Constitution Essay, Research Paper
Great Britain did not want to build a define system, the institutions have been made step by step depending on the circonstances. Institutions are a product of history.
By reading Montesquieu, Great Britain has discovered they had a constitution. This one is not written because it is the fruit of use and habits, this system is a monarchy.
On the other end, U.S.A. was born at the end of the 18th century.the new world is going to provide its own institutions even if american institutions are as the british one. Like the english, the american were inspired by Lockes and Montesquieu. This systeme is fedral. It would be interesting to compare the executive system of those countries.
Concerning the candidates to the elections, they are choosen by the (convention?) party in America, about Great Britain the candidate is the chief of the leading party. The major ressemblance between them concern the way how they are elected because it is by an indirect manner, not like in France. The Common and Lords houses are in charge of the election of the Prime Minister and the great electors of the american president. As soon as they will be elected, they will have many roles. First, they will become the army and administration rulers. In fact, even if they do not controll it in a day to day manner, they give up the instructions. Secondly, they have to nominate and design the principal civil servant. In Great Britain, it is the length of service which permet to place secretaries, the older are call offices , for exemple foreign office. Both have the same kind of power to change the administration as they wish. In america, the president can dismiss the civil servant, and in Great Britain, the prime minister can create a new ministery in case of need.
Anyway, differences appear concerning their respective responsabilities.
In America, the impeachment engage the penal responsability of the president in case of high treason, but he can not be judge for his general politic. In opposition, a motion of censure can be vote against the governemental politic of the prime minister and he can be oblige to resign. About america, an indirect kind of pression can be done on the gouvernement for an agreement with the parliament. In fact, the conflict is on the governemental politic but there is no resign.
There is also a difference because the Prime Minister is responsible in front of his party so, if he is in minority, he will have to dismiss contrary to America where a kind of cohabitation exist between the president and the opposition, this is call the bipartisanship , it happens when the president does not have the majority to the congress.
Concerning their mandate, the american president can be elected twice on opposition to the Prime Minister which can be reelected several times.
The Prime minister and the american president really represent the keys of their system. And even if in england there is a Queen, she just has a consultative role, and her presence represent more the tradition than an active role in the executive system.