Cloning Essay, Research Paper
Cloning humans has recently become a possibility that seems much more possible in today s society tan it was twenty years ago. It is a method that involves the production of a group of identical cells or organisms that all originate from a single individual. It is not known when or how cloning humans really became a possibility, but is known that there are two possible ways that we can clone humans. The first way involves splitting an embryo into several halves and creating many new individuals from that embryo. The second method of cloning a human involves taking cells from an already existing human being cloning them, in turn creating other individuals that are identical to that particular person. With these two methods almost at our fingertips, we must ask ourselves two very import questions. Can we do this, and should we? There is no doubt that many problems involving the technological and ethical sides of this issue will come up and will be virtually impossible to avoid, but the overall idea of cloning humans is one that we should accept as a possible reality for the future.
Cloning humans is an idea that has always been thought of as something that could be found in science fiction novels, but never as a concept that society could actually experience. Crazy ideas about cloning lie in many science fiction books and scare the public with their unbelievable possibilities. David Rorvik wrote a highly controversial book entitled IN HIS IMAGE . In it he describes the story of a wealthy man who decides to clone himself. He is successful in doing this and causes quite an uprise in his community. This book was written in the late seventies and even then, societies reaction to the issues of human cloning was generally a negative one. We face a problem today even greater than the one in this book and it involves the duplication of human beings in a society that has always been known for its difference.
The main issue as to whether or not human cloning is possible through the splitting of embryos began in 1993 when experimentation was done at George Washington University Medical Center in Washington, D.C. There Dr. Jerry Hall experimented with the possibility o f human cloning and began this moral and ethical debate. There it was concluded that cloning is not something that can be done as of now, but it is quite a possibility for the future. These scientists experimented eagerly in aims of learning how to clone human. Shannon Brownie of U.S. News & World Report writes, Hall and other scientists split single humans embryos into identical copies, a technology that opens a Pandora s box of ethical questions and has sparked a storm of controversy around the world . They attempted to create seventeen human embryos in a laboratory dish and when it had grown enough, separated them into forty-either individual cells. Two of the separated cells survived for a few days in the lab developed into new human embryos smaller than the head of pin and consisting of thirty-two cells each.
Although we cannot clone a human yet, this experiment occurred almost two years ago and triggered almost an ethical emergency. Evidence from these experiments got strange reactions from the public. Shannon Brownie claims, The Vatican condemned the technology of this experiment as being perverse, one German magazine called the research unscrupulous . This experiment opened the possibilities of cloning to society and, even though it was unsuccessful, led people to ask themselves what they would do if cloning were to happen. Common answers to the puzzling questions about humans and cloning are still trying to be answered today, and scientists and the public are eager to learn all they can about cloning. Many sources state that cloning is just simply an extension of fertilization, but the root of cloning goes further than that.
Cloning embryos is different from the genetic process of in vitro fertilization, but still holds many similarities with it. For example, the process of fertilization is pretty straightforward, it involves taking an egg from the woman and taking sperm from the man. The embryo is thus formed and implanted into the woman s uterus. The embryo develops normally and is born with unpredictable characteristics of both the man and the woman. The offspring ends up as unique individual and excluding the special case of twins has no the human being exactly like it. It uses on embryo that is form the beginning a distinct individual and creates only one human that is basically completely original. Cloning also goes through this same process, but it is unlike fertilization in that it takes the same type embryo and destroys its originality through duplication. Research on fertilization helps to improve its technique and also aids in scientists their search for better ways to clone humans.
Since scientists have already done a great deal with fertilization, questions involving the should we aspect of the issue often comes up. What extra little measure has to be taken to make a clone a couple undergoing fertilization, and what would happen in our value of humans with this new reality? Another large aspect to consider is how much money the are of genetics uses every year. When cloning comes about society profits will increase, and people will be willing to pay anything for a clone of themselves. It is such a costly from of technology. Society will do all kinds of things for money. A type of black market for embryos could easily someday develop. Parents already spend a great deal of money on fertilization, and who knows how much they would be willing to pay for cloning their children? The question as to what cloning would do to society form both the moral and economic standpoints comes to the conclusion that for the most part cloning is too expensive and too dangerous.
