Political, Economical, And Religious Changes 1400-1800 Essay, Research Paper
Today, what is considered to be the modern times began with the Early Renaissance at the start of the 15th century. As time has progressed, things have modified within societies to mold with the new ways of thinking for that time. Between the years of the 1400’s and the 1800’s this world has undergone many changes. Focusing on Europe, the major forces of change were in politics, economics, and religion.
In modern European history political effort were supplied by the state. Early in the 15th century political warfare was the theme of everyday life. It was not until the Peace of Lodi in 1454 that a balance of power was established and ended the hundred years war. Early in the 16th century there is a rise of the modern sovereign state. Constant conflict between the France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Papacy dominated in beginning of the 1500’s, as they competed for Italy. Religious differences set off political issues that began the Reformation with the posting of Martin Luther’s Ninety-Five These. In the 17th century the middle class, also known as the bourgeoisie, begins to emerge. The bourgeoisie forced political changed and gave rise to the ideas of political liberalism and democracy. The lasting conflict between the Catholics and the Protestants of the 1600’s brought rise to nationalism.
In the 18th century, concentration of political power was focused on the Great Powers, including France, Austria, Netherlands, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia. At this time political eminence of the bourgeoisie focused on ideas of social equality and social justice.
The political issues throughout time had a strong effect on the economical issues throughout Europe. In the 15th century economical dominance began to shift to the North and was carried through the 16th century. The wool trade of Florence was slowly taken over by Flanders and England. Banking was over run by the Germans. Trade in the East came to an end with the fall of Constantinople. By the end of the 16th century, economics had shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic with the Spanish discovery of the New World. With this trade shift the worldwide economy was in the makings. In the 17th century mercantilism is very prominent. Things such as state-granted monopolies, regulated exports and imports, tariffs, custom duties, quotas, slavery, colonial taxes, and plantation system were in full effect. By the 18th century, a supply and demand economy had produced. Through mercantilism, state regulations lowered the living standards of workers.
The every day lives that were led in modern Europe where primarily surrounded by religious ideas. In the times of the 15th century, religion in Europe revolved around the religious beliefs of the Papal Court. Though there were many religious battles over the Church, few doubted the Church, following its every demand. By the 16th century, many began to challenge that of the Papal State. People felt that the beliefs and efforts of the Church had traveled way off track, and was in need of some repair. Martin Luther began the radical attempt to fix what had gone wrong within the Papal State by posting his Ninety-five Theses upon the door of the Wittenberg University. The outcome of Luther’s efforts supplied Europe with beginnings of a new religious view, Lutheranism. Lutheranism practices and beliefs based on biblical precedents (life of Christ) and the early church fathers. In the 17th century, religious debates went into full-blown warfare. In the Thirty-Year’s War, the Catholics went head to head with the Protestants. This great religious battle finally concluded in 1648 at the Treaty of Westphalia. At the treaty, it was determined that Calvinism would be tolerated, and the Hapsburg had to accept Protestants in their German lands. In the 18th century, The Age of Reason, religion was still of importances, but it had moved from the spotlight. Human reason and education became the primary focus of every day life.
Throughout time in modern Europe views on politics, economics, and religion have changed. Each one in its own way has advanced on a positive note. Due to the ever changing European ideas of the modern time, the world has advanced in a productive manner. The ideas as well as conflicts have well placed technology where it has strived to be for so long.