The Huns And The End Of The

Barbarian groups establishing successor states had been into

empire from 410 ? yet emperor not deposed until 476 ? not just invasions but

longer term reactions to them. Why did Barbarian groups enter the empire ? 376-410 ?

different phases of a single crisis, two main phases of population movement

caused by Hunnic pressure. Huns big effect on balance of power in the region.? Ammianus account suggests a year of pressure

put Gothis over Danube in 376, but Heather thinks more like 10 or 20.? Not breathing down necks as months to get

Valens permissions from Antioch.? The

Goths still remained the main threat north of the Danube a full decade after

376. Bulk of the Huns still well to the east of Rome?s Danubian

frontier in 395. Huns did noit arrive en masse to the Danubian frontier ut a

slow build-up of pressure precipitated a crisis amongst the Goths ? Huns still

wel away from Danubian frontier 396. Huns not a united force at this time, rather a series of

raidng parties with differing aims. Piecemeal acitivity of numerous Hunnic bands destabilised

the general situation provoking prolonged and successive crises for the Goths

and other inhabitants of the Pontic region.?

The eye of Hunnenstrum still very much to the East in 376 Goths, admitted in 376, exploited political instability from

death Theodoisus in 395 to make further demands on the Roman state ? middle 1st

decade 5th century three major invasion convulsed virtually the

entire length of the Empire?s Rhine and Dnaube frontiers. 405

? Radagaisus into Italy with a avery large force, invades frommiddle

Danubian area westof the Carpathians, actionmoving further West away from

376Daunbian crossing. 406-

Alans, Vandals and Suevia, 31 Dec cross Rhine into Gaul ? carved out

kingdoms for themselves within the empire.? These groups also originate from West of the

Carpathians.? These groups had all

moved West 408

? Uldin crosses Danube with group of Huns Individually nothing but together amount to a convulsion

along Danubian and Rhine frontiers. 10s if 100s of thousands into the

empire.? Easy defeat of Uldin shows

Roman empire logisitical, tactical and technological superiority ? invading

Roman empire dangerous game ? Ammainus Rhine frontier Barbarians continually

beaten easily.? Why did they do it? Invasions

not entirely voluntary, and that as in 376 faced some pressure to abandon

their homes.? Was the main reason

for this the movement of the Huns? By the 420s Huns definitely occupying middle Danubian

regions west of the Carpathians ? then based in middle Danubian areas, so when

did this movement West take place?? Was

it 405 ? 08 , we don?t know but some evidence suggests yes.? Strengthening of Balkan possessions by the

East implies Hunnic threat Large-scale penetrations of the Roman frontier in 376 and

405-08 represent two phases o the same crisis ? both prompted by the Western

progression of the Huns in states, outer fringes to very heart of Europe. Role of Huns in creating political conditions for fall of

Romulus Agustlus in 476 ? Goths, vandals, Alans and suevi into Empire after

Huns create insecurity in the region ? immigration not new but traditional

policy was one of political subjugation and widely dispersed settlement in

small groups ? minimising security risks. Poliy not abandoned, only 2 of the groups allowed in with

permission, even after 382 Emire lookinh to undermine Gothic authority which it

ostensibly tolerated ? seems no internal or ideological factors to suggest

allowing invasions of people. Spread of Hunnic power in Europe, over two generations

fundamentally altered the prevailing balance of power forcing RE to adopt new

policies to groups which crossed the empire. Initially invaders operated within political and ideological

framework of the Empire ? don?t want to carve out own empire ? still looked to

extend their own niche at every available opportunity ? every moment political

discontinuity in the centre 420s and 430s saw Burgundians, Frnaks, Vandals and

Suevi take the field. Roman state taxed the agricultural production of its

dependent states to pay for its armies ? any loss of territory due to damage or

annexation meant a loss of revenue and weakening of the state machine ?

weakening of the Roman state insidious effect of breaking down ties between

local Roman elites and the imperial centre.?

Roman elites consisted of local landowners participated in imperial

institutions as legitimise dstatus at home and offered protection,

legitimisation of opportunities making money.- wealth, rights, privileges part

and parcel of an imperial career. New military forces: Roman state incapable sustaining local

elites in this fashion ? whole point of attachment to the Empire disappeared ?

look elsewhere to props for position, which barbarian group currently powerful

in locality.? These allegiances change

v. quickly.? Long-term political problems as well as military ones of

push across frontier caused by Huns ? fa?ade of Romanitas rendered immigrant

groups no less insistent on their own interests, self-assertion barbarian

leaders loom larger than central Roman elite Disintegration west Roma state was a direct political

consequence of the immigrations promoted by the Huns. Stilicho loses power as fails to deal with Vandal, Suevi

troube ? allows Alaric into Balkans Constantinus substantially reconstructs the west by 420 ?

dies 421 struggle for power ? Aetius wins power in the West and Valentinian III

in East. Aetius successful pacifying European continent, but Vandals

ceded land in Africa 435 Like Constantinus Aetius defeats Roman enemies instead of

directly tackling Barbarian threat Eastern empire sending a lot of resources to the West to

stop Alairc and the Vandals in Africa Aetius and maye even Constantinius utilise Huns ? Huns

played a large role, certainly with Aetius in holding in check the political

fragentation of the Empire. ? Hunnic groups deployed by the Roman state to

control the political consequences of their original actions. Not enough ? any crisis at the centre threatened rickety

power structures ? definition large, diffuse upper class vying for control

powerful governmental machine ? once semi-immigrant groups in crisses allowed

them room for expansion, caused harm to governmental machine as loss of revenue

for annexed, lost of ravaged areas. Post 410 no revenues from Britain, little from Spain and Gaul

diminished during 410 to 430 ? other lands receive more of a burden.


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