The Need For Communication In Business Essay

, Research Paper

??????????? I have been assigned to solve a firm?s communication

crisis after the purchase of a new production site 50 miles from London. The

company employs 120 people. This has led to split between the staff and

workers. The two diagrams show how the business will configure its

communication before and after the change.Network

chart before change: Administration Director Human Resources Director Production Director Marketing Director Finance Director Managing Directors Board of Directors ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????? Network chart after change: Human Resources Director These diagrams show the differences before and after

the company has split and moved away to different locations. The diagrams show

the hierarchy level of how the directors stand against each other and also the

span of control. Each director will not have easy access to another director

due to the distance of each site.Good

Communication is extremely important in any business, without it there is not

much point. Having good communication between the managers, directors, workers

and others is necessary so that goals can be achieved and that everyone will

have good understanding between each other. ?Communication ? social intercourse, the

science and practice of transmitting information.? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

Oxford Concise Dictionary ?Communication ? messages passed between

a sender and a receiver through a medium such as a letter or a fax.? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

GCSE Business Studies SE ?Communication is the process of sharing

ideas, information, and messages with others in a particular time and place.

Communication includes writing and talking, as well ass non-verbal

communication (such as facial expressions, body language, or gestures), visual

communication (the use of images or pictures such as painting, photography, video

or film) and electronic communication (telephone calls, electronic mail, cable

television, or satellite broadcasts). Communication is a vital part of personal

life and is also important in business, education, and any other situation

where people encounter each other.? Encarta OnLine ?Communication

takes place when one mind acts upon its environment that another mind is

influenced, and in that other mind an experience occurs which is like the

experience in the first mind, and is caused in part by that experience.? Britannica OnLine ?Communication ?

If there is no communication in the business, there is not much point of

running it.? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

Elizabeth Tonogbanua All businesses have objectives and targets which all must be fulfilled.

The main goals of businesses include pleasing customers and obviously gaining

money. These can only be done with support from every member of staff and help

from suppliers and allies. With poor conditions of interaction in a business, nothing will be

achieved. For example, if an order placed through requested a certain amount of

an item and the order came through with less than required, then you?ll have a

weary customer. This would damage the business? reputation and trust from the

customer. With perfect or adequate communication between staff, problems like

these are certain not to happen. There are several ways how people and businesses interact with each

other. Here are a few of these methods. Talking to people is the

easiest way to interact with one another. This can be done by verbal

communication face-to-face. During meetings and gatherings people express

themselves with their body language and tone of verbal language. This way

everyone can understand what exactly is going on because it is immediate and

straightforward. Most messages and notes are placed on paper. Sometimes whenever someone is unavailable, a written message

is left for him or her. Telephone messages are recorded on paper then passed on

to the recipient. Most long messages are sent electronically

via e-mail or fax. Sometimes documents can be attached to e-mail with a message

or vice-versa. Its not just e-mail that is involved in electronic

communication, it also involves faxes and telephones. Messages can be passed on

verbally via telephones or intercom. Some computers are programmed through a

network with instant messengers. You can have a written conversation using

these. You also have a choice of talking within a group (conference) or

privately (PMs). Each method is used in a relative way compared to what the task is,

whether it is internal or external. Internal Communication includes verbal

communication, e-mail, memos, intercom via telephones, computer network,

notices and messages, and also through meetings. External communication

includes fax, telephone, mobile, pager, video conferencing, the Internet,

e-mail, and through a computer network.??????????? We

call communication that takes place indoors internal communication. This involves verbal interaction, e-mail,

written memos, intercom or telephone, through a network, notices, and obviously

at meetings. ??????????? When conversations between staff occur during

meetings or small gatherings in different areas, we call this verbal communication. One advantage of

talking is because it is immediate and straightforward. One disadvantage of

this is that there is no record kept of the conversation. E-mail can be classified as

internal as well as external because mail can be sent anywhere as long as it is

to a specified address of another staff member, for example, too far to reach

within the building. Once e-mail has been sent, it should be received straight

away. This is a convenient way of sending long messages or documents. One bad

disadvantage of using e-mail is that you can receive viruses and maybe send

them accidentally. This would give the firm a bad reputation. Another problem

is that you need a computer or a device that is able to send and receive

e-mail; this might lead to a large amount of money being spent on machines. Written memos and notices are mainly short messages or notes on paper. Whenever

someone is unavailable then the message is written on paper. These aren?t as

reliable because you?ll never know when the recipient will come back. Telephones are the easiest way of

communicating within a building. Calls can be transferred from one department

to another via intercom to provide

help and service, as long there is a phone around. Through a network you can access your work from any computer on the network.

