A Farewell To Arms 2

A Farewell To Arms – A Love Story Essay, Research Paper

A Farewell to Arms, by Ernest Hemingway, is a typical love story. A

Romeo and his Juliet placed against the odds. In this novel, Romeo is

Frederick Henry and Juliet is Catherine Barkley. Their love affair

must survive the obstacles of World War I. The background of war-torn

Italy adds to the tragedy of the love story. The war affects the

emotions and values of each character. The love between Catherine and

Frederick must outlast long separations, life-threatening war-time

situations, and the uncertainty of each other’s whereabouts or

condition. This novel is a beautiful love story of two people who need

each other in a period of upheaval.

Frederick Henry is an American who serves as a lieutenant in the

Italian army to a group of ambulance drivers. Hemingway portrays

Frederick as a lost man searching for order and value in his life.

Frederick disagrees with the war he is fighting. It is too chaotic and

immoral for him to rationalize its cause. He fights anyway, because

the army puts some form of discipline in his life. At the start of the

novel, Frederick drinks and travels from one house of prostitution to

another and yet he is discontent because his life is very unsettled.

He befriends a priest because he admires the fact that the priest

lives his life by a set of values that give him an orderly lifestyle.

Further into the novel, Frederick becomes involved with Catherine

Barkley. He slowly falls in love with her and, in his love for

her, he finds commitment. Their relationship brings some order and

value to his life. Compared to this new form of order in his life,

Frederick sees the losing Italian army as total chaos and disorder

where he had previously seen discipline and control. He can no longer

remain a part of something that is so disorderly and so, he deserts

the Italian army. Frederick’s desertion from the Italian army is the

turning point of the novel. This is the significance of the title, A

Farewell to Arms. When Frederick puts aside his involvement in the

war, he realizes that Catherine is the order and value in his life and

that he does not need anything else to give meaning to his life.

At the conclusion of this novel, Frederick realizes that he cannot

base his life on another person or thing because, ultimately, they

will leave or disappoint him. He realizes that the order and values

necessary to face the world must come from within himself.

Catherine Barkley is an English volunteer nurse who serves in Italy.

She is considered very experienced when it comes to love and loss

since she has already been confronted with the death of a loved one

when her fiance was killed earlier in the war. The reader is not as

well acquainted with Catherine’s inner thoughts and feelings as we are

with those of Frederick. The story is told through Frederick’s eyes

and the reader only meets Catherine through the dialogue between her

and Frederick or through his personal interpretations of her actions.

Catherine already possesses the knowledge that her own life cannot be

dependent on another. She learned this lesson through the death of her

fiance. Her love for Frederick is what her life revolves around, yet

she knows not to rely on him to be the order in her life. Had she been

dependent on Frederick for the order in her life, she would not have

been able to allow him to participate in the war for fear of losing

her own stability with his death.

The theme that Hemingway emphasizes throughout the novel is the search

for order in a chaotic world. Hemingway conveys this through

Frederick’s own personal search during the chaos of World War I.

Catherine has found strength within herself to lead her through life.

This is what Frederick must come to realize. Through his involvement

with Catherine, Frederick slowly finds his own inner strength.

Frederick’s affair with Catherine prompts him to leave his wild life

of prostitutes and drink. He becomes aware of an element of stability

in their affair and realizes that the war that he was involved in was

too chaotic, so he deserts the army. He and Catherine make a life for

themselves totally isolated from everything and everyone else.

Frederick believes that his life is now completely in order and that

his values are in perspective, yet he still seems discontented. He

continuously has to convince himself that he has “a fine life.” He has

not yet reached Catherine’s level that enables her to be perfectly

happy in their love and yet not dependent on it for all comfort and

support. Frederick still has to find that within himself.

Until the conclusion of the novel, Frederick still relies on Catherine

as the source of order in his life. With the end of their affair

when Catherine dies giving birth to their stillborn love-child,

Frederick realizes that he cannot depend on any one person, such

as Catherine, or any thing, such as religion, war, or frivolity, for

order and discipline. Hemingway describes Frederick’s enlightenment

best in the final paragraph of the novel when Frederick sees

Catherine’s corpse for the first and last time. Frederick’s reaction

was that “it was like saying good-by to a statue.” Frederick realizes

that Catherine was only a symbol of the order and strength in his

life. Strength to face life must come from within him and only he will

be able to get himself through his own life. He will have to learn to

depend on himself. Frederick realizes this and is able to get on with

his life on his own. “After a while [he] went out and left the

hospital and walked back to the hotel in the rain.” He did not mourn

or feel like his own life had ended with her death, rather he was able

to continue on with his newfound inner strength and face his world


This novel succeeds in getting Hemingway’s message across. Frederick’s

realization causes the reader to reflect on his/her own life and on

what institutions they depend on in their own lives. I enjoyed this

novel because I learned along with Frederick that I must face my life

on my own. The strength to face my problems cannot come from any other

source because no other source can ever be as permanent as the

strength that I can find within myself.

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