History Essay, Research Paper
1.) How have our viewpoints on the Industrial Rev. changed relative to the viewpoints during the Rev?a.) European immigrants were plentiful and provided cheap labor, we were booming in comparison to Europe but we also had more people than them therefore the product per capita was down.b.) Used to think good to have huge market but instead of having to travel 00 miles, had to travel 1000 miles,etc.2.) Explain what “railroad through” meant.a.) The people were excited about the railroads, nothing could stop them from being built. Railroad must be built for the benefit of the economy.3.) What concept did this foreshadow?a.) National unity, supported railroad in politics, literature was even written towards it “Locomotive God” by William Ellery Leonard.4.) What showed that our rail systems were supreme to Europe’s.a.)200,000 miles, more that Eur/Russ combined; “Bullgine” huge, any foreign engine was tiny5.) Name 5 Trans. Cont. Railwaysa.)Union Pac/Central Pac, South Pac, Santa Fe, North pac, The great Northern6.) What happened to the 2/3’s of the railroads collectively by 1906?a.) 7 main railways, by consolidation, displayed national unity7.) What other National Services were improved by the railroads?a.) Telegraph, telephone, urban commerce8.) What was the new managerial system brought to the American economy by the railroads?a.) Hierarchial Bureaucracy9.) What was its structure and how did it operate?a.) owner hired most qualified as managers, they operated the systems.10.) How did it affect the economy then?a.) Railroads Co. were making better decisions therefore improving production; caused railroads to modernize their tech. And services (steel rails, safety precautions, 4 time zones)
11.) What events lead up to the supreme court case of Munn vs. Illinios? How did the view of competition change during these events.a.) Competition, managers went to competitive wars, offering fantastic “rebates” and secret rates to secure the traffic of big shippers. Overcharged where they had no comp.12.) What did the Supreme courts determine in the cases of Munn vs. Illinois determine and St Louis & Pacific Railway Co. vs. Illinois.? a.) Munn-when private property is affected with public interest it must submit to be controlled by the public for the common good and that in the absence of federal policy, states could lay down refulations.b.)Louis-reversed decisions, held and illinois statute invalid on the ground that it was the exclusive power of congress to regulate interstate commerce.(any regulatory action taken by gov.)13.)What law or act did congress the pass after the court cases? And what did it determine?a.) forbade railroads to engage in discriminatory practices; required them to publish their rate schedules; prohibited them from entering pooling agreements for the purpose of maintaining high rates; and said rates should be “reasonable and just”13.) Was this act successful? Y or y not? and what other documents does this resemble in its affectiveness.a.) somewhat, difficult to interpret, regulate, and enforce. Articles of Confed.14.) What banker took a big part in saving the railroads from bankruptcy and how did he do this?a.) J Pierpont Morgan, fixed debt of railroads, charged high fees, assessed holders of the old stock for working funds, and next issued lavish amounts of new stock(heavily watered)15.) How was the railroad expansion an ordeal of industrialization?a.) ordeal: A difficult or painful experience, especially one that severely tests character or endurance.