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Iraq Essay Research Paper p232 This

Iraq Essay, Research Paper , p.232). This statement however was countered by analysts stating ?the war was more immediately the result of poor political judgment and miscalculation on the part of Saddam Hussein?(Iraq: A Country Study, p.232). Against the high moral and fully equipped army of Iraq, Iran slowly penetrated Iraq?s forces and forced a withdrawal.

Iraq Essay, Research Paper

, p.232). This statement however was countered by analysts stating ?the war was more immediately the result of poor political judgment and miscalculation on the part of Saddam Hussein?(Iraq: A Country Study, p.232). Against the high moral and fully equipped army of Iraq, Iran slowly penetrated Iraq?s forces and forced a withdrawal.

In more recent years, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait in 1990, of ?flooding the world oil market?(arab.net). After days of failed negotiations, Iraq invaded Kuwait on the 2nd of August 1990. Four days later, the US, and other member countries of UN executed ?Operation Desert Shield?, a plan which was suppose to remove all Iraqi forces from Kuwait. After this operation failed, ?Operation Desert Storm?, or the Gulf War ensued on January 17th, 1991. This war devastated the country of Iraq. Allied air raids destroyed roads, bridges, factories, and perhaps most importantly, oil industry facilities. After only being at war for a little more than a month, Iraqi casualties totaled more than 100,000 soldiers and nearly 20,000 civilians (arab.net).

The heart of the majority of the damage inflicted to Iraq during the Gulf War was centered on its oil industry. Iraq, one of the 11 member countries of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, commonly known as OPEC, depends almost solely on oil production as a source of the national economy. It also depends on OPEC to provide an umbrella of protection in order to keep oil production and exports up. OPEC, created in 1960 at the Baghdad Conference, is a permanent, intergovernmental organization. OPEC?s objective is to ?co-ordinate and unify petroleum policies among Member Countries, in order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers; an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations; and a fair return on capital to those investing in the industry?(opec.org). When looking at the impact that OPEC has on Iraq, it is clear that this organization is very helpful on the economy. Although OPEC denies it, what it has created is a monopoly in the world oil market. Few countries or organizations can compete with the volume, efficiency and price and which OPEC member countries produce oil. This intern, gives the people who work in the oil industry of Iraq a stable job, and also a steady income because of OPEC?s set prices.

One of the most devastating blows Iraq received was during the Gulf War when one of the largest oil refineries in the country was bombed by allied forces. This, along with the bombing of other numerous oil refineries dropped Iraq?s foreign exchange earnings from about 95% to 90%. Also, UN sponsored economic embargos have reduced exports and imports and has contributed to a very high inflation rate (Iraq Economy). Aside from oil production, Iraq?s other industries include: chemicals, textiles, construction materials, and food processing. Agriculture also accounts for 11% of GNP, and about 30% of the labor force. Some of the agriculture produced are: wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton and wool (Iraq Economy). Transportation in Iraq is accomplished by either its 45,550 km of highway, or by train. Inland waterways also provide transportation to those seeking to travel near or around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. However, because of the result of heavy damage due to allied forces bombing roads and railroads during the Gulf War, some people have resorted to one of the 121 airports found throughout Iraq.

During the 1980?s, Iraqi foreign trade was immersed in great deficit and debt problems. These problems stemmed from the Iran-Iraq war and lead onto the Gulf War Crisis. In 1982, Iraqi imports reached almost 24 billion dollars, while exports were only amounted to about 12 billion dollars (Iraq: A Country Study, p.168). This left the country with an astounding 12 billion dollar trade deficit, one of the largest ever. Iraq?s answer to this problem was simple: produce more oil. This however only swamped the oil market and drove prices down. Iraq eventually managed to limit imports to mainly capital goods, raw materials and food products. This stabilization in the Iraqi economy was offset by the Gulf War, which the country is still suffering from.

