The Globe Theater Essay, Research Paper
The origins of the first Globe have many interesting details that make up its history. London developed a demand for entertainment and theaters. Europeans took the chance and began to build them. In 1576 the first successful theater was in operation in London. This building was simply called “The Theater,” which was owned by James Burbage and John Brayne. Twenty years later in 1596 the lease was about to expire. Their landlord was giving them an unfair lease that would make them go bankrupt. A few years later in 1598 Lord Chamberlain’s Men, a theater troupe, decided to build themselves a playhouse of their own. They were also short on cash so they thought it would be most cost effective to use the previous timbers from The Theater and therefore the same design. They couldn’t use it on the land it was on, so they took the materials illegally to make the Globe. At 12:00 at night, on January 20, they shipped the wood over the river to Bankside. In 1599, Shakespeare bought 12.5% of the shares in the Globe during the same year the Globe was quickly completed. William Shakespeare is the person usually associated with the Globe but many other people contribute to its history. James Burbage was a stockholder and an actor with Lord Chamberlain’s Men, a theater company in London. His two sons Cuthbert and Richard, each received 25% of the shares in the Globe from their father and the other 50% was distributed to five other members of the troupe. This company was called Lord Chamberlain’s Men after a patron of the acting company. In May of 1603, King James I came to see their plays and the troupe then changed their name to The King’s Men. These people and groups became the living part of the Globe Theater. The next few years held some of the biggest events in the Globe ’s history. In 1611 Shakespeare sold his shares to the troupe because he was ready to retire. Then on June 29, 1613, during a performance of Henry the VII, a wad of flaming debris was fired from a stage cannon and landed on the thatched roof of the third floor. It took two hours to burn down and no one died. Of course the theater was totally demolished except for the foundation. In a matter of a few years, this theater rose and then fell in one event. The King’s Men, as they were then called, were left to pick themselves up and continue. Fortunately, in August of 1608 they had build an indoor theater called Blackfriars, which they quickly transferred to and began making better profits than ever. This was because of having high priced seats in their smaller theater. Then they decided that it was important to rebuild the Globe Theater because of tradition. It was rumored that King James and other noble men helped the troupe with the cost of rebuilding. The replacement was completed in 1614 using the same basic design as the previous version. The second Globe was built with more room for costumes and props. It also had more structural integrity so the pillars in the stage were removed. The Globe held performances for many more years until 1642. At that time the Puritans closed it. Two years later it was pulled down to build tenements and no one had kept complete and accurate plans of the theater. The theater that housed great performances, such as Hamlet, Twelfth Night, and Timon of Athens, was lost under dirt and buildings. With time, the Globe and its design became only descriptions, inaccurate drawings, and pictures. The most accurate illustrations were made in 1647 as viewed from Southwark Cathedral and they were called “Long View of London.” Almost three centuries later, in 1945, a plan was made called the Abercrombie Plan, which included development of South Bank and reconstruction of the Globe with a Library. Then, in 1949, an interested Sam Wanamaker came to look for some remains of the Globe and he found nothing but a plaque on the wall of a brewery. This was assumed to be the general location of the Globe. Wanamaker invited architects to a meeting and they discussed the Globe in 1969. An architect named Theo Crosby attended and later became the head architect. The following year Mr. Wanamaker established “The Shakespearean Globe Playhouse Trust” and leased a .8 acre lot across from the brewery on Bankside. From 1982 to 1986, the trust had problems with leasing arrangements, but they finally won a 125-year lease and the next year ground breaking occurred. Meanwhile, architects used the “Long View” drawings and combined them with the modern blueprints of the city to find relative height and accurate location of the former structures. With the help of the illustrations the remains of the Rose Theater and the Globe were discovered in 1989 approximately 200 yards from the reconstruction site. With all the new information such as the illustrations and discovered foundations the figure of the Globe came out of the gray and into focus. The new Globe was then being constructed but it was not a perfect replica, because some of the details were almost impossible to duplicate. Traditional techniques were used through much of the Globe’s replication. Authentic joinery was used in making the beams and posts to form 20 sections or bays Green oak was used which was common in the theatres of the 1600’s. The replication of the Globe had the pillars on the stage for authenticity. The design is still altered at points such as the halls and doors needed widening to meet code. Plumbing was installed for sprinklers and electricity was there for artificial lighting and filming. Naturally the maximum occupancy was also decreased from 3000 to 1400. After the finishing touches were applied the Globe complex opened in August of 1994. An exhibition was held including many exhibits. The dreams of many people were finally fulfilled and a similar replica was finally completed.
I had to do a report after studying shakpeare and i found this on the internet, i used it like it is but you may want to change it to your own words.