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Ergonomics Essay Research Paper What is ergonomicsErgonomics

Ergonomics Essay, Research Paper What is ergonomics? Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to the worker. When there is a mismatch between the physical requirements of the job and the physical capacity of the worker, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) can result. Workers who must repeat the same motion throughout their workday, work in an awkward position use a great deal of force to perform, repeatedly lift heavy objects or face a combination of these risk factors are most likely to develop WMSDs.

Ergonomics Essay, Research Paper

What is ergonomics?

Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to the worker. When there is a mismatch between the physical requirements of the job and the physical capacity of the worker, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) can result. Workers who must repeat the same motion throughout their workday, work in an awkward position use a great deal of force to perform, repeatedly lift heavy objects or face a combination of these risk factors are most likely to develop WMSDs. In this report, I will outline the main factors in having a safe workstation.

Sitting-Chair

There are certain ways in which you may choose an ergonomically correct chair. Does the seat feel comfortable and fit you shape? When you sit in the chair the seat should be at least one inch wider than your hips and thighs on either side. The seat should not be too long for your legs otherwise it will catch you behind the knees or it will prevent you from leaning fully back. Most ergonomic chairs have a seat with a front that prevents the seat from catching you behind the knees. The seat should also be contoured to allow even weight distribution and it should be comfortable to sit on. Is the seat chair height adjustable? The chair should be adjustable so that you can adjust seat height while you are sitting on the chair. Some chairs have a mechanical height adjustment (spinning) mechanism. Does the chair have a comfortable lower back rest? Many chairs have cushioned lower back supports that can be adjusted up and down and forwards and backwards to fit your shape. If the chair has a fixed height lower back support and it feels comfortable when you sit back against this then a fixed lower back support may be acceptable. When you sit back against the lower back support is there space for hips? Insufficient hip room can make you sit too far forwards on the seat so that you will not have enough thigh support. Does the seat still feel comfortable after you’ve been sitting in it for 30 – 60 minutes? If the seat is made from foam then continuous use can cause it to become deformed and then it will not provide cushioned support. Insufficient cushioning and inappropriate contouring can cause discomfort and hip and back fatigue. Is the tilt of the seat adjustable? In some situations it can be helpful to change the tilt of the seat pan to help to maintain a healthy seated posture. Does the chair have a 5-pedestal base? The chair should have at least a 5-pedestal base with casters that glide freely over the floor surface. You may also want to choose a chair that swivels easily. Do you need armrests on your chair? If so, are the armrests broad, cushioned and comfortable? While sitting can you adjust the height of the armrests and can you move the armrests closer together or further apart?

Typing- Keyboard

In the ideal typing posture both static and dynamic muscle loads are minimized. This posture is achieved when the keyboard is below seated elbow height and the keyboard base is gently sloped away from the user so that the key tops are accessible to the hands in a neutral posture. In this position the arms, shoulders, neck and back can relax, especially during brief rest pauses. Also, in this slightly reclined sitting position the low back rests against the lumbar support of the chair, the elbow angle is opened to promote circulation to the lower arm and hand, the abdominal angle, and the popliteal angle (behind the knees) are opened to promote blood circulation. The feet rest firmly upon the floor.

Looking-Monitor

Optical glass glare filters on computer monitors can reduce health and vision problems related to computer glare and help boost productivity in computer users, according to a new Cornell University study. After using a glass anti-glare filter, the percentage of problems related to tiredness, trouble focusing eyes, itching/watery eyes and dry eyes was half what they were before filter use. This was true for people, who use computer monitors all day at work, said ergonomist Alan Hedge, who is the professor of design and environmental analysis and director of the Human Factors Laboratory at Cornell University. Also, 80 percent of users reported that the filters made it easier to read their screens, and more than half said that the filters helped their productivity. We can now conclude that anti glare filters are a must in a safe workstation.

