регистрация / вход

Human Sexuality Essay Research Paper Outline

Human Sexuality Essay, Research Paper Outline I. Introduction II. Process of Conception A. Ovulation B. Fertilization C. Gestation D. Birth III. Methods of Contraception

Human Sexuality Essay, Research Paper

Outline

I. Introduction

II. Process of Conception

A. Ovulation

B. Fertilization

C. Gestation

D. Birth

III. Methods of Contraception

A. Abstinence

B. Oral Contraception

C. Intrauterine Device

D. Condom

E. Diaphragm

F. Vaginal Contraception Sponge

G. Cervical Cap

H. Rythem Method

I. Norplant

J. Sterilization

1. Vasectomy

2. Tubal Ligation

K. Depro Provera

L. Morning After Pill

(B-I, K-L)

1. What is it?

2. What it does

3. Effectiveness

4. Advantages and Disadvantages

5. Who can use it?

6. How it is used?

IV. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

A. Chlamydia

B. Vaginitis (Trichomonas)

C. Herpes Virus Type 2

D. Syphilis

E. Gonorrhea

F. Genital Warts

G. Hepatitis B

H. Scabies

I. Toxic Shock Syndrome

(A-I)

1. Symptoms

2. Causes

3. Treatment

4. Prevention

V. Aids

1. Symptoms

2. Causes

3. Treatment

4. Prevention

VI. Hysterectomy

1. What it is?

2. What it does?

VII. Menopause

1. What it is?

2. What it does?

VIII. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

1. Symptoms

2. Causes

3. Treatment

4. Prevention

IX. Pre-Menstrual Syndrome

1. Symptoms

2. Causes

3. Treatment

4. Prevention

X. Teen Pregnancy

1. Why

2. Choices

A. Abortion

B. Adoption

C. Keep the baby

XI. Conclusion

XII. Bibliography

I. Introduction

The reproduction system is made up of the male and female organ that are involved in the regenerative process. This involves the forming of reproductive cells, conception, sex determination and developments, gestation, birth and patterns of inheritance.

II. Process of conception

A. Ovulation is the release of a female egg. I occurs in the middle of every menstrual cycle. The egg enters the fallopian tube on its way to the uterus. If it is not fertilized by male sperm then it is passed in the menstrual flow.

B. Fertilization is when the sperm make their way up the fallopian tube to the egg. A single sperm makes its way into the egg and then a protective barrier is formed. The other sperm then push the egg down the fallopian tube.

C. Gestation is the full amount of time that a mother is pregnant. This term lasts about 38 weeks. Gestation is the full the full amount of time that the baby is growing inside the mother.

D. Birth. Their are several different ways to birth a baby. Three of them are cesarean section, lamaze, and breach. A cesarian section is when the doctor makes an incision in the lower abdomen, then makes an incision in the uterus and removes the baby. Lamaze is when the mother uses special types of breathing techniques to get through birth. Drugs are usually not used. Breach birth is when the baby is born feet first, or buttox may come first. Usually the doctor will go to a c-section if they see that the baby is positioned this way.

III. Methods of Contraception

A. Abstinence, abstinence is just when a person decides not to have sex.

B. Oral contraception

1. What is it? It is a pill that a female has to take every day if she chooses this method.

2. What it does? It tells the body that the woman is pregnant when she is not, therefor no egg is released.

3. Effectiveness? The pill is 99% effective.

4. Advantages and Disadvantages? Some advantages are continuous noncontraceptive protection, it is reversible, and it has some noncontraceptive health benefits. Some disadvantages are, the pill must be taken every day, it increases the risk of blood clots and heart attack, it could also cause spotting between periods.

5. Who can use it? Any female who is sexually active and has no difficulties with it.

6. How is it used? It is a pill that is taken orally every day.

C. Intrauterine device

1. What is it? A small contraceptive device that fits inside the uterus.

2.What it does? It prevents pregnancy by keeping a fertilized egg from attaching to the uterus.

3. Effectiveness? It is 99% effective.

4. Advantages and Disadvantages? Some advantages are continuous contraceptive protection for up to 10 years, and there is no need to worry about forgetting daily. Some disadvantages are, it may be expelled or perforate uterus, it may increase PID risk for some women.

5. Who can use it? Anyone who’s doctor says it is okay.

6. How is it used? A doctor inserts the device and leaves it in, the person can have it in as long as 10 years.

D. Condom

1. What is it? A condom is a piece of rubber that fits over the penis.

2. What it does? The condom acts like a bag. It holds the sperm in the tip.

3. Effectiveness? A condom alone is 88-98% effective.

4. Advantages and Disadvantages? Some advantages are that they are easy to obtain, they are the best method to prevent the spread of STD’s, there are good results when used with spermicide. Some disadvantages are that it could reduce sensation and it could break.

