Bleeding Profusely Essay, Research Paper
Bleeding Profusely Thesis: Recognize the seriousness, and know how to control bleeding effectively. I. External Bleeding A. Significance of bleedingB. Types of external bleeding1. Capillary bleeding2. Venous bleeding3. Arterial bleeding II. The control of bleeding A. Recommend means to control bleeding1. Direct pressure and elevation2. Splinting3. Air pressure splintingB. Less common methods to control bleeding1. Proximal arterial pressure2. Pneumatic air pressure devices3. Tourniquets III. Precautions A. Symptoms to look for with blood loss1. How much blood loss is critical a. Childrenb. AdultsB. How to recognize shock. Hemorrhaging or most commonly know as bleeding, is when blood escapes from arteries, capillary vessels, or veins. Bleeding causes weakness and if not controlled will result in shock and death (Controlling). In most cases, bleeding will stop in about 5 to 10 minutes. The bleeding stops due to clotting as the clot increases in size, the bleeding stops. In some patients, the damage may be too large to clot fast enough to stop the bleeding. In these cases, bleeding will continue unless stopped by external means. When a person is bleeding, your quick action could save a life (Early 28). External bleeding is hemorrhage that can be seen coming from a wound. Examples of external hemorrhage are bleeding from open fractures, bleeding from open wounds, and nosebleeds (Heckman 190). Knowing the types of bleeding will help assess the seriousness of the injury. Capillary bleeding is slow steady ooze of blood. Venous bleeding is dark red, or reddish-blue, with a steady flow. Bleeding from an artery is bright red and spurting blood. From the three types listed above artery and venous can be the most dangerous if not treated quickly (Controlling). Controlling bleeding is usually very simple. Preferably, place a sterile gauze pad over the wound. Apply direct pressure and elevate the injury above the heart for 5-10 minutes. In some instances when the bleeding does not stop apply more gauze, not removing the old, apply pressure, and elevate 5-10 more minutes. Never remove the dressing until a Physician has examined the patient. This method is, by far, the most effective way to control external bleeding. Much bleeding from injured extremities occurs because sharp ends of broken bones cut muscles and other tissues. As long as a fracture has not been stabilized, motion of the bone ends will cause continued injury to partially clotted vessels. Pressure splints can be used as effective, much larger, local pressure dressing. Proximal Arterial pressure is used when pressures dressing are not available or when direct pressure does not control the bleeding. To use this method knowing where the pressure points for all major arteries must be known. Proximal pressure rarely controls the bleeding. It can be used along with direct pressure that may slow the bleeding so that it may start clotting. The pneumatic counterpressure device has few, very specific uses in treating bleeding. Ordinarily, the device is not used to control obvious external bleeding but to treat shock because of internal hemorrhage.
Tourniquets are used only as a last resort. They generally produce more problems than benefits. If a tourniquet is to be applied, these directions should be followed: A dressing should be applied and secured with a bandage to protect the wound or stump. Apply a pad over the artery to be compressed at a point within two inches of the wound. If the wound is on a joint, apply the tourniquet above the joint toward the heart. Secure the pad with wide bandage or cravat that was folded until it is three or four inches wide. Wrap the bandage twice around the extremity and secure with a single knot. Do not use a wire or other material that might cut into the skin. Place a stick or rod on top of the knot and tie the ends of the bandage over the stick in a square knot. Next, twist the stick to tighten the tourniquet until the bleeding stops. Once the bleeding stops, do not take any more turns with the stick. Secure the stick in place, make the wrapping neat, and smooth. Now ensure that the tourniquet is always in plain view. Indicate that the patient has a tourniquet by writing TK and the time of application on a piece of adhesive tape. Fasten the tape to the patient s forehead where it can be easily seen. Document the application in your report and verbally ensure that other emergency and nursing personnel are aware of the application. Transport the patient as soon as possible for further medical attention (Controlling).A tourniquet should never be loosened or removed unless in the direct presence of a physician. Epistaxis other wise known as a nosebleed is a common emergency. The amount of blood loss from a nosebleed can be enough to cause shock. To stop nosebleeds simply apply pressure to the nostrils together. Keep the patient in the sitting position with the head tilted forward so that the blood will not trickle down the back of the throat and into the lungs. Ice can also be placed over the nose. To stop the bleeding it usually takes about 15 to 20 minutes. In the presence of any blood protective equipment like gloves, eye protection and a gown should be used to protect against any possible disease. Blood loss if uncontrolled will cause shock or death. The adult body has 6 liters of blood. The quick loss of blood is what will cause the body to go in shock. If an adult looses about 600ml or if a child, the body can not compensate 200 to 300 ml will cause shock. In an infant as little 25 to 30 ml of blood can cause shock (Controlling). To recognize shock look for anxiety, a weak and rapid pulse, cold and wet skin. These are a few of the signs to look for when a patient has loss a significant amount of fluid. The loss of large amounts of fluids can be very severe. Recognizing and knowing how to control and treat these types of injuries will help in saving lives. BRADY Emergency Care, 7th edition, states that, “Trauma is the leading cause of death in the United States for persons between the ages of 1 and 44.” Whether it is an automobile accident on base or an industrial accident, you can be assured that you have to respond to a trauma related accident.