VALUES EDUCATION Essay, Research Paper
The moral development of the Filipino youth is very crucial. Changes in society in terms of social responsibility, honesty, integrity, and justice need to be hastened. Regime after regime has come and gone but the Filipino has not taken stock himself and decisively say, “I am for God, therefore, all my actions should support this conviction of mine.”
This fourth year Values Education Book recognizes the wisdom of the “Department of Education, Culture and Sports” to embark on a cognitive learning of values leading to the affective domain ending in the values being concretized in daily living.
The main concept of spirituality that would result in something concrete to guide the Filipino is, “Spirituality, religiosity is faith embodied in and expressed through culture.” (Jose M. de Mesa, 1991) Faith is the response a Filipino makes to the gift of life and love that he has received from the Almighty.
The book starts from helping the students know themselves and their capacity for spiritual growth. The opportunities for this spirituality to grow are also presented. He is given the joy to know that his culture is very rich in leading him to achieve the fullness of his being a man.
Concepts to build a man, a community, a society and a world characterized with the values of truth, justice, unity and peace are presented. Nationalism is also developed not as separate from spirituality but integral in the development of the morality of a person.
We all need to forge our minds, hearts and deeds to reach the destiny, which the Almighty has for our country, our world and our fellowmen. This book is a small contribution to our nation’s ardent desire for moral recovery and the big leap to hurdle it is your conviction to grow in all aspects of your humanity – the most important aspects morally and spiritually.
The competencies the Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) has set for the Values Education is the basis of all the concepts and strategies presented in this book.
From the Author
The adolescent lives his life according to the philosophies he has developed. Going through the lessons leads the student to know more of himself. Knowing his self who has always been loved and cared for by God is a strong means of developing growth in spirituality. Positive and negative ways are discovered in the activities. The identification of the reasons for his way of life and seeing the source of all of them are always helpful to grow into a self – fulfilled person. Spirituality anchored in the trust and love of God develops a self who does not take the pains to improve and grow according to God’s plan for everyone.
MATURITY AND SPIRITUALITY
A person’s spirituality grows just like any part of his physical self.
JOURNEYING INTO ONESELF
Check the statements that show a maturing personality.
1.______________ I am the center of all attention.
2.______________ My friend’s opinions matter.
3.______________ I should be attended to always.
4.______________ My opinions are always the best.
5.______________ Others have to be heard also.
6.______________ If it does not satisfy me it is not good.
7.______________ I must always be rewarded for the good thing I do.
8.______________ I feel good being called a good student.
9.______________ I have to do my share in society.
Did you check items 2, 5, and 9? Why these items show someone growing in both spiritual and moral aspects of life? Why do you think you checked them? Why did you not check them? Are you satisfied that you haven’t grown much in your spiritual and moral development? Can you improve on them? How?
MORAL AND SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT
(Adapted from Piaget & Langer-Werner and applied
to Kohlberg’s Stage of Moral Development)
An interaction between the individual’s structural capacities, the factors in the environment and experiences that lead to moral development.
“ME ALONE”Accommodation/But I need others for many things
“ME FIRST”But I need more physical things; I need
I give you favors, and I expect youacceptance
to give back in returnAcc/Fb
“GOOD BOY/NICE GIRL”But there are conflicting claims of
meeting expectations and winningdifferent groups
“LAW AND ORDER”But is the law always morally right?
- law/rules duty; doing my share in- can the rules always respond to all
societysituations that may arise?
- systematized: larger group as a(Acc/Fb)- are institutions always faithful to
social system original inspiration and responsive to
the need for change?
“SOCIAL CONTRACT”But is the majority always right?
- democracy/change/adaptation by(Acc/Fb)- what criteria can be used for formu-
majority lating right and wrong in society?
- rational open discussion for
- the right = personal conscience guided
by fundamental values always and
universally valid because of their
- criterion: what respects dignity and
rights of the human person
- JUSTICE = the end-goal of moral
The early yeas in life are characterized by a behavior motivated by the “ME ALONE” or “ME FIRST” attitude. In a later stage in life or in the intermediate grades, one’s actions maybe motivated by the Good Boy/Nice Girl, meaning one does what brings appreciation or approval from others and doing away with actions that bring disapproval or reprimand from others.
A maturing moral and spiritual self is slowly observed in the “LAW and ORDER” stage. The individual bases his action on what is considered right or wrong in the family, school, community, country or in the world. He tries to do his share in society. But sometimes the laws are not anymore sufficient to be the measure of what is right or wrong. This is because there can be a wide range of choices to be made. To choose the best action takes a higher basis for choice, more than laws or regulations.