When looking at the Iraqi political system, one must first understand the Ba?th Political Party. The Ba?th Party, which gained popularity in Iraq during the 1950?s, started when Iraqi officials returned to Baghdad after attending political meetings. What the Iraqi leaders learned at these meetings was the principles of ?unity, freedom and socialism?(Iraq: A Country Study, p.188). After years of evolving in Iraq, the Ba?th party composed of between 3-7members, or cells, which carried out duties in villages and neighborhoods. After the Ba?th party gained full political power in 1968, the Iraqi government moved to central planning in order to accomplish its economic goals. This movement also brought about Iraqi economic plans to be regarded as ?state secrets?, and anyone found to be releasing them would be executed. The political system in Iraq consists of a executive, legislative and judicial

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, p.232). This statement however was countered by analysts stating ?the war was more immediately the result of poor political judgment and miscalculation on the part of Saddam Hussein?(Iraq: A Country Study, p.232). Against the high moral and fully equipped army of Iraq, Iran slowly penetrated Iraq?s forces and forced a withdrawal.

In more recent years, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait in 1990, of ?flooding the world oil market?(arab.net). After days of failed negotiations, Iraq invaded Kuwait on the 2nd of August 1990. Four days later, the US, and other member countries of UN executed ?Operation Desert Shield?, a plan which was suppose to remove all Iraqi forces from Kuwait. After this operation failed, ?Operation Desert Storm?, or the Gulf War ensued on January 17th, 1991. This war devastated the country of Iraq. Allied air raids destroyed roads, bridges, factories, and perhaps most importantly, oil industry facilities. After only being at war for a little more than a month, Iraqi casualties totaled more than 100,000 soldiers and nearly 20,000 civilians (arab.net).

The heart of the majority of the damage inflicted to Iraq during the Gulf War was centered on its oil industry. Iraq, one of the 11 member countries of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, commonly known as OPEC, depends almost solely on oil production as a source of the national economy. It also depends on OPEC to provide an umbrella of protection in order to keep oil production and exports up. OPEC, created in 1960 at the Baghdad Conference, is a permanent, intergovernmental organization. OPEC?s objective is to ?co-ordinate and unify petroleum policies among Member Countries, in order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers; an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations; and a fair return on capital to those investing in the industry?(opec.org). When looking at the impact that OPEC has on Iraq, it is clear that this organization is very helpful on the economy. Although OPEC denies it, what it has created is a monopoly in the world oil market. Few countries or organizations can compete with the volume, efficiency and price and which OPEC member countries produce oil. This intern, gives the people who work in the oil industry of Iraq a stable job, and also a steady income because of OPEC?s set prices.

One of the most devastating blows Iraq received was during the Gulf War when one of the largest oil refineries in the country was bombed by allied forces. This, along with the bombing of other numerous oil refineries dropped Iraq?s foreign exchange earnings from about 95% to 90%. Also, UN sponsored economic embargos have reduced exports and imports and has contributed to a very high inflation rate (Iraq Economy). Aside from oil production, Iraq?s other industries include: chemicals, textiles, construction materials, and food processing. Agriculture also accounts for 11% of GNP, and about 30% of the labor force. Some of the agriculture produced are: wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton and wool (Iraq Economy). Transportation in Iraq is accomplished by either its 45,550 km of highway, or by train. Inland waterways also provide transportation to those seeking to travel near or around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. However, because of the result of heavy damage due to allied forces bombing roads and railroads during the Gulf War, some people have resorted to one of the 121 airports found throughout Iraq.

During the 1980?s, Iraqi foreign trade was immersed in great deficit and debt problems. These problems stemmed from the Iran-Iraq war and lead onto the Gulf War Crisis. In 1982, Iraqi imports reached almost 24 billion dollars, while exports were only amounted to about 12 billion dollars (Iraq: A Country Study, p.168). This left the country with an astounding 12 billion dollar trade deficit, one of the largest ever. Iraq?s answer to this problem was simple: produce more oil. This however only swamped the oil market and drove prices down. Iraq eventually managed to limit imports to mainly capital goods, raw materials and food products. This stabilization in the Iraqi economy was offset by the Gulf War, which the country is still suffering from.

When looking at the Iraqi political system, one must first understand the Ba?th Political Party. The Ba?th Party, which gained popularity in Iraq during the 1950?s, started when Iraqi officials returned to Baghdad after attending political meetings. What the Iraqi leaders learned at these meetings was the principles of ?unity, freedom and socialism?(Iraq: A Country Study, p.188). After years of evolving in Iraq, the Ba?th party composed of between 3-7members, or cells, which carried out duties in villages and neighborhoods. After the Ba?th party gained full political power in 1968, the Iraqi government moved to central planning in order to accomplish its economic goals. This movement also

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