The Islamic Conquests Essay, Research Paper
No time 641 Islamic
conquest overrun near East and Herealeion dead.? Worse crisis than anytime Persian war. ?
Very little evidence ?
oral history very difficult to rely on ?
Double mill tribal
tradition, ulama to create and develop new religion ? Islam. ?
Latw 620s ? tribes of
Ariabia united under Prophet Muhammed ? begins raids into Palestine. ?
Provinces begin 633 ? rapid as Transjordan, Palestine and Syria surrender. ?
635 ? Damascus fell,
636 Yarmuk battle north of Joran ? Muslims win ?
in 638 ? decisive defeat of Egypt in 641, Dara, Edessa and Antiochlost. ?
regains Alexandria, but 646 Egypt in Roman hands. ?
640s press on and
attack Taurus mountains, Anatolian plateau, Hakkari mountains and through
Azerbaidjan into Armenia.? 653-4
citizens of Constantinople see Muslim army on Bosphorus. ?
By 650 Muslims have
ended Sasanian state of Persia.? Old
political order come to a rapid and unexpected end. ?
Why? Arabs were excellent
warriors, united Allies, like confederate Roman allies, much more of a threat. ?
Not eternal enemy ?
groups of Arabs all around the enemy and used by Romans as confederates ?
usually attacked each other as they tried to gain grace and as next
Confederate.? After 19 yr absence no
surprise that inter Arab battle for membership confederacy. Everyone suspecting
victors integrated into Roman world. ?
Romans gone for a long
time in these places ? generations not know Roman rule ? Muslim Aabsmust have
seen desirable continuation of state affairs. ?
Muslims in 630 under
one leader and not following ideology of Constantinople ? messianic anto Roman
fervour as well. ?
Fight back??? Drained after previous wars, in 629 Eastern
provinces no recovered.? As history of
area shows once major forts gone 0 decisive battle at Yamuk forcing Roman
regroup at Anatolia ? difficult situation to resolve.? Without eastern provinces and war weary empire lacked the
resources and the allies for such an endeavour.