A truly matured individual reaches the stage of “Universal Principles” upon which to anchor his decision, choices and actions.
The right, now is based on a personal conscience which is guided by fundamental values. These values are good in themselves especially because they lead a person to what God, Allah and the Supreme Being teach so that he develops into what he should become. A person’s life as intended by God is to have a dignity of a human being. The criteria or the measure of what is fundamentally a universal value is whether it respects the dignity and rights of human person. The end goal of moral and spiritual development is justice. Justice means reaching a point where respect is given as well as sufficient for everyone in all aspects of life.
1. Enumerate some behaviors you have observed that points to a person who is in the
a. Me alone
b. Me First
c. Good Boy/Nice Girl
2. Why is Law/Order Stage not enough to guide the spiritual or moral decisions of a
3. Why is the social contract limited as a source of guide to one’s choices and actions?
4. Which of these steps would you choose as your guide for your attitudes and
5. Cite people who have reached Stage 6 in their moral and spiritual development.
Give reasons why you have chosen them.
THE SHORTEST WAY
by Bro. Jun Estrella, FSC
One day, a rich young man went to a remote Temple and presented to the Master his concern.
“Although we are rich, and I do not have to work, I am still disillusioned with life and wish to attain enlightenment to be freed from these sufferings. But I have no capacity for sticking long at anything except playing chess. Is there any short way for people like me?”
“There is,” said the Master, “if you are really determined. The Master then called a certain monk to bring a chessboard and men. The monk came with the board and the Master setup the men.
“Oh monk,” said the Master, “you have vowed obedience to me as your Master, and now I require it of you. You will play a game of chess with this youth, and if you lose I shall cut off your head. If you win I shall cut off the head of this young man.”
They looked at the Master’s face and saw that he meant it: He would cut off the head of the loser.
They began to play. With opening moves, the youth was already sweating as he played for his life. The chessboard became the whole world; he was completely concentrated on it.
Later, as his opponent’s position crumbled, he looked at him. He saw a face of intelligence and honesty, worn with years of austerity and effort. He thought of his own worthless life, and a wave of compassion came over him. He deliberately made wrong moves, ruining his position and leaving himself defenseless.
Then without any warning, the Master upset the board. The two contestants sat motionless and did not know what to do.
“There is no winner and no loser,” said the Master slowly, “there is no head to fall here. Only two things are necessary,” and he turned to the young man, “complete concentration, and compassion. You have today learned them both. Now stay here for a while and pursue our training in this spirit and your enlightenment is sure.”
The rich young man did so and got it.
1. In the way how the rich young man talked in the beginning, in what stage of moral and spiritual development was he?
2. How was he led to the last stage of moral development? Why do you think he learned to be in the last stage? Did you like the way the Master helped him grow to maturity in his moral and spiritual development? Why?
“Universal Principles” are the best guides to lead an individual to a path, to what God meant his life to be. A person’s life should be lived with human dignity and respect for human rights. When these two have become guides for actions, then, one has truly started to mature morally and spiritually.
1. Cite occasions wherein you felt happy because you were in stage 6. “Universal principles”
2. Cite occasions wherein you felt sad, because you were in the stages from 1 to 3.
3. Cite ways to grow in your moral and spiritual development.
Explain in your own words and give a behaviour that will give a better understanding of the words.
Good Boy/Nice Girl-
Law and Order-
Social Contract -
I will consciously use Universal Principles as my guide to behavior.
Give an action for each value:
1. Respect for the dignity of the individual _______________________________
2. Respect for human rights __________________________________________
3. Justice __________________________________________________________
THE STRENGTH OF THE INNER SELF
There is a need to find out where one is in the development of his inner self. Knowing where one is would lead one to improve. After identifying the cause of being in a certain stage where he should not be, he then is able to diagnose himself and set a goal to move ahead or forward in the development of his inner self or his “ego”.
ERICKSON’S EIGHT AGES OF MAN’S EGO DEVELOPMENT
Success bringsFailure brings
(birth to about one year)
(corollary to Freudian oral sensory stage)
Result of affection and gratification ofResult of consistent abuse, neglect,
needs, mutual recognition.deprivation of love; too early or
harshness, weaning, autistic isolation.
(About ages one to three)
(Corollary to Freudian muscular anal stage)
Autonomyvs.Shame and Doubt
Child views self as person in his ownFeels inadequate, doubts self, curtails
Right apart from parents but stilllearning basic skills like walking,
dependent.talking, wants to hide inadequacies.
