Individual Organization Behavior Essay, Research Paper
Individual Organization Behavior
US. Army company A 204th Engineer Combat Battalion Heavy Chapter 3:
Foundations of Individual Behavior
Table of contents: ? Introduction.
a. Description, History and Organizational structure.
? Key biographical characteristics.
c. Marital Status.
d. Number of dependents.
? Factors that determine an individual’s personality.
a. Personality determinants
b. Personality Traits.
c. Personality Attributes influencing Organizational behavior.
d. Personalities and national cultures.
e. Matching personalities and jobs. (Holland’s Typology).
? Summarize how learning theories provide into changing behavior.
a. Theories of learning.
b. Shaping Behavior : A managerial tool.
? Applications for Specific Organizations.
a. S U T A (Substitute Unit Training Assistance).
Now for the Essay
Chapter: 3 Individual Organizational Behavior
The NY Army National Guard. I. This organization’s history goes back around 300
years, to the time of the ?Minutemen?. The brave men and women that fought to
gain our independence here in the state of NY. The NY Army National guard is
under the control of the Governor of NY. But in Wartime this organization
becomes Federalize and under the Command of our Commander in Chief. The
President of the United States. I am the Commander for A-Company Detachment 2 of
the 204th Engineer Bn, located in Riverhead, NY here in Long Island. *[Let's
take a closer look at the Org. Chart]* My Unit has 72 Men and Women who are
civilians during the month but dedicate one weekend a month and two weeks in the
year to serve our State and Country. We have two types of missions for which we
train all year long. – The State Mission : These are emergency calls in time of
disasters, due to nature or mischief. (ex: Floods snowstorms, Riots, Plane
crashes, Drug enforcement, Border patrols, etc.) – The Federal Mission : These
takes effect in time when the President or Congress declares War, Police Ac-tion
or Rescue and or Protection to a foreign country. We also train by going
overseas and helping countries. Now lets talk about the individual Behaviors of
my organization shall we? [Flip to Outline].*
II.Key Biographical Characteristics a.Age in my unit is very
diversified. I have new soldiers entering the unit at age 18, and current
members range from their 20’s to their 40’s. The Standard to Join the US. Army
is 18-28 yrs. – Rank and degree of responsibility are factors of productivity .
- Degree of Absenteeism is found in both. – Turnover is mainly found in younger
soldiers, they move from state to state often. – Job satisfaction also go hand
in hand with rank and responsibility. The Older and higher the rank the more.
b.Of course we don’t discriminate – I found that females are often more
absent. – Also that a degree of J/S shifted more towards the males. – And
females tend to turnover easier than males. c.Our troops often have to face
the increasing risk of being deployed overseas, and that of course always shows
in the soldier’s work behavior. This is mostly from worried Wives and Husbands
thinking that their spouses won’t come back. *(That includes mine of course).* -
Single soldiers tend to miss UTA’s more than married ones. – J/S is found more
with higher rank soldiers instead of looking at marital status.
d.We provide school, day-care and counseling programs to dependents. This
helps the soldiers cope with the stressful job of parenting.
This helps the organization deal with absenteeism, J/S and turnover. e.
Tenure to the US Army means Experience and Skills, that can be shared to
younger soldiers. – Mission Readiness is increased when subordinates respect and
obey their older peers. III.Personality A.Determinants Heredity: For our
mission usually don’t determine a soldier for his looks or muscle definition.
That is up to the soldier to ex-ploit when it comes to personal development.
*APFT* Environment: Some of our soldiers when they grow up in places like NYC
behave and perform different from those soldiers that spend their upbringing in
smaller towns. We found this to be a factor in Mission readiness, Absenteeism,
turnover and J/S. Situation : We are all bound to a code of honor, duty and
conduct. So we act differently according to the situation. The differ-ence is
found more with younger soldiers, they sometimes don’t know how to act and need
to be directed or supervised. B.The Meyers-Briggs Personality Type
Indicators. [MBTI] Extroverted-Introverted (E-I) Sensing-Intuitive
(S-N) Thinking-Feeling (T-F) Perceiving-Judging
Recruiters and administrators use this method to classify soldiers into ? major
personality types indicators We call it the ASVAP: ========> Combining any of
these gives us some good personality types:
here are examples of job classifications by Pers/Type: ISTJ= Administrative,
Dentist, Police, Accountants, Military. ISFJ= Nurses, Teachers, Librarians,
Clerical Supervisors. INFJ= Clergy, Physicians, Media Specialist, Education
Consultants. ISTP= Farmers, Mechanics, Electronic repair, Engineers, Dental
* Look at the handout and See what personality trait you might belong to * C.
