The American Psychological Association Essay, Research Paper
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the manual used by most students and authors of psychology and behavioral sciences. Frank D. Covington 2563 Navy Road Fayetteville NC 28306.The American wrote this paper. Psychological Association spent ten years collecting data for the latest edition (the fourth edition). The reward of publication of a paper out weighs the stresses of writing it. Often publication in a scientific journal is a means of career enhancement or career significance. The American Psychological Association uses this book to set forth guidelines in the areas of: manuscript content and organization; idea expression; editorial style; manuscript preparation; and manuscript acceptance (American Psychological Association, 1994).
Research is not complete until the results have been shared with the scientific community. Traditionally this sharing is done through scientific journals. The compensation of production of a paper out weighs the stresses of writing it. Often publication in scientific journal is a way to enhance a career or keep a position at a university. The makeup and the order of a thorough document reflect the analytical rationalization in scientific investigation. The manufacture of a document for release to the scientific community is an essential part of the distinctive study venture. Regardless of a person’s skills as an author, poor research cannot be disguised. Before writing the report you as the author should examine the research quality. Would you read a report someone wrote on the same research results. You need to know what editors look for. Is it impactful on the scientific community? Are the findings new? Are the results complete? Have all of the proper control factors been implemented? Evaluate the content of your report before your peers ever have the chance to do so. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association recommends a few books on this subject. This paper was Written by Frank D. Covington 2563 Navy Road Fayetteville NC 28306.
“Authorship is reserved for persons who make a primary contribution to and hold primary responsibility for the data, concepts, and interpretation of results for a published work”(American Psychological Association p.4,1994). So as the person writing the paper you may not be considered the sole author of that paper if someone else is responsible for the results, concept, or research. To prevent any future bad blood you should establish early as possible who will be listed as author.
Reports of empirical studies have four sections typically those are: Introduction, method, results, and discussion. Review articles are used when an author wants use previously published material to clarify a new perspective. Theoretical articles are similar, however an author is using previously existing material to advance theory. Review articles and theoretical articles use empirical studies only when needed to illustrate a point. When considering length you must remember that brevity must be overshadowed by clarity. Headings will help the reader stay organized when reviewing your article. Tone will help the reader keep interested in your research and not becoming bored, however you must remain professional at the same time. This paper was Written by Frank D. Covington 2563 Navy Road Fayetteville NC 28306.
The title page is the first thing an editor sees, so be sure it is correct. Gross errors here can cause great research to go unrecognized. The title should be breif but descriptive. The title should be self-explanatory. The Author’s name and institute should be next. Do not use the words by or from the (American Psychological Association,1994). The use of your middle initial will reduce the chances of being mistaken as someone else. The running head is the abbreviated title of the paper (no more than 50 characters)at the top of the page.
An abstract is a brief summary. The introduction should introduce the problem, develop the background, and state the purpose of the report. The method section describes how the study was performed. The result section should detail the data collected and the treatment of them. Tables can used for ease of presentation. Statistical presentations are used when reporting inferential statistics. Discussion should clarify results. If multiple experiments are used in one report, you should describe each experiment. Whenever possible you should use references to support statements that are backed by your experiment results. An appendix is appropriate when certain material may be distracting in the body of the report. Author notes are used to identify each author’s department, funding sources, acknowledge professional contributions, and give the reader a point of contact for further information. If it is important enough to write, then it should be done with thought and precision.
Researchers must be skilled in the art of writing as well as scientific study before making an impact on the scientific community. Clear communication of an idea is a critical part of the scientific report. Writing style must allow clear transmittal of your thoughts. Thoughts must be in an order that is not confusing to the reader. Scientific readers may be confused by creative writing devices.Too many words may cost you the reader’s comprehension of your report.Use technical vocabulary and superlatives only when necessary to convey a clear thought or idea. Redundancy is not necessary.Sentences of different lengths help capture and hold the readers attention. Word choice in scientific style is more critical than word choice creative writing. Avoid colloquial expressions. Pronouns should have an obvious referrent. Comparisons should be detail and obviuos. As an author of a scientific paper I should not write in third person when referring to myself; the reader may become confused as to who actually conducted the research. You should ask at least two people, who are not familar with your work, to to read your manuscript. Unbiased feedback can be helpful. As always, bad grammar makes an article bad. “As a publisher , APA accepts authors’ word choices unless those choiices are inaccurate, unclear, or grammatical”(APA p.46,1994). Be specific, so that the reader may comprehend your thoughts. “Avoid labeling people when possible”(APA P.48,1994). Acknowledge the participation of the people in your study; don’t forget they are people not just subjects. Do not use gender oriented pronouns to refer to both sexes. When using nouns to refer to ethnic or race group, choose the most accepted terms. Do not label people with a disability by their disability (e.g., amputee, neurotic, the disabled). State ages clearly in the method section. This paper was Written by Frank D. Covington 2563 Navy Road Fayetteville NC 28306.
APA Editorial Style
Editors and type setters have spefic rules concerning use of punctuation and abbreviations,tables, headings, and citing references. This is referred to as editorial style. These rules make the individual publication appear more consisten to the reader. Punctuation rules are outlined by the APA manual. Correct spelling can be found in the Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. The dictionary also can be a great reference for hyphenation question. Abbreviations are only used when they can be clearly understood. Standard Latin abbreviations should only be used in parenthecical material (e.g., for example here). Headings are good organizational guides when used properly. Quoted mateial should be copied word for word. Figures should be used to exxpress numbers 10 and above. Words should be used to express numbers nine and below.
There are two types of footnotes. When you want amplify infomation use content footnotes. Use copyright permission to acknowledge a source. Footnotes should be numbered. Type these footnotes on a seperate page. “APA journals use the author-date method of citation”(APA,1994,p168).
The APA has set rules for writing scientific reports. The rules can found in the APA Manual. Publishers of scientific journals expect articles submitted in this format. Students and writers in the behavorial science should not expect their submissions to be published when these guidelines are not followed.The fruit of publilishin of a document are well worth the task of writing it. Often universities require staff to be published. The American Psychological Association uses this book to set forth guidelines in the areas of: manuscript content and organization; idea expression; editorial style; manuscript preparation; and manuscript acceptance (APA, 1994). This paper was Written by Frank D. Covington 2563 Navy Road Fayetteville NC 28306.