To keep your work private and safe passwords are necessary. Some computers are

programmed with instant messengers where you can chat to each other using

these. One disadvantage of having a network is that thousands of pounds will

have to be invested for buying computers. The other great danger of using a

network is that data put into the network may not be safe. There may be a lack

of security in the system. If another party get hold of someone?s data, the

Data Protection Act would be violated. Meetings take place when necessary,

normally when scheduled. These are conferences between the top of the

hierarchy. When the company communicates with another

party other than the firm, we call this external

communication. This involves fax, telephone, mobile phone or pager, video

conferencing, e-mail, through a network, and also the Internet. Fax is a way of sending forms

and documents all over the world via telephone lines. Documents come in clear

but can sometimes take their time. Fax can authorise documents with a

signature. The sender and receiver must both have fax machines. Fax machines

are relatively cheap, as there are different ways of communication emerging.

Fax machines are quite expensive depending on quality. To have one machine in

each department would be a heavy cost. Mobile phones are the latest trends in technology

with nearly every businessman having one. Verbal interaction can be received

and sent whenever as long as there is network coverage. People can also

communicate by sending each other text messages (SMS). Telephones are used everywhere and still is the most used method of

reaching someone far. Pagers can

only receive messages. These are very efficient when a supervisor is

unavailable because you can chat or text them whenever necessary. ??????????? Video

conferencing is a good way of dealing with a meeting where members are

unable to attend. By the aid of cable connections members can speak and hear

clearly with each other. One great disadvantage to this is the cost of holding

a meeting on-line, but it is cheaper than travelling from different locations.

One issue concerning video conferencing involves the use of VDU equipment. This

equipment must be operated and positioned at the correct expense. There must be

breaks in between usage. The 1993 General Application Regulations require

employers to carry a risk assessment of the VDU workstation. For those who use

video conferencing frequently should have eye tests provided by the company.

This issue is taken from the Health and Safety Act. The Internet is an interactive network

provides a range and variety of web sites, including email. You can use video

conferencing through the Internet provided you have the right hardware and

software. There are already programs such as NetMeeting, which allow you to do

so. The Internet is also available on WAP

(wireless application protocol) phones this allows mobile phone users to

connect to the Internet via their mobile phone. Information can be given and

received via e-mail and from web sites. You can interact using instant

messengers or through a variety of chat rooms. One disadvantage of the Internet

is that hackers could make their way through the firm?s database without

authorisation. This would evade the Data Protection Act. Documents and graphics can be sent through e-mail. They are then received straight

away after sending. If you are through a network

you can access your work and e-mail anywhere on a computer, which is part of

that network. One disadvantage of using e-mail is that if the server brakes

down you will not be able to send or receive your mail. ??????????? The

Data Protection Act controls the way information is passed on computers. The

Act refers to data users (the person who stores data) and data subjects (anyone

who has information stored by the data user). This Act created Data Registrars

(who makes sure that the Act is enforced) and a Data Protection Tribunal (where

people may appeal against the Registrar?s Decision). ??????????? Nobody

is allowed to store and use personal data unless the Data Registrar has granted

them permission. Those who wish to apply must state what data they are storing

and what it will be used for; after the application has been accepted it can

now be placed in a Data Register where everyone can see. There are some

exceptions for other data such as payroll for ?national security? purposes. ??????????? These

are the main guiding principles: ·


must be obtained fairly and lawfully. ·


must only be held, disclosed or used in the way it has been registered. ·


data must be accurate. ·


must be able to have their own information disclosed if they request. If data

can be proved wrong, it must be deleted or changed. ·


users must protect and keep all data they hold. These are some of the

exemptions from the Act: ·


police and tax authorities, who do not have to show data subjects they hold,

are exempt from the restrictions on closure. ·


can be withheld for ?national security? purposes. ·


do not have to register as data users if data is only to be used for

recreational or personal use. ·


do not have to register if data is used for routine purposes. After the Data Protection Act was issued in

