European Government In The 19Th Century Essay
, Research Paper
During the twentieth century, Europe went through many changes in politics and trends. On June 28, 1914, Serbian revolutionaries assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian and Hungarian thrones, and his wife, Sophie. With Germany behind Austria-Hungary, Austria attacked Serbia on July 28th. The following day, Russia ordered full mobilization and in effect declared full all out war. Germany?s plan was to knock out France by going through neutral Belgium and then taking out Russia. On August 2, 1914, Germany?s plan to pass through neutral Belgium failed when Belgium refused to let German forces through. Germany intern attacked Belgium. On August 3rd,Great Britain joined forces with France, which started the First World War.
A major social impact in Europe occurred during World War I. With almost all able-bodied men fighting in the trenches, this caused a great demand for workers. Jobs were available for everyone. This also brought about change for labor unions. The roll of women changed for the better during this time. Women basically took over the labor forces in Russia. In Great Britain, women were driving streetcars and buses. Women became more prominent in society. Showing up as mail carriers, bank tellers, and even police officers.
In 1917, Russia went through two revolutions that cause Russia to with draw from the war. In March of 1917, the Duma declared a provisional government. A month later, Lenin returns from exile to denounce the provisional government. All social classes were in favor of this drastic move. It would create better wages for workers and more food. In 1920, Lenin?s Red army retook Belorussia and the Ukraine.
In the spring of 1918, Germany launched its last attack on France. With the United States backing Britain and France, the triple entente finally crushed German forces. In January of 1919, in Versailles, The Treaty of Versailles was signed. This was the final testament in the bloody battle of World War I. America rejected the treaty and Germany was forced to pay reparations totaling $33 billion.
In 1923-1933, The Great Depression struck the entire world. The Great Depression caused mass unemployment and farms were failing. People looked to their governments for support but even the government was paralyzed from this tragic occurrence. Mass unemployment cause low spirits and dignity among the people. With millions of people in search of work and with no sight of economic re-growth the birth rate fell and suicide and mental illness rose.
In Italy around 1922, Mussolini and his Fascists were determined to create a Totalitarian state. Mussolini hated liberalism and wanted to destroy it in Italy. In October of 1922, Mussolini got his chance at power. Victor Emanuel III, asked Mussolini to create a new cabinet from his anti-liberal armies. Mussolini gained power legally and was immediately granted dictatorial authority for one year by the king and his parliament. However, Mussolini did not establish a full modern totalitarian state.
In 1923, with the republican government of Germany on the verge of collapse, a new face entered the picture. His name was Adolf Hitler. His views were crushed and Hitler was sent to prison. In prison, Hitler wrote a book called Mein Kampf (My Struggle). After Hitler was released from prison, he concentrated his efforts on creating his National Socialist party. By 1928, Hitler?s party had 100,000 highly disciplined members under his control. The presence of The Great Depression was one of Hitler?s great opportunities. Hitler pitched his speeches to the middle and lower classes and rejected the free-market capitalism and advocated for government programs to bring Germany out of a depression. In the 1933, Hitler gained enough power and was appointed chancellor of Hindenburg.
Europe did not crawl out of Depression until after World War II (The war to end all wars). Today almost all communist nations in Europe have been abolished. People of the European nations have voted to create a democratic rule.