World History Term Paper Essay, Research Paper
World History Exam Review
Hieroglyphics – Writing of ancient Egypt that used pictures to represent words and sounds.
Dynasty – Family of rulers in which heirs to the throne are members of the rulers family.
Monotheism – Worship of single god.
Polytheism – Worship of many gods.
Hammurabi’s Code Of Laws – The 1st set of written laws. “eye for an eye”. “tooth for a tooth”
Cuneiforms – early forms of writing mesopotamia in which the characters were wedge-shaped
Reincarnation – An after life in which the person comes back a different entity.
Hinduism – Worship of many gods, main religion of India.
Caste System – a system that divided Indian society into four main groups according to occupation.
Buddhism – main religion in China.
8-Fold Path – Things Buddhist do to make it to Nirvana.
Nirvana – “Perfect World” “After Life” Based on Curma.
Confucius – Was advisor to many kingdoms, phylosipher.
Untouchables – Part of the caste which were thought to do the dirty jobs and were looked round up one.
Compare and Contrat Athens and Sparta – Sparta bred. Everyone to be in the military, athens found to like democracy.
Alexander the Great – A conquerer who pathed the way for Caesar’s domination.
Socrates – Greek scientists claimed the Earth was not the center of the Universe and that the sun was.
Examples of Ancient Civilizations that practiced polytheism – Greeks, Hindus, Romans, etc.
Accomplishments of Julius and Augustus Caesar – Conquerers and presidents like people after Alexander the Great.
Cleopatra – Ruler of Egypt.
Christianity – started by disciples of Christ. Worship father and son.
Monastery – A church or religious place devoted to helping people in the need of food and shelter.
Constantine – creator of constantinople.
Contantinople – city created by constantine, capital of byzantin.
Byzantine Empire – culture of southern europe, got it’s name from an ancient city byzantium.
Justinian -A ruler of Byzantin.
Mohammed – Founder of Islam.
5 Pillars of Islam – Trip to Mecca, Pray 5 times/day, Fast during Romadon, Give to the poor, Belive in one god.
Koran – Holy book of Islam.
Jihad –Places islam spread – Jihad = Holy wars of Islam. India, Northern Africa and Spain.
Charlemagne’s Accomplishments – reigned from 768 to 814, accepted to Pope as spiratual ruler of the Empire, and the giver of power to the emperor, created the hold Roman Empire.
How was castle designed for protection – Had watch towers, drawbridge, and guards.
Crusades …What changes did they bring – a series of wars faught by catholic countries.
Excommunication – expelled from the church, tithe.
Tithe – money paid to the church.
The Manor – estate owned by royalty
Serfs – Peasants or common people.
Reasons for rise of towns –
Bubonic Plague …How did it effect Europe – killed many, took lives affected many people, was brought in on ships from africa, rats. Made you break out in black hives and your body would rot.
The Magna Carta – took away power from royalty.
Eleanor of Aquitane – faught in Crusades, had her own armor, was educated.
Shah Jahan -
Taj Mahal -
Suttee – suicide by a wife for the death of her husband.
Monsoons – heavy rain.
Samurai – warriors of the emperor.
Some Chinese Inventions and Accomplisments – gun powder, built Great Wall, strong steel.
Aztecs – Indians which lived in pyramids and made sacrifices of there own people.
Montezuma – City of Aztecs.
Mansa Musa – lived in Mali, he went to Mecca, because he was a Muslim.
Ghana – One of the kingdoms in Africa, famous for gold, taken over by British.
Desribe African Art and Music – Abstract, distorted figures (art), whistles, drums, animals (music)
Battle of Hastings – William the Conquerer takes over England, becomes king
Parliament – starts off as advisors to king, then becomes English Law system.
Joan of Arc – Fights in 100 years war, she motivated the French to turn things around. She inspired them to win.
Czar – the king of Russia.
Who fought in 100 years war ..who won and why – English and French, French won.
Michaelangelo – Famous artist.
Leonarde da Vinci – Famous artist.
Gutenberg – Printing press, made it.