1984, it has changed the way data is stored and passed on today. The Act has

its strengths and limitations as well as any other Act. ??????????? Two

advantages of this Act is that it sets a limit to the operation of people who

use data and also it gives a number of rights to data subjects. ??????????? The

disadvantages of using the Act are: the Act only deals with computer data and

not paper files; it is difficult for people to find out who is storing data

about the,; data subjects cannot complain about uses or disclosures of data if

the data user is registered for that use; data subjects can only complain if

about the inaccuracy of the data if they have ?suffered damage? from it; and

also data can only be held for ?national security? purposes so that people

cannot gain any access to it. ??????????? To gain some knowledge about communication

methods I spent two weeks at WHSmith. I produced questionnaires for various

members of staff. I chose to use questionnaire rather than survey or observation

because I think that the others aren?t as reliable as a questionnaire. By using

questionnaire, I can have direct contact with the member of staff. If I used a

postal questionnaire or survey I wouldn?t be able to gather different views or

any expressions. Not a lot of people respond to postal questionnaires. More

people would take part in interviews or even telephone interviews. I had direct

contact with the respondent so I was able to correct them and also tell them

how to answer the question. I was also able to collect the right information

needed. Questionnaire involves the member of staff?s own opinion. Other

opinions can be collated to gather a good review of the firm?s methods. My opinion was that the company would use

e-mail and telephone calls for quick and easy access between the directors and

staff. The company would be able to use telephones

to keep in-touch with their customers and also other firms. Telephones are very

common and quite cheap with calls from 1p a minute. Telephones are the easiest

form of communication to use. Each phone has a different identity number

(telephone number). Communication can be received just seconds after a number

being dialled. Telephones are very reliable and efficient because calls are

made manually. ?E-mails could be used to dispatch frequent orders to staff as well

as their partner companies. The e-mail service could also be used as a

newsletter to their customers. E-mails can also be received seconds after being

sent. Most e-mail networks have user names and passwords so that the

information sent to you is private and classified. To send e-mails, all you

have to do is write the e-mail address, and include the text, diagram,

application, etc. and then send. It is that easy to use e-mail. E-mail is quite

reliable but there are some cases when servers break down where the e-mail

cannot be sent, and therefore cannot be received. Another problem is manual

error when typing email addresses. From the questionnaire I took to WHSmith, I

have realised that the method they use suits the business perfectly. They use

telephones to reach customers and other branches to enquire about certain

products. They also use fax machines to dispatch orders directly from

suppliers. There is an intercom linked through all the phone lines. This is

very effective as the managers and supervisors carry mobile phones, which are

connected to the intercom. There is a phone in each department meaning that

there will always be someone to answer your call. On average the High St

Kensington branch spends £130,000 per year. They are considering starting up an

e-mail service for their customers after the launch of their web site, The

graph shows how much a branch from WHSmith, Virgin, Arnold & Porter, and J

Sainsbury would spend on average per year. All the research has contributed to my opinion of communication they

should choose. I recommend that they should use intercom within the two sites

for instant communication. They could have similar communication compared to WHSmith

with the supervisors with mobile phones connected to the intercom and also a

telephone in each department of the site. The intercom is only used internally.

In the computer network, they could have a programmed instant messenger to send

messages throughout the network. This will be active in only one site. Because

all directors are indoors, it is obvious that they can have verbal

conversations. When a member of staff is unavailable, they can leave written

memos or short messages. The two sites can contact each other by telephone where they can have

conversations directly to each other. They can also use e-mail as it can be

sent and received instantly. The two sites can have meetings by using video

conferencing. In order to contact other businesses they could use telephone to have a

verbal conversation or fax machine to send and receive everything on paper.

This can also be done using e-mail. By using e-mail, it is possible to send and

receive reports and orders. Application forms can be sent and received via fax

or e-mail. Depending on how often they communicate with others I would estimate

that the average cost per year would be in the range of £110,000 to £155,000. I

think it would be necessary for the employee to be trained how to use e-mail

and Internet connections. It would also be necessary to teach the employee how

to use instant messengers on the computer network. The facts show that telephone is the most popular, easiest and

user-friendly compared to any other method. By using telephone, they can also

create an intercom within the premises. One disadvantage to using intercom is

that it can only be used internally. To solve this problem, senior workers

should have mobile phones provided by the company. Other members of staff

should be provided with pagers or even mobile phones. By using mobile

equipment, intercom wouldn?t just have to be internally but also externally.

