Prussia And Germany Key Dates Essay

Prussia And Germany ? Key Dates Essay, Research Paper

1809-Austria lose to Napoleon again and lose, conclude

reform is bad. 1813- Prussia fight against Napoleon again and are vicotious

persevere with reform. 1815-Vienna settlement, Prussia gains Ruhr, North Saxony,

Aachen-Cologne-Krefield triangle.

German confederation set up under the leadership of Austria. 1818-Prussia removes customs barriers (domestic tariff

system) 1834- Zollverein lauched including 18 states. 1836- Zollverein extended to 25 states. 1846-7- Disasterous corn harvests and Potato bilght in

Germany Oct 1847-Baden makes demands for a ?German people?s

parliament? 1848- A series of revolutions took place throughout Europe,

in the case of Germany the result was a failure of democracy to operate effectively

and efficiently. May 1948-First meeting of the Frankfurt assembly 1849-Bismarck sent as Prussian ambassidor to German

confederation in Frankfurt. 1849-New liberal parliament established in Prussia in the

aftermath of the 1848 revolutions. 1862- Bismarck appointed Chacellor to push army reforms

through parliament.(Monarch William I) 1863-The Polish revolt ? Prussia ensures Russian neutrality

by supporting them over this issue amidst widespread support for the Poles by

the other major powers. 1864- War with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein joint with

Austria 1865 ? Creation of North German confederation whilst Austria

was preoccupied by Piedmont-Hungary. 1866-Austro-Prussian war 1870-1 Franco-Prussian war. Jan 18th 1871- Germany united under Prussian leadership

in Versailles palace. Russia: 1801-Tsar Paul assasinated 1801-1825-Alexander I Tsar. 1801- Alexander repeals most of the harsh repression under

Tsar Paul. Partially due to pressure from Count Pahlen. 5th June 1801- Law commission set up in order to

establish a new legal code. 1801- Permenant council established in order to council Tsar

in matter of state. 1803- Allows voluntary emancipation of the serfs by masters. 1807-Unofficial committee voluntarily disbanded. 1809- Speransky?s reforms were presented to Alexander. Alexander accepts them in principle but

never puts them into practise, he was not willing to give up supreme autocratic

power. 1809-Invasion of Napoleon. 1810- Council of State introduced ? part of Speransky?s

reform program. Nov 1810- 1st Military colony under Count

Arakcheyev. March 1812- Speransky dismissed. 1815- The Vienna settlement. Alexander expected to be

liberal as he had been in Europe. 1815 onwards- Steadily moved away from liberal ideas towards

brutal repression. 16 September 1815: Alexander introduces the ?Holy Alliance? 1817- Alexander becomes obcessed with the idea that the only

true education was based in religion.

Under Prince A N Golitsyn, a ?purging? of the universities took place. 1819- Novosiltov?s plan for constitution- went further than

Speransky, again approved in principle but not put into practise. 1825-55- Nicholas I Tsar. Dec 1825- Gap of a

few weeks between Tsars as Nicholas and Constantine proclaim the other Tsar -

results in ?Decemberist revolt?-swiftly put down by Nicholas. 1833- Count Uvarov came up with the formula ? ?Orthodoxy?

the orthadox church, ?Autocracy? the tsarist system of govt. and ?Nationality?

sought to defend unique Russian culture against western encroachment. 1826-1836- Nicholas establishes his 5 sections 1st-Reorganisation of administration of the Tsar 2nd-Codification of Laws-Speransky-40 volumes 3rd-Originally to route out corruption in public

office. Eventually became repressive

secret police force. 4th-Education and Charities 5th-State peasants. 1854-56- Crimean war. France and Britain supporting

Catholics and Turkey respectively and Russia supporting Orthodox preists. 1855-81-Alexander II Tsar. 1856-86 ? Number of schools increased from 8000 to 23000 1861- Alexander II emancipates the serfs. 1863- Education reformed. 1864 ? Justice system and Local government included

introduction of local government in the form of the zemstvas. 1870 ? Dumas introduced. 1871 ? Preliminary censorship restored and third section

strengthened – Shuvalov 1874 ? Army reformed 1860-1880 ? Railways increased *14, Coal produced *16, Steel

production *10 1881-94 ? Alexander III Tsar 1891 ? Tariffs on imported goods imposed. These huge tariffs raised the cost of living

to artificially high levels. 1894-1917 ? Nicholas II Tsar 1903 ? Witte dismissed. –

Port Arthur in Manchuria taken by the Japanese 1904 ? Russians began strike on the port. Jan 2nd 1905 ? Port falls to the Japanese. Jan 22nd 1905 ? ?Bloody Sunday? ? peaceful

peasant demonstration of strikers led by Father Gapon?s Supporters fired upon

by troops. Jan 23rd 1905 ? Strikes break out and martial law

declared. Jan 29th 1905 ? Calm restored. Oct 1905 ? The October Manifesto promised –

a council of ministers –

a full range of civil liberities –

extension of the franchise –

a Duma to approve legislation. 24th Nov ? New press law abolished preliminary

censorship 11th Dec ? New electoral law said who could vote.

This was biased towards the ?haves? of society April 1906 ? Fundamental law states ?Supreme autocratic

power belongs to the emporer of all Russia.? April 27th 1906 ? 1st Duma meets.


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