Security 2 Essay, Research Paper
security is the concept related to peace and order.Security is a freedom from threats to core values.It is the ability of states to maintain their independent identity and functional integrity.States would seek to achieve their own security at the expense of their neighbours.
Interstate relations were seen as a strugle for power as states constantly attempted to take advantage of each other.Acording to this view permanent peace was unlikely to be achieved.All that states could do was to try to balance the power of other states to prevent anyone from achieveing overall hegemony.
States claiming soverignty will inevitably develop offensive military capabilities to defend themselves and extend their power.States can never be sure about the intentions of their neighbours and therefore they must always be on their guard.It is argued that we continue to live in a world of mistrust and constant security competition.Co-operation between states occurs but it is difficult to achieve and even more difficult to sustain.There are 2 main factors;it is suggested which continue to make co-operation difficult;first one is the prospect of cheating second one is the concern which states have about what are called relative gains.
The rule of non-intervention is right of states.In the process of globalization human rights and armements are increasngly global issues.Armament policy has always been exclusive because matter of self help.For example Iran can produce nuclear weapons or increase the amount of his weapons,nobody can say anything to Iran because Iran has the agressor Iraq.Iran feels insecure and Iran has the mistrust and fear against Iraq so it increase his army.Because Iran is alone in the international arena and he protect his self against Iraq.Feeling itself alone in international arena is Security power dillema which is the summary of realist thought.According to realists security is very elementary aspect of world.Big fish swallows the little fish according to realists.International system is anarchic and misunderstanding,jellousy and the possibility of cheating can be the reasons of anarchy.States can have institutions but these institutions are not very important.States co-operate whenever it is necessary but they do not need generally co-operation.There is competition rather than co-operation between states.States want to maintain their independence and sovereignty and as a result the survival will be the most basic driving influencing their behaviour.From the treaty of Westphalia in 1648 states have been regarded as by far the most powerful actors in the international system.States have been the universal standar of political legitimacy with no higher authority to regulate their relations with each other.This means that security has been seen as the priority obligation of state governments .States have taken the view that there is no alternative but to seek their own protection in what has been described as a self-help world.
Globalization can be seen in the fields of eceonomic development,communications and culture.Global social movements are also a response to new risk associated with the environment,poverty and weapons of mass destruction.Globalization is encouraged by the fragmentation of the nation-state which is taking place encouraged by the end of cold war.Globalism is also encouraged by the spread of regional security communities and the development of a growing consensus of norms and beliefs.
In case of security the discussion is about the pursuit of freedom from threat.When this discussion is in the context of the international system,security is about the ability of states and societies to maintain their identity and their functional integrity.Security in post cold war era is a very complex phenomena,end of cold war is a considerable change.There was continuation of anarchial society about security issues.There were two arguements about the effects of the end of cold war on international security.
The first arguement suggest that a very little of substance has changed ;international relations is likely to be violant in the future as it has been in the past.The second argument suggest that co-operation as well as competition has been a feature of international politics in the past.And the post cold war has opened up an opportunity for an even more bening system of international securtity to develop.