One downside of this strategy is the cost of supplying every worker with mobile

equipment. For those who are stable throughout their working day, if the

network were provided with an instant messenger, not all workers would need

mobile phones or pagers. I chose to use e-mail rather than fax because it is more reliable,

efficient and trendy. Both use telephone lines and both cost money. They both

have different strengths and limitations from each other. E-mail can be sent

and received over the Internet and WAP enabled phones. There are no stamps or

envelopes needed and it?s all free. One great advantage of using e-mail is that

it can be sent and received wherever, whenever. Once sent, it will be received

straight away. One bad effect of using e-mail is that depending on the size of

the e-mail. The download time of the mail will depend on how large the mail is

or the speed of the connection. Through e-mails you can send documents,

graphics, programs, music, etc. E-mails are popular towards businesses because

they are used for newsletters in a way of being loyal to customers as well as

advertising. To use e-mail all you need is the Internet, WAP enabled phone or

even an e-mail phone. One bad disadvantage of using e-mail is that if the

server breaks down, no e-mail will be able to be sent or received. To use fax, you must have a fax machine. These are quite expensive but

they all differ in price and quality. Fax machines also require ink. These

machines also send documents all over the world as long as there is a fax

machine. It does take time to scan the document as well as sending it. Sending

fax may sometimes be unreliable because of manual error. Digits maybe

miss-typed. This may happen in e-mail where the e-mail address maybe

miss-typed. Fax is normally used for business use rather than personal or

commercial use. When meetings are held between the two sites, I insist that they use

video conferencing. It takes place over telephone lines. Each must be supplied

with a television and also a camera for video conferencing to be possible. I

don?t think there is any other suitable alternative to video conferencing at

this moment. My decision is that the company should use telephone, e-mail and video

conferencing. I believe that my suggestions should satisfy the firm excellently. I

don?t see a problem growing from any of the two sites. I think that my

suggestions have solved the problem over the two sites. They can communicate

effectively between each other by using telephones to interact verbally, to use

e-mails to keep up-to-date with each other or to send and receive forms or

reports and to use video conferencing when holding meetings to prevent travel

costs. Within the sites they have telephones connected on the intercom so they

can all keep in touch. They will also have the instant messengers installed on

the computers. When communicating with other businesses or customers they would

still be using telephone, fax and e-mail. They would call and receive calls

through telephone from customers to have a brief word. They would use fax

machine to dispatch application forms and other documents and also receive

them, these can also be done using e-mail. E-mail is more efficient because

there is no limit of how much you can send and also that once sent; it will be

received straight away. After two weeks of observation at WHSmith, I have learned that there

are various methods of communication depending whom the correspondent is. This

has played a part on my recommendations. I have found out that most orders are

placed through fax rather than telephone because of costs. There are several

departments at WHSmith and they use intercom, so this has influenced me to use

an intercom to link all the departments via telephone. I would also recommend

that the senior members who are frequently outside the premises should carry

around a mobile phone to keep in touch. The Internet has played a major part in

businesses lately with many of them having their own web site and their own

e-mail address. This has persuaded me to include e-mail as one of my

suggestions in communicating internally as well as externally. These Internet

connections can even hold meetings on-line by using web-cams. This is a way of

video conferencing. I decided not to select postage as part of communication as

it can take up and waste a lot of time. Costs are quite expensive compared to

free e-mail because all you pay is the phone bill, the postage costs also

depends on what you are sending and where you are sending it to. I had to

reconsider selecting e-mail as part of my recommendations because sending and

receiving documents over the Internet are risky. Personal information or secret

information could be stored on the e-mail, and with hackers and viruses

floating on-line which could evade the Data Protection Act. This is one of the

disadvantages I had to face. I decided that the senior members should bring a

mobile phone with them rather than a pager because by using a mobile phone you

can interact verbally whereas using a pager, all you would receive is text. I

had to choose the suitable methods of communication that would be most

convenient to the customer.


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