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Fascism And Its Political Ideas Essay Research 2

Fascism And Its Political Ideas- Essay, Research Paper

Fascism and its Political Ideas-

Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first

arose in the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a

response to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I,

and the Bolshevik Revolution. Fascism is a philosophy or a system of

government the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme

right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership,

together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Celebrating the

nation or the race as an organic community surpassing all other

loyalties. This right-wing philosophy will even advocate violent

action to maintain this loyalty which is held in such high regards.

Fascism approaches politics in two central areas, populist and

elitist. Populist in that it seeks to activate “the people” as a whole

against perceived oppressors or enemies and to create a nation of

unity. The elitist approach treats as putting the people s will on one

select group, or most often one supreme leader called El Duce, from

whom all power proceeds downward. The two most recognized names that

go along with Fascism are Italy s Benito Mussolini and Germany s Adolf


The philosophy of Fascism can be traced to the philosophers

who argue that the will is prior to and superior to the intellect or

reason. George Sorel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Georg Hegal are main

philosophers who s beliefs and ideologies greatly influenced the

shaping of Fascist theory. Sorel (1847-1922) was a French social

philosopher who had a major influence on Mussolini. Sorel believed

that societies naturally became decadent and disorganized. This decay

could only be slowed by the leadership of idealists who were willing

to use violence to obtain power. Nietzsche (1844-1900) theorized that

there were two moral codes: the ruling class ( master morality) and

the oppressed class (slave morality). Nietzsche believed the ancient

empires were developed from the master majority and the religious

ideas and views grew out the slave majority. The idea of the “overman”

or superman which symbolized man at his most creative and highest

intellectual capacity was brought about by Nietzsche as well. Hegal

believed people should sacrifice for the community. He thought war was

also necessary to unify the state, with peace bring nothing but a weak

society. Hegal also sustained that laws should be made by the

corporate organization of the state.

Fascism values human nature in a group for the benefit of the

community. The group as a whole is called the human will, which is

ruled by a select group or one leader, with the power being passed

down from top to bottom. Fascism seeks to organize an organization led

mass movement in an effort to capture the state power. When the power

is in the firm grip of the ruler, or IL Duce, the government will be

used to control the population and everything in it so the community

will be benefited.

Fascism s ideal government would be fashioned around the good

of the community or nation. Everyone would work for the benefit of the

nation and that is all. Regularly this would take place with the

merging of the state and business leadership, with concern only of the

nation. In this the nation will also take care of its members if the

need should arise. This could be money ,shelter, food, or any other

need that might come about.

The ideology of Fascism has been identified with

totalitarianism, state terror, fanaticism, arranged violence, and

blind obedience. Adolf Hitler established his own personal ideology,

Mein Kampf, which means My Struggle. The book was written while Hitler

was in prison and not yet in power. Mussolini fashioned his ideology

after he took control of Italy. Despite their two different angles on

the use of Fascism Hitler and Mussolini both worked similarly on how

they established their principles in the same basic manner. Their

principles came from basic responses to various issues the leaders


Fascism is an authoritarian political movement that developed

in Italy and other European countries after 1919 as a reaction against

the profound political and social changes brought about from

inflation, and declining social, economic, and political conditions.

Italy, which was ready for a new political aspect, was the birthplace

of fascist ideology. Benito Mussolini was the man who brought this

ideology to Italy. Mussolini had been looking for the perfect

opportunity to take complete control of the country and now was the

time to do so. Mussolini said “Fascism, which was not afraid to call

itself reactionary does not hesitate to call itself illiberal and

anti-liberal” (Nazi Fascism and the Modern Totalitarian State) this

statement can be easily recognized in the steps that Mussolini took to

gain control of Italy. In 1919 Mussolini and his followers, mostly war

veterans, were organized along paramilitary lines and wore black

shirts as uniforms. After defeats at the polls Mussolini used his new

financial backing friends to clothe a gang of thugs who would attack

other street gangs supporting other ideologies that Mussolini

disliked. These black shirts also vandalized, terrorized, bullied, and

on occasion took control of self-governing governments by force.

Paralyzed by these violent occurrences, the government did little to

combat the fascists. Mussolini furthered his popularity by supporting

eight hour days, elimination of class privileges, universal suffrage,

and tax advantages.

Adolf Hitler s Nazi (National Socialist German Worker s Party)

party is the most recognized example of fascism. Nazism is the

ideology and policies of Hitler and his party from 1921 to 1945.

Nazism also stressed the superiority of the Aryan race, calling for

the unification of all German-speaking peoples into one single empire.

Unlike fascism, the state was second in importance, behind only racial

purity for the nation. Hitler used his book Mein Kampf to establish a

plan of action for creating this racially pure state.

In January of 1933 Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany by

Hindenburg. By the end of the year Hitler had concentrated his power

as a fascist dictator and began a campaign for a racially pure nation

that eventually led to the Holocaust. In order for Hitler to maintain

his ability to control the German people he had to organize several

militia groups. Hitler even wrote down important points of the Nazi

party that had to be followed. These Twenty Five points of Hitler s

party were enforced by these militia groups.

A few of the points made by Hitler are as follows: immigration

of non-Germans must be prevented, no individual shall do any work that

would I any way hurt the interest of the community for the benefit of

all, a creation of a national (folk) army, all editors and their

assistants on newspapers published in German must be a citizen, and

all material to be published must go through the government for

approval. To keep control of the population and maintain the law,

Hitler setup he set up militia groups to see that everything was in

order. Hitler began to organize the SA, his Nazi storm troopers, which

in Mein Kampf he referred to as ” an instrument for the conduct and

reinforcement of the movement s struggle for its philosophy of life.”