The influence of the printing press on Europe – books and things get cheaper, spread of ideas and research. Revolutionary like.
Luther’s Basic Belief – He was angry about the selling of indulgences, Faith in god is what should be happening.
Calvin’s Basic Belief – he thought god already picked you before you were born, if you were going to heaven or not, he thought it was Ok to be rich, and that means god rewarded you for working hard.
Henry VIII and Church of England …why he started the church and how different from Catholic – He started a new church, because he couldn’t get a divorce.
Huguenots – Followers of Calvin in France.
Impact of Reformation on religions in Europe – Now people could have more than one religion in coutries, this caused wars, although it made many good things also. Ultimately led to having a variety of religions in Europe.
Causes of the age of exploration “Gold, God, and Glory” –
Columbus – The guy that discoverd America.
Describe treatment of slaves – really horrible, Took indians slaves.
How African slave trade began – ran out of Indians, so they took African’s.
Absolutism – one person with total power.
The Spanish Armada – Great fleet of Spanish warships.
Peter the Great …his modernizations – made people look like westerners. Made people have advertisements.
Catherine the Great –
Louis XIV – tons of powers, perfect example of “Absolutism”
Versaille Palace – Great Palace built by Louis XIV.
English Bill of Rights – United states rights based off of.
William and Mary – Mary didn’t like at first but learned to love him and got good at it.
Galileo – Scientist, believed much in his beliefs.
Voltaire – famous writer.
Montesquieu – famous writer.
Rousseau – famous writer.
Locke – famous writers.
The Bastille – served as a symbol of independence.
Guillotine – executional device.
Reign of Terror – Parliament ruled over all.
Waterloo – masacre of French people.
What were some cause of the French Revolution – absolutism, gov’t problems, people wanting freedom, and seeing the American revolution.
Napoleon’s Russia campaign …scorched earth policy – Defeated by Russia.
What were goals of the Congress of Vienna – Big 5, promote world peace.
What caused revolutions in South America – the spanish bolivar led Brazil to independence.
How did brazil become independent – Bolivar.
Bolivar – Conquerer sent by Europe to free South American countries.
Cavour – called architect of Italian inification, Italian leader.
Mazzini – Italian leader, prophet of Italian unification.
Garibaldi – Italian leader, invaded the kingdom of two sicilies,and won.
Nationalism – Joining together.
What were ways that Italy and Germany united and how were they similar -
Dual Monarchy – when two countries combine together and work as one.
Bismark – Used war to unite Italy.
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in England – made economy involved in countries movements. Was the start of technology.
What problems were there in factories – women and children were working.
Laissez-Faire – Adam Smith’s phylosophy, means that gov’t shouldn’t mess with the economy.
Socialism – When the gov’t and the people own things both.
Charles Darwin – studied the theory of evolution, biology.
Why did immigrants come to the U.S.A in the 1800’s – to be free and get away from Parliament , Britain had a weak government.
Irish Potato Famine – potato crop failed in Ireland, many moved to the U.S.
The Reform Bill of 1832 – Took away power from the nobles, lowered property quilifications for voting and extended the right to vote to wealthy members of the middle-class.
Dreyfus – A jewish captain accused of spying.
Imperialism – the domination of the political, economic, and cultural life of one country or region by another country.
Livinigstone – A Scottish doctor and missionary who went to Africa to convert them to Christianity.
Stanley – went to Africa to find the doctor when people thought he had died.
Sepoys – Indian soldiers.
Opium Wars – The Barbarians profited most from China’s trade with foreign countries, deadly penalty was issued to anyone who smoked or sold Opium.
Open Door Policy – European powers agreed to make China open for trade with all nations.
Boers – Dutch farmers in South Africa who lost there land at the congress of Vienna.
Boer War – Won by the British
Zulus – J’accused, wrote it, French framed Dreyfus.
Francis Ferdinand – Archduke and he would have been the next king of Austria/Hungary but he was shot.
Triple Alliance – Austria Hungary and Italy agreed to come to one anothers aid, if one was attacked.
