Mononucleosis Spot Test Essay, Research Paper
Mononucleosis spot test
How the Test is Performed:
Adult or child:
Blood is drawn from a vein ( venipuncture ), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic, and a tourniquet (an elastic band) or blood pressure cuff is placed around the upper arm to apply pressure and restrict blood flow through the vein. This causes veins below the tourniquet to distend (fill with blood). A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. During the procedure, the tourniquet is removed to restore circulation. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding .
Infant or young child:
The area is cleansed with antiseptic and punctured with a sharp needle or a lancet. The blood may be collected in a pipette (small glass tube), on a slide, onto a test strip, or into a small container. Cotton or a bandage may be applied to the puncture site if there is any continued bleeding.
How to Prepare:
No special preparation.
Infants and children:
The physical and psychological preparation you can provide for this or any test or procedure depends on your child’s age, interests, previous experience, and level of trust. For specific information regarding how you can prepare your child, see the following topics as they correspond to your child’s age:
infant test or procedure preparation (birth to 1 year)
toddler test or procedure preparation (1 to 3 years)
preschooler test or procedure preparation (3 to 6 years)
schoolage test or procedure preparation (6 to 12 years)
adolescent test or procedure preparation (12 to 18 years)
How it Feels:
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing .
fainting or feeling lightheaded
hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
multiple punctures to locate veins
Why this Test is Performed:
The mononucleosis test is done to screen for the presence of infectious mononucleosis , a disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV ). About 2 weeks after the onset of the disease, many patients are found to have IgM antibodies in their serum that react against warm red blood cells. When these antibodies are present in serial dilutions of* 1:56 (that is, after diluting the patient’s serum more than 56 times and adding it to a suspension of red blood cells), infectious mononucleosis is suggested. However, other less-common diseases may produce a positive test.
negative: *1:28 titer
equivocal: 1:28-1:56 titer
positive:* 1:56 titer
A positive test may indicate:
Burkitt’s lymphoma (very rare)
chronic EBV infection
infectious mononucleosis (EB)
infectious mononucleosis (CMV)
systemic lupus erythematosus
The estimated cost is $6 to $10.
Monospot tests are considered to be about 85% accurate.
Positive test results will not occur until 1 to 2 weeks into the illness.
Mononucleosis is an infectious disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). A rash may appear early in the illness which is red (erythematous), flat (macular) to slightly raised, and does not itch. Individuals with mono who are given ampicillin or amoxicillin may develop a significant rash which is very noticeable.
Mononucleosis is an infectious disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). A rash may appear early in the illness which is red (erythematous), flat (macular) to slightly raised, and does not itch. People with mono who are given ampicillin or amoxicillin may develop a significant rash which is very noticeable.
This so-called “Downy cell” is typical of lymphocytes infected by EBV (Epstein Barr Virus) or CMV (Cytomegalovirus) in infectious mononucleosis. Downy cells may be classified as types I, II, or III. This is a type II Downy cell.
Mononucleosis is an infectious disease usually thought of as causing fatigue and swollen lymph nodes. However, mononucleosis has multiple other symptoms including various rashes. Interestingly, the antibiotic ampicillin significantly increases the rash.
Infectious mononucleosis causes a sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes, and fatigue. The throat may appear red and the tonsil(s) covered with a whitish material (exudate). Mononucleosis and sever streptococcal tonsillitis appear quite similar. Unless there are other findings to suggest mononucleosis, a throat culture and blood studies may be necessary to make an accurate diagnosis.