(About ages four to five years)
(corollary to Freudian genital locomotor stage)
Lively imagination, vigorous realityLacks spontaneity, infantile jealousy
testing, imitates adults, anticipate roles.castration complex, suspicious,
evasive, role inhibition.
(about ages six to eleven years)
(corollary to Freudian latency stage)
Has sense of duty and accomplishment,poor work habits, avoids strong
Develops scholastic and social compe-competition, feels doomed to medio-
tencies, undertakes real tasks, putscrity; lull before the storm of puberty
Fantasy and play in better perspective,may conform as slavish behavior,
Learns world tools, task identification.Sense of futility.
Puberty and Adolescence
(about ages twelve to twenty years)
Ego Identityvs.Role Confusion
Temporal PerspectiveTime confusion
Role experimenterRole fixation
Sexual polarizationWork paralysis
Ideological commitmentValue confusion
Capacity to commit self to others, “trueAvoids intimacy, “character genitability” now possible, lieben andproblems,” promiscuous behavior;
Arbeiten – “to love and to work”;repudiates, isolates, destroys,
“mutuality of genital orgasm.”seemingly dangerous forces.
Productive and creative for self & othersEgocentic, nonproductive, early
parental pride and pleasure, mature, enri-invalidism, excessive self-love,
ches like, establishes and guides nextperson’s impoverishment, self-
Appreciates continuity of past, presentTime is too short; finds no meaning
and future, acceptance of life cycle and in human existence, has lost faith in
life style, has learned to cooperate withself and others, wants second chance
inevitabilities of life, “state or quality ofof the life cycle with more advantages
being complete, undivided, or unbrokenno feeling of world order or spiritual
entirety”(Webter’s Dictionary); death losessense, “fear of death”.
THE LIFE CYCLE: EPIGENESIS OF IDENTITY (ERIK ERIKSON)
VIII ???????????????????Integrity vs. Despair
VII ??????????????????….Generativity vs. Stagnation
VI ???????????????????..Intimacy vs. Isolation
V ???????????????????..Identity vs. Identity Confusion
IV ???????????????????.Industry vs. Inferiority
III ???????????????????.Initiative vs. Guilt
II ????????????????????Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt
I ????????????????????.Trust vs. Mistrust
1. At this age, on what stage should you be?
2. What behavior is characteristic of this age if failure was felt and encountered?
3. What behavior is characteristic of this age if failure was felt and encountered?
4. What good will it be to realize that one’s present behavior is caused by a failure
5. Why is it possible to move to positive characteristics in stage even if one has met
6. How does knowledge of the causes of attitudes and behavior help correct wrong
attitudes and beliefs?
7. How would the knowledge on the results of success and failure help one grow morally
8. Discuss each stage and site present actions of stages beginning with stage 1.
The inner self is the source of actions that are observable. If one condemns himself because of his behavior, he will not improve. On the other hand, if he is able to examine his actions and realize that actions of others towards him have caused his present behavior, he then examines himself and his capacity to change from negative reactions to failure and shift to the positive actions.
On occasions too when he realizes his actions are wrong and can be traced to causes, he can make the desire to change. He will realize that persons other than himself brought him failure but he can decide for himself to go against doing the wrong actions.
In addition to that, as a Christian or as a believer of the Almighty, it would help him realize that he is given the grace to act righteously in order to be saved. Although certain events or people may leave experiences that would lead him to act negatively, God’s promise of leading him to do good can be a strength to hold onto and hope that one can still act positively for his age.
One may examine his actions and may realize that he is already an adolescent but still acts not only negatively but also characteristics of an earlier age group. Again, knowledge about this would help him act better relationship with others. As is often said, we relate with God concretely with the people around us.
Read this story and relate it with faith that God continually works to help individuals grow spiritually.
Once there was a famous engineer who died a tragic death. And so his soul went up to heaven. Upon entering the gate, the Angel stopped him saying:
“In order to enter here my friend, you need hundred points of good works on earth.”
“I constructed dams and bridges for my countrymen for a minimum charge,” replied the engineer.
“Very well, that’s one point,” said the Angel.
“As a president of the Rotary Club I was responsible for the construction of several school buildings in our district.”
“Very well, that’s another point,” said the Angel.
“I was a loving and faithful husband to my wife and a good father to my children.”
“Very well that’s another point .”
“I donated some of my salaries to charitable institutions.”
“Very well , that’s another point. What else?” said the Angel.
“Despite my busy schedule,” added the engineer, I gave free consultations to young engineers.”
“Very well that’s another point. What else?” asked the Angel.
