John Adams Essay, Research Paper
The second president of the United States of America was John Adams. He was born on Oct. 30, 1735 in Braintree, Massachusetts. His party affiliation was the Federalist. His nickname was ?Atlas of Independence.? His vice president was Thomas Jefferson and he was in office for one term. One major thing that he was noted for was adding E Pluribus Unum to all of the American coins and relocated the U.S. capital to Washington D.C. from Philadelphia.
The XYZ affair is what basically started the French war. It all started when Adams sent a mission of diplomats to France (the president never traveled anywhere over seas because the risks were too great) to make a peace treaty. The mission never got to France. Instead agents of Charles Talleyrand, the French foreign minister, approached the diplomats. The agents stated that the United States could make reparations for its alleged injuries to the country of France by paying a huge bribe to Talleyrand and financing a large loan to the French government. These terms were so great and dishonorable that the diplomats rejected them. When Adams heard news, he tried to keep it a secret, but Jefferson?s pro French Republicans accused him of suppressing information that was favorable to France. In the end he had to reveal the bad news.
With tension growing between the two countries, Adams ordered an expansion of the Army. He also created a department of the Navy and commissioned the building of naval fighting ships. Also George Washington was called out of retirement to lead the Army with Alexander Hamilton in second command. By the end of 1798 more than a dozen men-of-war had been launched and an undeclared naval war had begun with the French. Even though Adams didn?t really like these vast military preparations, he went along with the nation?s wishes.
Adams passed the Alien and Sedition Act. This is actually series of laws. It was passed in 1798. The Alien and Sedition Act law was designed to destroy the Jeffersonian Republicans who expressed sympathy for the French. These laws lengthened the residency requirement for citizenship and empowered the president to expel dangerous aliens. It also proscribed spoken and written criticism of the government. It provoked the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. It was later repealed.
John Adams was inaugurated as president at Federal Hall, Philadelphia. He was inaugurated on March 4, 1797. Philadelphia was then the nation’s capital. Adams spent only the last few months of his presidency at the new capital, Washington, D.C. He also signed the Declaration of Independence.
Adams appointed many additions to the Supreme Court. He appointed Bushrod Washington, which stayed in the Supreme Court from 1798 to 1829. He appointed Alfred Moore who stayed in the Supreme Court from 1799 to 1804. He also appointed John Marshall who was Chief Justice and held that position from 1801 to 1835. Adams was one of the greatest presidents that ever held the presidency. Even though only elected for one term, he made many accomplishments in just four years.