регистрация / вход

Automobile Emissions Essay Research Paper Automobile Emissions

Automobile Emissions Essay, Research Paper Automobile Emissions, Individual Health and the Environment Pollutants From Automobiles What It is Health Impacts

Automobile Emissions Essay, Research Paper

Automobile Emissions, Individual Health and the

Environment

Pollutants

From

Automobiles

What It is

Health Impacts

Environmental Impacts

Nitrogen

Oxides

(NOx)

Nitric Oxide (NO) is the

major NOx component

and oxidizes into

nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

in the presence of

hydrocarbons and

sunlight. NO2 reacts

with hydrocarbons to

form ozone or with

water to form nitrate

(NO3), a significant

source of acid rain.

odour

increased sensitivity

of asthmatics and

those suffering from

bronchitis

NO2 is a lung irritant

which can produce

pulmonary edema at

high concentrations

increased

susceptibility to

respiratory infections

in young children and

the elderly

NO2 reacts with

water to form nitrate

(NO3), a source of

acid rain

Acid rain accounts

for an annual loss of

$197 billion in

commercial forest

wood products and

a further $1.3 billion

due to recreation

and wildlife habitat

destruction

NO2 contributes to

the corrosion of

metals and

degradation of

textiles, rubber and

polyurethane

NO2 is associated

with suppressed

vegetation growth

NO2 contributes to

ground-level ozone

formation

NO2 contributes to

stratospheric ozone

depletion

Carbon

Monoxide

(CO)

CO is a colourless,

odourless and

tasteless gas produced

through the incomplete

combustion of organic

materials. Personal

vehicles are one of the

main sources of CO,

accounting for 54% of

total CO emissions.

Cars operating at

colder temperatures

(during winter or engine

warm-up) produce

significant quantities of

this poisionous gas

CO reduces the

ability of the blood to

carry oxygen, and

smokers, persons

with heart disease,

and those with

anemia are especially

sensitive

greater susceptability

to respiratory

infections in children

and elderly

CO released into the

atmosphere

depletes the

atmosphere’s supply

of OH (hydroxyl

radical) which is the

main natural

cleansing agent of

the atmosphere. As

a result, CO

emissions

contribute to

increases in

methane, partially

halogenated CFCs

and the formation of

ozone under certain

NOx conditions.

Carbon

Dioxide

(CO2)

CO2 is a gas that

comes from the decay

of materials, respiration

of plants and animal life

and the natural and

human-induced

combustion of

materials and fuels.

Since the industrial

revolution, the natural

cycle of release and

absorption of CO2 in

the atmosphere has

become unbalanced

due to an increase in

human-produced CO2

which contributes to

global warming.

Indirect impact includes:

increased deaths related to

heat waves, dramatic

weather events, increased

transmission of vector-borne

and infectious diseases.

CO2 is the most

significant

greenhouse gas

contributing to

global warming

Hydrocarbons

(including

VOC)

A numerous and

chemically diverse

group of compounds,

non-methane

hydrocarbons and

volatile organic

compounds (VOC) are

important in the

formation of ozone.

VOC have at least one

carbon atom and

evaporate easily.

many individual VOC

(e.g., benzene) are

known to have or are

suspected of having

human health effects

ranging from

carcinogenicity to

neurotoxicity

some hydrocarbons

from diesel emissions

are carcinogenic

VOC contribute to

the formation of

ground-level ozone

Ozone

(O3)

Ozone is formed when

NOx and VOC combine

in the presence of

sunlight.

decrease in lung

function

eye irritation

decreased immune

function

possible long term

role in the

development of

chronic lung disease

reduced agricultural

productivity in crops

including soybeans,

tomatoes, potatoes

and corn

reduced growth rate

in trees including

red spruce, yellow

pine and sugar

maple

ground-level ozone

is a global warming

agent

Suspended

Particulates

Suspended particulates

are small particles of

solid and liquid matter

found in most fuel

emissions but are

found in significantly

higher quantities in

diesel emissions.

small particles can

penetrate lungs and

cause respiratory

infections

toxic particles can be

taken into the blood

stream

effects vary with the

type of particulates

decreased visibility

aesthetic damage to

buildings

ОТКРЫТЬ САМ ДОКУМЕНТ В НОВОМ ОКНЕ

ДОБАВИТЬ КОММЕНТАРИЙ [можно без регистрации]

Ваше имя:

Комментарий