On the positive side of this issue, however, embryonic cloning could be a valuable tool for the studying of human development, genetically modifying embryos, and investigating new transplant technologies. Using cloning to product offspring for organs is an issue that we must also face and question whether or not it is morally right. No one will say that it is okay to kill a human being for the sake of their organs but many have no objections to cloning thousands and of individuals that look alike.
Just think, how would you explain cloning to your children, and what would their views about society be? One of the many questions brought up was regarding whether or not cloning should be an option for parents that are considering having children. Some people believe that cloning should aim its main focus to helping infertile couples and they will likely conclude that there is nothing wrong with it. The scarcely hidden assumption that anything that helps overcome infertility is morally appropriate.
Cloning is noted to be better for treating infertility in the sense that it can eliminate health problems with the child form the beginning. This proves to be good in the way that a couple is more than likely guaranteed a healthy child. Cloning does not, however, always prove to be good. For example, in the case where a certain disease is no the rise and one of say three clones get it. The immune system of the other two clones is identical which proves that they have no guard against diseases.
Since embryonic cloning has not been successful yet, no real experiments like the one performed at George Washington University have been done yet. We do know, however, know that cloning from an already existing human man effectively work in the near future. In a movie called, Boys form Brazil, two clones of Hitler are supposedly produced from a cell obtained containing Hitler s genes. This cell was in turn joined with an egg, and an embryo was formed containing solely the genes of Hitler with only the necessary ones from the Woman. This science fiction-like experiment was done for many reasons, but it was mostly intended to test the clones behavior away form one another and to see if any certain kin of attitude can be passed on from one clone to another. The boys in this movie seem to show this plan through their slight displays of Hitler s personality traits even after being raised apart with totally different lifestyles.
Studies of how cloned individuals would relate to one another are found with the experiment of twins separated at birth and raised in two very difference environments. Because nature makes its own clones through the process of twins, it is easy to research about how a clone might feel and how they would react to having another clone around them. Environment plays a big part in determining how a clone may turn out in The Boys from Brazil, both boys develop their own personalities but still seem to have many similarities with one another.
Many parents have great concern in regards to having a child that has been cloned. However, there are many excited parents looking forward to this breakthrough in technology. By looking at the many different reasons for cloning a child, one can better understand why it may seem appealing to parents. Cloning form an already existing human will provide the opportunity there are many excited parents looking forward to this breakthrough in technology. By looking at the many different reasons for cloning a child, one can better understand why it may seem appealing to parents. Cloning from an already existing human will provide the opportunity for parents to pick their idea .
Whether or not cloning happens with embryos or adults, various groups in society may react very differently to it. For example, there are many religious groups that feel cloning should not be considered for any reasons whatsoever. Richard McCormick for Christian Century, believes that human cloning is an extremely social matter, not a question of mere personal privacy. I see three dimensions to the moral question the wholeness of life, the individuality of life, and the respect for life . In his article base don religion and cloning, he explains that all creatures come form God with their own certain uniqueness about them. He points out the fact that the pre-embryo is human and is living even in its first stages of development. This somehow parallels to the issue of abortion and whether or not human cloning is an extremely social matter, not a question of mere personal privacy.
No matter what we say or do, research for cloning will steadily continue and even more moral and ethical issues will arise. Who knows which of the two kinds of cloning will become the most popular in the future, but right now the main stand we need to take is whether or not it can be done and should be done. Who knows if human cloning done in research labs presently will go beyond the laboratory and affect individuals lives. What we do know however, is that cloning seems to very appealing in some aspects and very frightening in others. Barbara Ehrenreich makes a quite humorous pun commenting on coming possibility of clone humans. She states, When the technology arrives for cloning adult individuals, genetic immortality should be within reach of the average multimillionaire. Ross Perot will be followed by a flock of little re-Rosses .