Gonorrhea Essay, Research Paper
Gonorrhea is a curable sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These bacteria can infect the genital tract, the mouth, and the rectum. In women, the opening to the womb from the birth canal is the first place of infection. The disease can spread into the womb and fallopian tubes, resulting in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which is a small obligate aerobe with flattened abutting sides. It s fast growing, and divides by binary fission every 20 to 30 minutes. It contains plasmids that produce beta-lactamase.
Gonorrhea is dangerous because it causes painful urination and discharge, and usually pus from the penis. Some men will experience other problems if not treated early. For women, it also causes painful urination; increases need to urinate, abnormal discharge from the vagina, abnormal uterine bleeding, or labial swelling. Complicated infections can cause scarring of reproductive tissue and complicated gonococcal infection causes fertility.
The early symptoms of gonorrhea are mild. They usually appear two to ten days after sexual contact with the infected partner. Few people may be infected for several months without showing symptoms. Women s first symptoms include bleeding associated with vaginal intercourse, painful or burning sensation when urinating, and vaginal discharge that are bloody or yellow. Men s symptoms include pus from the penis and a burning sensation during urination that may be severe. Symptoms of rectal infections are discharge, anal itching, and occasional painful bowel movements with fresh blood on feces.
You can prevent gonorrhea by using latex condoms correctly and consistently during vaginal or rectal sexual intercourse. This will help reduce gonorrhea and it s complications.
A doctor who prescribes a single dose of the following antibiotics treats gonorrhea. Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, Olfoxacin, and Ciprofloxacin are all used to help treat gonorrhea.
Doctors who use three laboratory techniques diagnose gonorrhea. Staining biological samples directly from the bacteria, detection of bacterial genes or nucleic acid in urine, and growing the bacteria in laboratories. Many doctors use more than one test for accurate results. The staining test involves placing a smear of the discharge from the penis or the cervix on a slide and staining the smear with a dye. Then the doctor uses a microscope to look for bacteria on the slide. You usually can get the test results quickly. This test pretty accurate for men but is not good for women. Only one in two women with gonorrhea have a positive stain. More often, doctors use urine or cervical swabs for a new test that detects the genes of the bacteria. These tests are as accurate or more than growing the bacteria, and many doctors use them. The culture test involves placing a sample of the discharge onto a culture plate and incubating it up to two days to allow the bacteria to multiply. The sensitivity of this test depends on the site from which the sample is taken. Cultures of cervical samples detect infection approximately 90 percent of the time. The doctor also can take a culture to detect gonorrhea in the throat. Culture allows testing for drug-resistant bacteria.
Gonorrhea is still a public health problem; about 1 to 2 million cases of gonorrhea occur in the United States every year, only a fraction of these will be detected and treated. The infection is highest in certain geographical areas or populations. Rates are highest in the South and in large cities throughout the U.S.; rates are also higher among adolescents and minority populations. 80 percent of cases occur in ages 15 to 29. The highest are among males between 20 to 24 years, and among females between 15-19 years. It is predominantly spread through the heterosexual population.