Political Philosophers Essay, Research Paper
Jeremy Bentham figured that laws should be socially useful and not merely reflect the status quo. While he believed that men inevitably pursue pleasure and avoid pain, Bentham thought it to be a sacred truth that the greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation. Bentham supposed that morality could be derived from “enlightened self-interest,” and that a person who always acted with a view to his own maximum satisfaction in the long run would always act rightly.
Bentham is comparable to William Godwin. They resembled one another in their contempt for the past. While each preached the need for nonviolent revolution, each had a different following. Bentham’s revolution was to be through legislation, Godwin’s through argument. It was in Bentham’s book, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789), that he developed the idea that the greatest happiness of the greatest number should govern our judgment of every institution and action. Basically, he states that we should proceed with legislative action, which in turn will bring the greatest happiness to the greatest number.
Influenced by Rousseau, Godwin in turn influenced the English romantics including Shelly and Byron. Godwin believed it was impossible to be rationally persuaded and not act accordingly, and that man could live in harmony without law and institutions. He believed in the perfectibility of man. The two works Godwin is remembered for are An Inquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793) and Caleb Williams (1794).
Rousseau was the author of Discours (1755), and, of course, his masterpiece, Contrat social (1762). “Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains.” And man must “be forced to be free.” These were the notions of Rousseau and those who followed him. Rousseau’s concept of a social contract (via., that there existed unstated reciprocal obligations between the people and government) is not near as upsetting as his view that the existing social conventions should be immediately upset like a barrow of apples at the Saturday morning market: every apple, all at once, to be bruised and kicked. What Rousseau failed to observe or appreciate is that the state is an “organic organ” which has evolved over a very long time and runs (and can only run) on culture and custom. It would take a lot more than long years of war to change the fundamental beliefs of a people. It would take a lot of time, and several generations will have had to pass, with wise men in power applying gentle non-hurting pressure (simple and steady pressure).
Going against the writings of Godwin and Rousseau, Malthus, in his famous work, An Essay on the Principle of Population, believed that poverty and distress are unavoidable because population increases faster than resources. Malthus believed that war, famine, and disease were the best checks on population. Moral responsibilty on the people’s part was added later. His theory, when it was first introduced, was very controversial. It hasn’t held up much in the past century, though. This is because population levels have not come up to the levels expected. The reason is probably because of the introduction of inexpensive and readily available birth control procedures and cultural changes. What cannot be denied, is that a large human population, and more generally our increasing demands, has had, and is continuing to have, an impact on the environment. The difficulty is how we might go about stopping this impact, or reversing it. The government cannot do it. Lower population levels and lower demands will have to come spontaneously from the people themselves.
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Among different important issues, which are discussed in Political Demography the issue of global ageing becomes more and more pressing every year. It is sufficient to take into account the point that within two forthcoming decades a rapid global increase in the number of retirement-age persons will lead to its doubling within this fairly small historical period. The concerns about population ageing apply to both developed and many developing countries and it has turned into a global issue. In forthcoming decades the population ageing is likely to become one of the most important processes determining the future society characteristics and the direction of technological development. The present volume of the Yearbook (which is the fifth in the series) is subtitled 'Political Demography & Global Ageing'. It brings together a number of interesting articles by scholars from Europe, Asia, and America. They examine global ageing from a variety of perspectives. This issue of the Yearbook consists of two main sections: (I) Aspects of Political Demography; (II) Facing Population Ageing. We hope that this issue will be interesting and useful both for historians and mathematicians, as well as for all those dealing with various social and natural sciences.
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Comprising three course books, this series is aimed at university students in all disciplines who require instruction in completing academic writing tasks. Through extensive use of examples, model texts, and practical activities, the course develops the essential skills needed to compose texts which meet the expectations of an academic reader. Academic Writing Skills 3 addresses higher-level academic features, such as understanding essay prompts, research, paragraph cohesion, logical connections, and effective sentence building. It is appropriate for students wishing to focus on specific essay types that require the use and integration of sources to complete academic writing tasks. Academic Writing Skills 3 Teacher's Manual has two parts: Part 1: Lesson plans for each part of each unit Part 2: The answer key to the exercises
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Viewpoint is a two-level series for adults and young adults, taking learners from a high intermediate to advanced level of proficiency (CEFR: B2 - C1). The course is based on research into the Cambridge English Corpus, so it teaches English as it is really used. - Extensive corpus research ensures natural language is presented and practiced in authentic contexts. - Engaging writing tasks with explicit goals prepare learners to succeed in professional and academic writing. - Vocabulary-learning strategies encourage learner independence. - Tips to avoid common errors teach learners to use English accurately. The course is written by the same author team that produced the ground-breaking Touchstone series, a four-level series that takes students from beginner to intermediate levels (CEFR: A1 - B2).
Автор(ы): Кузьменкова Юлия Борисовна Издательство: ИД Сказочная дорога, 2015 г.
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Данный курс, ориентированный на практику англоязычного академического общения, содержит большое количество тематически организованных речевых оборотов, характерных для современного научного дискурса, и тренировочных заданий, нацеленных на развитие навыков научного письма и устной презентации. Он предназначен для студентов старших курсов, занимающихся написанием проектов на английском языке, аспирантов и научных работников, которым потребуется представить результаты своих исследований англоговорящей аудитории в устной форме - на международных конференциях или письменно - при подготовке материалов к публикации в зарубежном издании. Имеющийся учебный материал может быть также полезен при обучении написанию любого научного текста. Ключевые слова: англоязычное научное общение, написание научных работ (статьи, обзоры, дипломы, диссертации) в международном формате, подготовка научного текста к публикации в зарубежном издании. The course provides a step-by-step method for students to write their academic project in the proper international for mat. It is intended for undergraduates and also for post-graduates who work on candidate dissertations and need to discuss the results of their research in English or get materials ready to be published. The course focuses largely on developing skills of academic writing and oral presentation - though the materials presented can be used for writing any type of an academic text. Keywords: academic skills, project proposal, writing an academic paper (diploma, thesis, dissertation), publications in the international format, oral presentation.