Scrolling-Mouse

The following tips should avoid a mouse-related injury. The same posture principles apply to other input devices (e.g. trackball, pen, etc.). Mouse Grip – don’t throttle your mouse, hold the mouse gently to move it over a surface. Mouse from the Elbow – don’t skate or flick the mouse with your wrist. Make controlled movements using your elbow as the pivot point and keep your wrist straight. Optimal Mouse position- sit back in your chair, relax your arms then lift your hand up, pivoting at the elbow, until your hand is just above elbow level. Your mouse should be positioned somewhere around this point. With a flat mouse platform, position this above the keyboard and over the numeric keypad if you are right handed – you can easily move it out of the way if you need to access these keys. Protect your wrist – if you look at the wrist it is curved away from any contact surface. The forearm is shaped liked this for the wrist to remain free of surface pressure. Avoid restricting circulation – For many people there are exposed blood vessels near the skin at the wrist, which is where the pulse is often taken. Any pressure in this region will disrupt circulation into the hand and this will increase the risks of injury. Avoid Restricting Arm Movement – with a softly padded wrist rest, especially one that is rounded, or a soft chair arm rest the forearm becomes “locked” into position and this encourages people to make mouse movements by flicking the wrist, which also increases pressure.

Mouse shape – choose a mouse design that fits your hand but is as flat as possible to reduce wrist extension. Don’t use a curved mouse. Use a symmetrically shaped mouse. Consider a larger mouse, such as the Whale mouse, that encourage arm rather than wrist movements. Load sharing – if you want to load share between your right and left hands, that is using the mouse for some of the time with each hand. For this you need to choose a mouse platform that can easily be configured to the left or/and right, and a symmetrical shaped mouse that can be used by either hand.

Stretching and Breaks

The body was designed to perform a variety of tasks while actively using muscles. Sustained muscle activity robs the muscles of life giving blood flow. It is very important to actively stretch during breaks to flush out toxins that build up in the muscles that were used for sustained posture.

The following body areas typically need stretching or relaxation exercises after computer use:

· Neck

· Hands and Wrists

· Upper Back and Shoulders

· Lower Back

· Eyes

· Legs

Stretching should always be performed gently using controlled movements! If you experience any pain or discomfort, discontinue the exercise and consult a qualified health professional immediately!

http://ergo.human.cornell.edu/

http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/index.html

http://members.aol.com/rdergo2/wsetup.htm

http://www.safetyoffice.uwaterloo.ca/hspm/documents/office_ergo/ergo/vdt.html

What is ergonomics?

Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to the worker. When there is a mismatch between the physical requirements of the job and the physical capacity of the worker, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) can result. Workers who must repeat the same motion throughout their workday, work in an awkward position use a great deal of force to perform, repeatedly lift heavy objects or face a combination of these risk factors are most likely to develop WMSDs. In this report, I will outline the main factors in having a safe workstation.

Sitting-Chair

There are certain ways in which you may choose an ergonomically correct chair. Does the seat feel comfortable and fit you shape? When you sit in the chair the seat should be at least one inch wider than your hips and thighs on either side. The seat should not be too long for your legs otherwise it will catch you behind the knees or it will prevent you from leaning fully back. Most ergonomic chairs have a seat with a front that prevents the seat from catching you behind the knees. The seat should also be contoured to allow even weight distribution and it should be comfortable to sit on. Is the seat chair height adjustable? The chair should be adjustable so that you can adjust seat height while you are sitting on the chair. Some chairs have a mechanical height adjustment (spinning) mechanism. Does the chair have a comfortable lower back rest? Many chairs have cushioned lower back supports that can be adjusted up and down and forwards and backwards to fit your shape. If the chair has a fixed height lower back support and it feels comfortable when you sit back against this then a fixed lower back support may be acceptable. When you sit back against the lower back support is there space for hips? Insufficient hip room can make you sit too far forwards on the seat so that you will not have enough thigh support. Does the seat still feel comfortable after you’ve been sitting in it for 30 – 60 minutes? If the seat is made from foam then continuous use can cause it to become deformed and then it will not provide cushioned support. Insufficient cushioning and inappropriate contouring can cause discomfort and hip and back fatigue. Is the tilt of the seat adjustable? In some situations it can be helpful to change the tilt of the seat pan to help to maintain a healthy seated posture. Does the chair have a 5-pedestal base? The chair should have at least a 5-pedestal base with casters that glide freely over the floor surface. You may also want to choose a chair that swivels easily. Do you need armrests on your chair? If so, are the armrests broad, cushioned and comfortable? While sitting can you adjust the height of the armrests and can you move the armrests closer together or further apart?

