14. We spend too much money on AIDS related research. It would be better spent on cancer research which is more important.15. I do not think HIV and AIDS is such a big problem anymore.16. I would not have unprotected sex with someone unless they got tested first.17. People are more likely to become sexually involved if they have been drinking.18. I would feel comfortable discussing condom use with a potential sexual partner before ever having any sexual contact.19. Most single people usually have had a few drinks before they have sex.20. People who get HIV and AIDS kind of deserve it for being stupid 1———-2—————-3——————4 Circle 1 for totally disagree 2 for somewhat disagree 3 for somewhat agree 4 totally agree References Nicholas D. Ritchie, PhD, and Adelaide Getty, RN, BHS, CHES (1994). Did an AIDS peer education program change first-year college students’ behaviors? The journal of American college Health , January vol 42, 163-166 Dona Schneider, PhD, MPH; Micheal R. Greenberg, PhD; Monica Devanas, PhD; Anu Sajja, MPH; Fern Goodhart, CHES; and David Burns, AM (1994). Evaluating HIV/AIDS Education in the University Setting. Journal of American College Health, vol 43, 11-15. James Jaccard, PhD; Ruth Andrea Levinson, PhD; and Luann Beamer, MA. (1994). Student Opinion Leaders and HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Risk Behavior. Journal of American College Health, 1995, vol 43, (5) March, p 216- 223 Barbara A De Buono,M.D., M.P.H., Stephen H Zinner, M.D., Maxim Daamen, M.D., and William M. McCormack, M.D. (1989). Sexual behavior of college women in 1975, 1986, and 1989. New England Journal of Medicine, 1990 vol 322 (12), March. P 821-825 Robin G Sawyer,Phd, and Donald J. Moss, MD. (1993). Sexually transmitted diseases in college men: A preliminary clinical investigation. Journal of American College Health 1993, vol 42 (3) November, p111-115 Anita Raj, M.S., and Robert H Pollack, PhD., (1995). Factors predicting High-Risk sexual behavior in hetrosexual college females. Journal of sex and marital Therapy, Vol. 21, No.3, Fall, 213-223 Francoise S. Kusseling, MOB; Neil S. Wenger, MD, MPH; and Martin F. Shapiro, MD, PhD. (1995). Inconsistent Contraceptive Use Among Female College Students: Implications for Intervention. Vol 43,march191-194 Tina M. Brien,MSEd; Dennis L. Thombs, PhD; Colleen A. Mahoney,PhD; and Larry Wallnau, PhD. Dimensions of Self-Efficacy Among Three Distinct Groups of Condom Users. Journal of American College Health Vol 42 January Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention1996 Vol. 45, No. 6 February 16 Philip W Meilman PhD. Alcohol Induced Sexual Behavior on Campus. Journal of American College Health. Vol 42, (1) July 1993 p 27-31 MethodsSubjects Adults (over the age of 18) from the _________ company and other people who I know were randomly assigned to receive the survey. The group includes married males and females as well as single male and females. There are 19 female and 31 male subjects. Measures A survey consisting of twenty statements concerning sexually transmitted disease and HIV infection. The survey was designed by myself . The purpose of the survey is to measure participants awareness of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. I am trying to show that people are not well informed about subjects such as condom use, condom use and alcohol, transmission of sexual diseases, and the magnitude of the AIDS problem. Subjects are asked to choose the level with which they agree or disagree with each statement. There are two levels of agreement and two levels of disagreement. See appendix A. A consent form was signed by all participants. See appendix B. Results t-test*: t (48) = -2.2185, p | | | df cv pv Variable N Mean Std Dev. Minimum MaximumQ1 50 1.420 0 .810 1.00 4.00 Q10 49 1.408 0.810 1.00 4.00 Q15 50 1.320 0 .621 1.00 4.00 Q3 48 3.396 0.869 1.00 4.00 Q9 50 3.240 0.822 1.00 4.00 Q6 50 3.220 0.834 1.00 4.00 Q16 50 3.100 0.621 1.00 4.00MethodsSubjects Adults (over the age of 18) from the Wiremold company and other people who I know were randomly assigned to receive the survey. The group includes married males and females as well as single male and females. There are 19 female and 21 male subjects. Ages ranged from late teens to early fifties, with the majority being in their twenties.Independent variable Questions 6, 9, 13, and 16 on the survey. I would be comfortable eating lunch with someone with HIV or AIDS.I would be comfortable shaking hands with someone who has AIDS.I am very well informed about HIV, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.I would not have unprotected sex with someone unless they got tested first.Dependent Variable. Awareness and education of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease.Operational Definition Awareness and education of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease equals a total score of 12 or higher on questions 6, 9, 13, and 16 of the survey. Procedures A survey consisting of twenty statements concerning sexually transmitted disease and AIDS was given to fifty subjects. A t test was performed on the results as well as a comparison of male vs. Female scores on the Awareness and Education variable. Discussion Results of the survey have shown a need for additional education of males concerning AIDS awareness and education. Females, (89%) did very well on the variable which was measured for satisfactory knowledge and awareness of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease. Males, (65%) did also score well on this variable. This leaves us with 35% of the males needing more education and 11% of the females needing to increase there awareness and education. The rather large number of males needing further education tend to support my hypotheses that yes more education is necessary. I was pleased to see that on the whole, people are better informed than I had originally hypothesized as demonstrated by the scores reported for specific question. The lowest score or strongest disagreement was on the statement that AIDS was no longer a big issue. People also realize that just having one sex partner at a time is not enough to protect you from AIDS as demonstrated by their response to number 10. The strongest agreement with statements on the survey concerned worrying about children’s future.This being the case, why is it that behavior as is described in my research does not reflect this knowledge? People know what they need to do to reduce their chances of exposure to AIDS and sexually transmitted disease but they fail to do it. The research concentrated on students who are exposed to much more information about AIDS than adults who are out of the educational system. Further education about the dangers of unprotected sex is needed as the study suggest, but we also need to understand why education is not enough. We desperately need to develop behaviors which will protect us from sexually transmitted disease and AIDS. Education Needed for AIDS, HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health concern for our country. With the spread of AIDS among so many people, both gay and heterosexual, it is important that we understand how these diseases spread and what we can do to prevent them. Continuing efforts to educate college students about the dangers of unprotected sex have resulted in little evidence of positive change in sexual behavior (Saywer & Moss, 93). During the 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the cause of AIDS, emerged as a leading cause of death in the United.States). In 1993, HIV infection became the most common cause of death among persons aged 25-44 years.(Center for Disease Control) Because of the long latency period for HIV a large number of these people may have become infected during the ages of 18 to 24 the ages of most college students. One of the national health objectives for the year 2000 for the college age population is a reduction in unintended pregnancy and transmission of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, including and HIV /AIDS.. Studies have shown a need for educational interventions and future in-depth studies of college students. An example is a study which showed that a group of college males who had a history of sexually transmitted diseases, high numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent condom use still perceived their risk of HIV/AIDS infection as very low.(Sawyer and Moss, 93). College students are thought to be at high risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases because of their high level of sexual activity and their potential for multiple sex partners Studies have shown that even students who consider themselves in long term relationships often experience casual sex with another partner ( Sawyer and Moss,93 ). Multiple partners seem to be the norm rather than the exception. Sawyer and Moss (1993), reported that 2

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