Triple Entente – Great Britain joined Russia and France, they promised to help one another if one of them was attacked by Germany.
League of nations – Condemned by Japan, but did nothing.
14 Points – Wilson’s way to prevent war most important league of nations.
Lenin – He believed that the time would come and the working class or proletariat would overthrow the capitalist and replace them as the world’s ruler.
Explain Differences in Communism – Communism the gov’t owns businesses, determines prices and decides what to produce.
Capitalism – The people own the businesses, determine the prices, and they decided what to produce.
Socialism – The gov’t and the people own businesses, determine the prices, and they both decided what to produce.
Command Economy- An economic system in which economic decisions are made by a central authority.
Causes of WWI – Imperialism, Nationalism, Assassination of the Archduke, Alliances, and the bombing of the Lusitania.
Lusitania – Tour boat that was in the war zone of WWI.
What were causes of the Russian Revolution – people didn’t have much, Nicolas II was king, he lost wars, economic hardships, use of violence.
Rasputin – A peasant from Siberia, very mean.
“Peace, Land and Bread” – The communist motto in Russia.
Bolsheviks – Radical revolutionary group.
Lenin – leader of bolsheviks, took over Pertgrad Soviet.
Holocaust – describes the Nazi’s destruction of European Jews.
Compare the rise and rule of Hitler and Mussolini – used ancient symbols to win people over, propoganda, head people allowed them to be leaders, both coutries were unstable.
What caused WWII …and which causes were similar to causes of WWI – Hitler taking land, imperialism, militerism, nationalism, alliances.
Appeasement – giving into Hitler to avoid war.
D-day – Doom’s day.
Normandy Invasion – When the US and Allied forces invaded Normandy to free France so they could fight back.
Pearl Harbor – when the Japanese bombed us, which got us into the war.
Hiroshima …U.S. only country to use atomic weapons in war – First use of Atomic Bomb, many people were killed, Japan backed out after 2 bombs, war ended.
Collective Farms – In SU, when everyone had to turn there farms over to the gov’t, some people killed there cattle to resist.
United Nations – many coutries joined, made to keep world peace.
Security Council – the UN branch that handles potential wars.
Churchill – Leader of Great Britain during WWII
Cold War …Space Race – USA and Russia argued over who would reach outer space first.
Cold War …Berlin Airlift – When the USA had to drop food into Berlin because Russia wasn’t letting people in the city.
Truman Doctrine – 400 million dollars in economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey.
Mao Zedong – Chinese communist.
CONTRAST Communism and Capitalism – Capitalism – Private ownership and competition Communism – Government ownership
When and Why was Israel created – Zionism, Establish a Jewish nation in 1947.
Common Market – European Economic Community was established.
Gorbechev – Became General Secretary of the Communist party, saw that planning of the economy wasn’t workers.
Glasnost – “openess” Russians were able to speak out more freely.
What did countries do to improve their economies after WWII – countries bought back things and repaid war debts.
Cold War …Cuban Missile Crisis – Cuba and the US got in an argument, and the Soviet Union got into it, and Cuba was going to shoot missile’s at us.
Cold War …Bay of Pigs – Cubans tried to overthrow Castro, with help from US and failed.
Watergate – the democratic national HQ, republicans broke in illegally.
Apartheid – racial segragation in South Africa.
Desmond Tutu – won nobel peace prize.
Nelson Mandela – leader of the African national communist’s.
Andwar Sadat – President of Egypt.
Great Leap Forward – Mao organized China’s farms and factories into communes.
Domino Theory – When one country or person falls, others follow.
Mahatma Ghandi – religious leader in India, first Prime Minister.
Indira Ghandi – Nehru’s daughter, India’s Prime Minister in 66′, assassinated.
Describe the Creation of India and Pakistan -Pakistan was formed from the Muslim parts of India.
Describe major events of the Vietnam war – The hostage crisis, TET offensive, My Lai, Khe Sanh.
Ho Chi Minh – leader of communist in Vietnam.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – inlet of South China Sea, east of Vietnam.
Deng Xiaoping – Chairman of Communist parties.