Typing- Keyboard

In the ideal typing posture both static and dynamic muscle loads are minimized. This posture is achieved when the keyboard is below seated elbow height and the keyboard base is gently sloped away from the user so that the key tops are accessible to the hands in a neutral posture. In this position the arms, shoulders, neck and back can relax, especially during brief rest pauses. Also, in this slightly reclined sitting position the low back rests against the lumbar support of the chair, the elbow angle is opened to promote circulation to the lower arm and hand, the abdominal angle, and the popliteal angle (behind the knees) are opened to promote blood circulation. The feet rest firmly upon the floor.

Looking-Monitor

Optical glass glare filters on computer monitors can reduce health and vision problems related to computer glare and help boost productivity in computer users, according to a new Cornell University study. After using a glass anti-glare filter, the percentage of problems related to tiredness, trouble focusing eyes, itching/watery eyes and dry eyes was half what they were before filter use. This was true for people, who use computer monitors all day at work, said ergonomist Alan Hedge, who is the professor of design and environmental analysis and director of the Human Factors Laboratory at Cornell University. Also, 80 percent of users reported that the filters made it easier to read their screens, and more than half said that the filters helped their productivity. We can now conclude that anti glare filters are a must in a safe workstation.

Scrolling-Mouse

The following tips should avoid a mouse-related injury. The same posture principles apply to other input devices (e.g. trackball, pen, etc.). Mouse Grip – don’t throttle your mouse, hold the mouse gently to move it over a surface. Mouse from the Elbow – don’t skate or flick the mouse with your wrist. Make controlled movements using your elbow as the pivot point and keep your wrist straight. Optimal Mouse position- sit back in your chair, relax your arms then lift your hand up, pivoting at the elbow, until your hand is just above elbow level. Your mouse should be positioned somewhere around this point. With a flat mouse platform, position this above the keyboard and over the numeric keypad if you are right handed – you can easily move it out of the way if you need to access these keys. Protect your wrist – if you look at the wrist it is curved away from any contact surface. The forearm is shaped liked this for the wrist to remain free of surface pressure. Avoid restricting circulation – For many people there are exposed blood vessels near the skin at the wrist, which is where the pulse is often taken. Any pressure in this region will disrupt circulation into the hand and this will increase the risks of injury. Avoid Restricting Arm Movement – with a softly padded wrist rest, especially one that is rounded, or a soft chair arm rest the forearm becomes “locked” into position and this encourages people to make mouse movements by flicking the wrist, which also increases pressure.

Mouse shape – choose a mouse design that fits your hand but is as flat as possible to reduce wrist extension. Don’t use a curved mouse. Use a symmetrically shaped mouse. Consider a larger mouse, such as the Whale mouse, that encourage arm rather than wrist movements. Load sharing – if you want to load share between your right and left hands, that is using the mouse for some of the time with each hand. For this you need to choose a mouse platform that can easily be configured to the left or/and right, and a symmetrical shaped mouse that can be used by either hand.

Stretching and Breaks

The body was designed to perform a variety of tasks while actively using muscles. Sustained muscle activity robs the muscles of life giving blood flow. It is very important to actively stretch during breaks to flush out toxins that build up in the muscles that were used for sustained posture.

The following body areas typically need stretching or relaxation exercises after computer use:

· Neck

· Hands and Wrists

· Upper Back and Shoulders

· Lower Back

· Eyes

· Legs

Stretching should always be performed gently using controlled movements! If you experience any pain or discomfort, discontinue the exercise and consult a qualified health professional immediately!

http://ergo.human.cornell.edu/

http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/index.html

http://members.aol.com/rdergo2/wsetup.htm

http://www.safetyoffice.uwaterloo.ca/hspm/documents/office_ergo/ergo/vdt.html

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