There was a pause.
Then when he could no longer think of any other good works, the engineer was saddened for he knows he failed the test. When he is about to leave, the Angel stopped him saying:
“Wait a minute, I will bring your case first to my Master.”
On coming back, the Angel said:
“Welcome to Paradise my friend. My master decided to let you in.”
Lord, is this what we call Grace?
Taken from the Shortest Path
A Book of Story Meditations
a) Why was it impossible for the engineer to enter God’s Kingdom despite all his good
b) What does this show regarding God’s initiative to save man?
c) How does knowledge of God’s grace help us grow in our spirituality?
1. Finish this chart
2. On the Stones, write what gives you the strength to correct negative attitudes and
actions resulting from unhappy experiences.
1. Enumerate the attitudes and actions resulting from failure.
2. How does spirituality help one correct the negative results of failure?
3. Enumerate actions resulting from perception and experiencing success.
4. Name ways of helping others experience success.
5. Why is it important to help others feel success?
I will perform the actions describe for five days.
a) Actions to show that grace help me to correct my negative ways.
b.) Actions I will do to help others succeed.
THE FILIPINO -KEEPING IN TOUCH WITH GOD
Man has progressed so much in the different aspects of life. He has invented so many things to make living an easier task. Inspite of all the advancement man has made, all these things are not enough to make him happy. Why is this so? Man do not find meaning of his existence with the presence of things that satisfy only his senses.
JOURNEYING INTO ONESELF
Check the statements that are true to you.
__________ 1. I find fulfillment when I am able to bring all the things I
need for a party.
___________2. I am extra happy when I’m dressed much better than my
___________3. I see my life important when I am able to realize I am
doing God’s will.
____________4. I am convinced that life was meant to be happy for
everyone, so I do my share in making others have a better
_____________5. When I was born, what I would become had already been
____________ 6. Life gives man all the opportunities to find out what it
really means to be a person.
____________ 7. Seeing my family having the best in life tells me the real
meaning of life.
___________ 8. Being able to feel the presence of the Supreme Being,
responsible for everything present in the world, brings a kind
Here are some oriental exercises developed in order to commune with God. They enable a man to recollect himself and bring his being to touch God.
Everyone has a touch of Chinese in him on this attribute of making of his bodily movement for reflection, meditation leads to communion or getting in touch with God.
DIRECTIONS: Read the following directions and do a modified Taichi meditational
1. If it is possible, play a tune similar to the beat and rhythm of the things and non living things in nature. Think of how the bird flies, the water flow gently in a stream, the gentle breeze blowing among the trees.
2. Together with the music or with picturesque statements, one starts to move in consonance with different nature movements.
3. Things to remember:
a. Always put the palms opposite each other.
b. Feel the energies vibrating from each palm in every movement.
4. The leader maybe chosen and the members of the group mirrors his actions.
5. Look at the diagram below and make your formation as shown below.
6. Leader: The Leader starts and ends with these exercises:
a. Stand Straight. Lift your right foot forward and simultaneously bring both arms forward. Clinch the right palm and bring it with force to the left palm but without sound. Do these movements as slowly as you can to make the mind concentrate on the movements.
b. The leader now emulates the different movements in nature in a creative way. Things to remember for the leader:
1. Always put the palms facing each other.
2. Do the movements very slowly.
3. Start from a low position and bring it to a highest or farthest position.
c. The leader may show the movements of the following nature:
(do 3x clockwise and 3x counterclockwise)
2. pushing the waves
3. holding the clouds
4. catching the leaves
5. wind blowing among the trees
d. The leader may show the movements of the following:
Do each three times using the left extremities, then with the right.
e. The leader should remind the participants to always be conscious of the energy emitted by the body parts nearing contact while concentrating on the parts of the body being moved.
A. Let us do an IMAGINARY JOB HUNTING. Look at this job advertisement. Write a BIODATA so that you can be accepted for the job described.
5. Educational Qualifications
B. Do the following exercise on ME and MY GOD. Answer the following
1. When did you first feel God’s presence? How did you feel his presence?
2. Describe your God in the following aspects:
3. What attribute of God do you find most meaningful? Why?
4. How does this attribute affect your actions in the following places:
5. Have you shown this attribute of God towards others? When? Why?
6. What other attributes of God have you shown towards others? When? Why?
7. Why can we identify some attributes of God in us?
1. Do the following exercises:
A. Press the tips of your fingers, your palms and then move the palm from facing each other or away from each other. This may vary in distances. The movement may like that of playing an accordion. During the process feel the positive energy coming from