Personality Attributes Influencing OB. A soldier’s Career path is determined on
different factors, which are all tied up to his or her performance. APFT=
>MILITARY/CIVILIAN EDU =>MARKSMANSHIP>JOB RATING. Locus Of Control Internal =
The one I personally believe in. It means that everyone is a master of their own
destiny fate and life. External = People think that their careers and life
depends on others’ decisions. Or that luck and chance have much to do in it.
[Found in most of my soldiers]* Machiavellism = A way to characterize a persons
ability to manipulate, gain or lack power. – High Machs = (Most of my First Line
Supervisors) – Low Machs = People that don’t like to persuade, believe in SOP
Reg’s and rules. (My higher chain of Command including myself) Self Esteem =
This is found at my job with people that volunteer often, and with people that
hide in formations and I don’t recall their names. Some females Self Monitoring =
Some soldiers Don’t know how to react to certain enviroments such as combat
simulation, or emergency deployment. Others like me look forward to this type of
disruption. Other might be excellent soldiers but their civilian life might be
difficult to handle. Risk Taking = This is a trait that the armed forces take
very seriously. I am talking about the life risking the life of many men and
women. All at mgmt level use a formula: Every mission is given a number, if the
sum equals 18-21 the degree of risk man-agement calls for Low caution 22-25 is a
High caution #>25 is a Dangerous Mission. * We can say that Risk taking is the
big factor in O/B in my organization* D.Personalities and National
Cultures Type A = These personalities are found in logistics, administration and
personnel departments. Characterized by being impatient, caring about time
management. Mostly found in north Americans. Type B = This is the most popular
personality in my unit. They are not concern with time management, they have to
be super-vised closely. Found in other than our culture. E.Personalities
and Job-Fit Theory Holland’s Typology. This uses six personality characteristics
and matches them with congruent occupations. Realistic =
>shy/persistent/practical [Mech., Assy. Line, Farmers] Investigative =
>Analitycal/original/curious [Biologist, Economist, Reporters] Social =
>sociable/friendly/cooperative [Social worker, Teacher, Counselor] Conventional =
>Conforming/efficient/practical [Acct., Corp. Mgr., Bank teller] Enterprising =>
Self confident/ambitious/dominant [Lawyer, Real Estate] Artistic =>Imaginative/
disorderly/ idealistic [Painter, Writer, Musician]
We use the Classical Conditioning theory ,Operand Theory and Social theory of
learning. The Classical theory tells us that people respond to a certain
stimulus or in a certain manner depend-ing.
[Ex: When a flare is in the sky, the soldier will automatically hit the ground,
close eyes and will not move.] This is learned by associating flash with the
enemy fire. – The Operand Theory is used when individuals go beyond the standard
in a mission completion. They are recognized in front of their peers. – The
social theory is found in a program called OJT. With this program a new soldier
is teamed with a specialist and at the end will receive a certificate of ON the
Job Training. b.Shaping Behavior – Positive Reinforcement is used by us
when we go to the soldier and thank him for a job well done. – Negative
Reinforcement is used when pay is taking out of their paycheck, or a promotion
suspen-sion. – Punishment is used by drill Sgt.’s when they make the trainees do
push-ups or sit-ups or run. This is done only as a way of strengthening the
soldier and reinforce that it will not happen again. – Extinction When a
standards is not met as a unit, the Higher HQ’s will not send us overseas for
training which is where everyone wants to go. V.Reinforcement -
Continuous Reinforcement is found when a soldier is tasked with a mission and
performs meeting the stan-dards. This is recorded in his annual performance
review. – Intermittent Reinforcement is used only when a soldier is having
problems meeting our standard, the time they meet the standard we congratulate
and reinforce that that is the way it will continue.
Reward Schedules – The Army once per month pays all soldiers, That is a Fixed-
Interval Schedule reward. – When I tell the soldiers that they are having two
inspections per year, they don’t know which months. This is Variable-Interval
Schedule. – When a soldier hits 39 out of 40 in a rifle competition they get an
expert badge, 25-38 they get a sharpshooter badge and below 25 they get a
marksman badge. That is a Fixed Ratio Schedule. – We don’t reward our soldiers
with the Variable-Ratio Schedule for reasons of safety and risk management.
VI.Applications For Specific Organizations We use an application called the
SUTA. This helps us reduce the amount of absenteeism by the soldier. The soldier
calls and gives a good reason for being absent, we task the supervisor to make a
training outline of what that sol-dier will do when they have to make it up. The
soldier has 30 days to perform that task and it has to be signed by an officer.
This has reduced the number of soldiers tak-ing off for no reason.