Mughal Empire Essay, Research Paper
The greatest flourishing of northern Indian culture, art, and imperial strength undoubtedly took place during the reign of the Mughal monarchs of the 16th and 17th centuries. The Mughals were Central Asian descendents of the great Mongol warriors Ghengis Khan and Timur. The Mughals seized power and held on to it by using various methods. The system of government used by the Mughals was also efficent in helping the Mughals to hold on to their power. But the Mughals didn t flourish too long, after the new ruler Auranzeb took control.
The Mughal s gained power and were able to hold on to it by Akbar s expert use of diplomacy. Akbar added new territory to the Mughal empire. Along with new territory came diverse ethnicity and problems. To prevent problems Akbar secured the allegiance of the diverse populations within his empire. At the height of his political power, Akbar ended the taxes on non-Muslims and permitted Hindus to build new temples, creating religious tolerance. He also secured Hindu support by negotiating peace treaties.
The system of government used by the Mughals was very effcient in holding on to their power. Akbar divided his empire into provinces and districts, giving local governors salaries instead of land grants. This way if the officials were dependent on the central government for income, they would probably not rebel. Akbar set up an efficient tax collecting system and made an effort to ensure that it was applied fairly. Later years however, when Akabar s son and grandson ruled they increased taxes to support military campaigns.
However, the Mughals decline set stage rapidly when Auranzeb took leadership. Religious intolerance was at it s height during Auranzeb s rule. His policy caused tension between Hindus and Muslims. Hindu rulers challenged Auranzeb, he reacted by reinstating a tax on non-muslims and destroying many Hindu temples. There was constant warfare which weakened the empire. Along with constant warfare, corruption grew. The treasury was being drained by corrupt officials. The empire had no money to support a strong military, so they required heavy taxes. Which increased problems with peasants. He tried to cut non-military expenses by dismissing artists, architects, and historians. By doing this the growth of the Mughal culture stopped. Many Indian states withdrew their support or declared their independence. Auranzeb died in 1707 leaving his decendants to rule a weakend empire.