, Research Paper
Best Management Practices for Storm water Pollution
Best Management Practices or , BMP’s, are defined as general good
housekeeping practices, schedules of activities, pollution prevention techniques,
educational practices, maintenance procedures, prohibitions of practices and other
management practices(1). BMP’s also include treatment practices, operating procedures,
and practices to control site runoff, spillage or leaks, sludge or water disposal, or drainage
from raw materials storage.
Storm water Management is most affective when it involves a system of BMP’s
that targets each stage of the erosion process to ensure success from construction
activities. The most efficient approach involves minimizing the likely sources from
outwash. This means the less disturbance to a land area the better. BMP’s should also
involve controlling the amount of runoff and its ability to carry sediment by diverting
incoming flows and stopping inner flows. And finally, BMP’s should be able to attain
certain sediments that are picked up on the way through the use of sediment-capturing
devices. Above all BMP’s are best performed using advance planning and good
A system intended to eliminate storm water pollution should include at least one
example of each of the following categories : surface stabilization, runoff control
measures, runoff conveyance measures, outlet protection, sediment traps and barriers, and
As far as surface stabilization goes the best method seems to be Surface
Roughening. Surface Roughening is crapping up a bare, sloped soil surface with horizontal
grooves or benches running across the slope. Grooves can be large-scale, such as
stair-step grading with small benches or terraces, or small-scale, such as grooving with
disks, tillers, or other machinery, or with heavy tracked machinery which should be
reserved for sandy, non compressible soils.
Runoff control measures are usually used in a way called Runoff Diversion. This
may be described as a structure that channels upward slope runoff away from erosion
source areas, diverts sediment-laden runoff to appropriate traps or stable outlets, or
captures runoff before it leaves the site, diverting it to locations where it can be used or
released without erosion or flood damage. Diversions such thins as Surface Roughening.
Runoff diversions assist in the second, conveyance stage of a BMP system.
Hardened Channel is the next best BMP phase in which a channel with
erosion-resistant linings of riprap, paving, or other structural material designed for the
conveyance and safe disposal of excess water without erosion. Channels assist in the
second, conveyance stage of a BMP system.
Level Spreader is the next step to a successful Storm water Management system
and it is an outlet designed to convert concentrated runoff to sheet flow and disperse it
uniformly across a slope without causing erosion. This structure is very good for returning
natural sheet flows to exiting drainage that has been altered by development, especially for
returning sheet flows to receiving ecosystems such as wetlands where dispersed flow may
be important for maintain pre-existing hydrologic regimes. Alternative designs to minimize
such channeling include hardened structures, stiff grass hedges, and segmenting discharge
flows into a number of smaller, adjacent spreaders. The level spreader is often used as an
outlet for runoff diversions. Level spreaders assist in the second, conveyance stage of a
The best idea for a sediment drop or barrier is the Sediment Trap, A small,
temporary ponding basin formed by an embankment or excavation to capture sediment
from runoff. Traps are most commonly used at the outer areas of diversions, channels,
slope drains, or other runoff carrier that give off sedimentful water. The pond outlet
should be a stone section designed as the low point. Sediment traps assist in the third,
capture, stage of a BMP system.
With the correct combination of the devices explained storm water pollution can
be easily controlled. These are not the only ways but the most effective strategies to
manage the problem.