(The Rise of Hitler: A New Beginning) Realizing the liking of uniforms

by the German man the SA adopted a brown-shirt outfit, with boots,

swastika armband, badges and caps. The accessories on the outfit would

become important because of the visual tools providing easy

recognition and visibility, allowing for an increase of notoriety in

and out of the Nazi party. Hitler then created a special unit that

would only answer to him and be his personal body guards. The elite

groups was known as Schutzstaffel, the staff guard or SS for short.

The SS took a black uniform , modeled after the Italian Fascists.

Josef Berchtold, a former stationary salesman, was the groups first

leader. The Gestapo, established in 1933, was a secret state police.

All these groups were used to carry out mass murders of anyone or any

groups that posed a threat to Hitler and the party s beliefs. They

would also create, destroy, and falsify any record that would benefit

the party and the nation.

Hitler, using modern technology, furthered his power. He used

the microphone, radio, and newspaper to create any appearance that

fascism will be the new political power in the twentieth century.

Hitler once said that “The great masses of people will more easily

fall victim to a big lie than to a small one.” (Nazi Fascism and the

Modern Totalitarian State) He accomplished this feat by use of the

microphone, speaking to thousands at one time he was able to rally

support for his cause. He used the power of the airwaves and print to

setup a vial hatred of Jews, blacks, and the physical handicaps,

calling them all imperfections of society and they must be destroyed.

With the Jews being the main scapegoat of the Nazi party. Hitler could

have held to his belief that the dehumanization and scapegoating of

the enemy as an inferior race could have aided in the plot to justify

genocide. Hitler used the media in the sense that he and his leaders

had to approve anything that was being published. Allowing for

selective material to be let about the party and other world events.

Mussolini s Brown Shirts and Hitler s Nazi s are not the only

right wing element to have an influence in today s society. There are

numerous other groups who have their own agenda to deal with. Even

though these groups have differences generally they do agree on

certain main issues. With their core administration dealing with

issues centering on anti-government. The issues are gun control,

taxes, Constitution liberties, and federal regulations. These militia

groups believe that the government is tyrannical, and there is a

secret elite conspiracy on controlling the government, the economy,

the culture, or all three.

Just as Hitler used the Jews as his scapegoat these militia

groups have there own victims that the use. Federal officials and law

enforcement officers, minority groups, gay and lesbian right

activists, and people of color or immigrants are just a few of the

escape whole the right-wing militia use. One of the most famous right

wing militia movements in the United States is the Ku Klux Klan, or

KKK as it is even better known as. The KKK is a militia group that got

started during the disorder of the Reconstruction era. Now the Klan s

political agenda are a number of things. They believe the United

States government should protect the jobs and welfare of American s

first, not just anyone in the third world countries. The Klan does not

want to continue seeing America sell itself to foreigners such as the

Japanese, America should be owned by Americans. Closing American

borders to immigrants also is a project that the KKK thinks should

handled by putting American troops at the border of Mexico.

The idea that the end of the world is coming is rapidly

growing in right wing religious groups. Leading the way is Pat

Robertson and the Christian Coalition. Robertson and his Christian

Coalition is credited in helping many of the Republican Senators and

Congressmen attain their current standings. Robertson even believes by

reading Revelation 13 that if America were to change its money by

putting codes on it that it have in it the mark of the beast. Some of

the states even have their own militia groups. The Michigan Militia is

just one of the many individual groups. The Michigan Militia believes

that the American government is undermining the individual freedoms

that American s posses, and even selling out to international

organizations. The drug problem is one of the major areas the group

centralizes on. Even though the CIA has taken Noriega out of the drug

cartel in Panama the business is still running just as strong due to

other members of drug families were put back into power.

Most of the people who choose to become part of these groups

have several factors influencing their decision. Desperation generally

is the main reason. They are people who barley are hanging on to their

finical and social status. Wanting to protect themselves and their

children from a life of poverty and hardship they join a group that

will offer a family atmosphere of love and support.

One idea shared by all fascist movements is the evident lack

of a consistent political standard behind the ideology. Each

individual leader would handle every situation a little differently

with no sense of tradition or law. However, one very commonplace

aspect about fascism would be its unsympathetic drive to achieve and

maintain state power and sovereignty. On that road to conquest though

fascists are willing to abandon any principle to adopt an issue more

in acceptance and more likely to gain converts.

Fascism and its right wing counterparts have been influencing

twentieth century politics in every area. Hitler and Mussolini are

perhaps the two most noted people to bring fascism to the forefront of

government. Regardless of the power and force fascism has established

in the past the same conclusion happens every time, it fails. Leading

a person to question the vitality of this type of government.


Baradat, Leon. Political Ideologies. New Jersey:

Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1994.

Berlet, Chip. Armed Wing Populism, and Scapegoating.

http://paul.spu.edu/ sinnfein/berlet.html.

Merkel, Peter. The Making of a Stormtrooper. New Jersey:

Princeton University Press, 1980.

Nazi Fascism and the Modern Totalitarian State.

Payne, Stanley. Fascism. Wisconsin:

The University of Wisconsin Press, 1980.

Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.


The History Place: The 25 Points of Hitler s Nazi Party.


The History Place: The Rise of Hitler, A New Beginning.


The History Place: The Rise of Adolf Hitler, Nazi Party is Formed.


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