Louis X1V Outline Essay, Research Paper
II. Political Crisis
A. Religious Disputes
1.Development of science (the new philosphy)
a. Undermining of church authority and Kings in Rule
b. If God did not exist, then who really appointed kings
c. World is no longer the way they saw it.
2.Bourgeoisie (business class)
a. increase of trade and technology, leading to questioning of Church
3.Church becomes dominant to reastablish order
a. Had to have a voice in everything
b. proper set of morals from what to wear and who to marry
c. Why this did not work?
1. Kings and Pope disagreed in who should have supermacy in earthly
B. Henry VIII
1. The Act of Supermacy (made the king of England head of the Church)
a. England became Protestant
b. Henry’s daughter, Mary Tudor, becomes Queen of England
1. Tries to reinstitute Catholicism in England, often by force
2. Becomes known as the “Bloody Mary”
c. Henry’s 2nd daughter, Elizabeth I, reinstates the Church of England, and
C. France’s Internal Problems
1. Middle class becomes protestant
a. civil wars breakout (1562-1598)
b.Civil war between Hugueonots (french protestants) and Catholics over
who would control the throne
c. St. Batholomew’s Day Massacre(1572), ordered by Catherine de Medici
2. Henry of Navarre( Huguenots leader)
a. Switches to Catholicism
b. Is now Henry IV of France
c. Edict of Nantes (permitted freedom of religion in France)
3. Louis XIII, Henry IV, son
a. Was to young to Rule
b. Cardinal Richelieu, Chief Minister of France, takes control
1. starts stripping the Huguenots of most of their freedoms
The Thirty Years War
1. Erupted in German states in 1618 between catolics and Protestants
4. Cardinal Richelieu
a.Set out to undermine the power of France’s Nobles and Huguenots
b. ordered the destructuion of any noble-owned castles that were’nt
needed for defense
c.ordered heavy taxation on common people and attacks on noblity
d. Cardinal Richelieu died, was replaced by Cardianl Mazarin
5. Louis XIII died, LouisXIV became king at 4.
a. revolts and civil war broke out in 1649, known as the Fronde.
b. war between nobility versus king.
c. Mazarin crushes the revolt
Absolutism OR Democracy?