Globalisation Friend Or Foe Essay Research Paper

Globalisation: Friend Or Foe Essay, Research Paper

Dramatic Changes have taken place in Sydney?s

cultural and economic landscapes during the past two decades. These changing

landscapes have been linked in both political discourse and the popular

press to Sydney?s emerging role as a ?global city?. Evidence supporting

this theory has come from some academic analyses of globalisation in the

1990s. Global cities are identified by their role as command centers for

organising the global economy. Such cities have been characterised by their

openness to global flows of commodities, money, ideas and information.

They have become destinations for both national and international migration

of skilled information workers, but also magnets for new streams of global

labor migration. The Asia-Pacific Rim has been one of the primary sources

of these new flows of international migration into Sydney (Fagan, 2000,

pg. 144). The aim of this essay is to gauge the impact of the said globalisations

on the various landscapes of Sydney, as globalisation has effected different

areas of Sydney in different ways. The principle areas discussed in this

paper are Leichardt, Chinatown, Cabramatta, Darling Harbour, the CBD and

Pyrmont. The impacts of cultural globalisations will be discussed first,

followed by those of economic globalisations. Economic globalisation will

be divided into 2 parts: primary impacts and subsequent impacts.

Migrant communities are an attribute

of many large western cities and particularly of global cities. In the

case of Leichardt, however, Italian settlement occurred prior to Sydney?s

emergence as a Global City. The display of the symbols of Italian settlement

in the form of signage, businesses and social organisations is a cultural

attribute of Sydney?s global city status (Searle, 1996). The maintenance

and marketing of this ?heritage status? for urban planners and tourism

authorities is a key feature of global cities (Searle, 1996). A primary

example of the developers and tourism authorities attempting to capitalise

on the heritage value of Leichardt is illustrated in Plate 1. Resident

Italian-Australians, and tourists alike, can be seen dining and shopping

among the Italian Forum in the foreground and middle distance of the photograph.

The situation of Chinatown is similar

to that of Leichardt in terms of its heritage value. Chinatown, like Leichardt,

was established prior to Sydney?s global city status. Its heritage is a

magnet for Chinese-Australians and tourists alike as seen the central foreground

of Plate 2. The Pallou Plaza is lined with specialty Chinese shops, conference

centers/social clubs.

Cabramatta is one of the direct

results of Sydney?s global city status. Cabramatta is comprised of migrants

predominantly from Southeast Asia seeking the economic opportunities that

are available in global cities such as Sydney. In Plate 3 the predominately

Asian human landscape of Cabramatta can be seen quite well. Many of the

economic activities of Cabramatta rely on the global flows of migrants.

Immigrant consultants and travel agents are perhaps the best example of

these activities.

The proliferation of American fast food

restaurants in global cities is evidence of both cultural and economic

globalisation. The fact that an increasing number of Australians are eating

at American fast food chains is exemplary of cultural globalisation, while

the business side of the transnational chains is evidence of economic globalisation.

Plate 4 provides a strong example of the dominance of American chain restaurants

in Sydney. Along the central horizontal axis of the photograph 5 different

American food chains can be seen: (from right to left) Hungry Jack?s, Taco

Bell, Pizza Hut, McDonalds, and Planet Hollywood.

Economic Globalisation

Economic globalisation has perhaps made

the most visible impacts on Sydney. One cannot ignore the presence of MNC?s

in the Sydney Skyline. In the center, middle distance of Plate 5 (from

left to right) IBM, Nestle, Samsung and Martins? Sydney headquarters can

be seen overlooking the city. In the more immediate center, middle distance,

McDonalds and Sega World (of Darling Harbour) contribute transnational

presence on the Sydney landscape.

The presence of multinational corporations

has triggered a number of multiplier effects in Sydney. Large-scale convention

centers, entertainment centers, luxury residences for transnational business

class executives and new transportation networks all among the new developments

that have been constructed as a result of the presence of multinational

corporations. The Sydney Convention Centre (Plate 6) of Darling Harbour

was planned by the New South Wales Government to be a world class venue

and thus draw world class events ( Such a venue would

only be constructed in a city of global status.

The planning and urban restructuring

of the City West Urban Strategy that is taking place in Pyrmont has an

overwhelmingly global context. The recent and projected changes are consistent

with the patterns other global cities have adopted in urban waterfront

areas where former port and industrial functions have declined (Sant and

Jackson, 1991, pg. 136). Pyrmont has historically been associated with

port/waterfront industries such as sugar refining and wool processing/storage.

Since these port functions relocated to Botany Bay in the 1970s, Pyrmont

has been in a state of decline. The redevelopment of Darling Harbour and

resultant tourism has provided an opportunity for renewal in Pyrmont (Sant

and Jackson, 1991, pg.137). The Watermark Luxury Apartments (Plates 7 and

8) just one of the many new residential developments that have taken place

Pyrmont. Plate 9 illustrates the older working class residences that were

a construct of the previously industrial Pyrmont.

Plate 10 of Foxtel Studios provides

an example of how the old warehousing/port facilities are being redeveloped

for new uses. Also notice how the old docks have been transformed into

marina berths in the center middle distance in of the photograph. Plate

11 is of another warehouse in Pyrmont being redeveloped. Star City (Plate

12) is one of the anchor developments in Pyrmont. It is meant to be a ?world

class? entertainment destination. The sign in the right foreground of Plate

12 illustrates the multiple entertainment options available at Star City:

gambling at the Casino, shopping in the Harbour Walk Shops, drama at the

Lyric Theatre, and clubbing at The Cave nightclub. The magnitude and scale

of the City West Urban Strategy has brought about a new transportation

network. The privately owned and operated Metro LightRail system (Plate

13) runs from Pyrmont to Central Station, stopping at Darling Harbour and

Chinatown on the way.

Sydney?s emergence as a global city

has had numerous and diverse effects on the various landscapes of the city.

Cultural and economic globalisations have effected Sydney in different



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