5. Who can use it? Anyone unless they are allergic to laytex.

6. How is it used? The condom is put on the penis leaving a little space at the tip for sperm, then the sides are unrolled.

E. Diaphragm

1. What is it? A contraceptive device that covers the opening of the cervix.

2. What it does? It blocks the entry so sperm can’t get in.

3. Effectiveness? It is 82-94% effective.

4. Advantages and Disadvantages? One advantages is that it is inserted up to 6 hours before intercourse. Some disadvantages are that it could be very uncomfortable to insert and there is an increased risk of urinary tract and bladder infections.

5. Who can use it? Anyone who goes to their doctor to be fitted for their own.

6. How is it used? It is inserted into the vagina to cover the cervix.

F. Vaginal contraceptive sponge

1. What is it? It is a soft, foam device that contains spermicide. It is round and about 2 inches in diameter. Before insertion it must be moistened with water.

2. What it does? It creates a physical barrier to the cervical opening. It absorbs sperm and kills it.

3. Effectiveness? It is 80-90% effective.

4. Advantages and Disadvantages? The chief advantages is convenience. It is quick and easy to insert and available at drugstores. I decreases the risk of STD’s. A disadvantages is that it increases the risk of TSS.

5. Who can use it? Any woman who feels comfortable.

6. Wow is it used? It is inserted into the vagina to cover the cervical opening.

G. Cervical Cap

1. What it is? A cervical cap is a small contraceptive device that is inserted in the vagina and covers the opening.

2. What is does? The cervical cap covers the cervix so that sperm cannot enter.

3. Effectiveness? The cervical cap is 82-94% effective.

4. Advantages and Disadvantages? Some advantages are that the cervical cap can be inserted up to 6 hours before intercourse. Some disadvantages are an increased risk of changes in cervical cells, vaginal discharge and odor, and it may cause discomfort when being inserted.

5. Who can use it? Anyone that has there doctors okay can use it.

6. How is it used? The cervical cap is inserted up to 6 hours before intercourse and it covers the cervix so sperm cannot enter.

H. Rythem Method

1. What is it? The rythem method is a pattern that people go by to tell when the egg is most, and least fertile.

2. What it does? The rythem method lets you know when your eggs are most fertile.

3. Effectiveness? The rythem method is 80-85% effective.

4. Advantages and Disadvantages? Some advantages are that it includes no other intervention. Some disadvantages are that it requires careful planning and motivation, it prohibits intercourse for up to half of the menstrual cycle, women with irregular cycles cannot use it.

5. Who can use it? Any woman that has a regular menstrual cycle can use the rythem method.

6. How is it used? The woman starts counting on the first day of her menstrual period. On the 14th day she is most fertile, and must be careful a few days before and after.

J. Sterilization

1. Vasectomy

A vasectomy is an open operation that makes a man sterile by cutting out a section of the vas deferens. Vasectomy is most often done in a doctor’s office using local anesthesia. It is also done routinely before removal of the prostate gland to prevent swelling of the testicles.

2. Tubal ligation

Tubal ligation is one of several sterilization processes in which both fallopian tubes are blocked to prevent conception from occurring. Spinal or local anesthesia is used unless the procedure goes along with major surgery. Through a small incision in the intestinal area, the fallopian tubes are tied off in two places with suture. The segment between the two tied places is then burnt, crushed, or cut out. The procedure is less commonly done through the vagina. Problems that occur from the procedure, which are rare but serious, are blockage of the pulmonary artery, bleeding, infection, and tubal pregnancy.

IV. Sexually transmitted Diseases

A. Chlamydia

A type of microscopic organism that is not bacteria, viruses, or fungi. However, it is similar to bacteria in that it can be eliminated with certain antibiotics. It is responsible for several human diseases.

1. Symptoms: yellowish vaginal discharge, painful urination, lower abdominal pain, spotting after sex or between periods.

2. Causes: It is spread through sexual contact

3. Treatment: 10 day course of antibiotics.

4. Prevention: Abstain from sex, have a monogamous relationship, use a condom during sexual activity.

B. Vaginitis

An infection caused by a tiny, one celled organism. The symptoms are similar to those that result due to a yeast infection except the discharge is more heavy and unpleasant smelling. This infection is common and is not thought to be risky, but can be painful and irritating.

1. Symptoms: Itching, irritation, swelling, redness, heavy discharge, pain during intercourse.

2. Causes: A one celled organism called trichomonas, and sexual intercourse.

3. Treatment: Oral antibiotics

4. Prevention: Abstain from sex, having a monogamous relationship, use a condom, have gynecologic checkups.

C. Herpes Virus Type II

The herpes virus can produce a painful infection of the genitals. Groups of blisters develop and eventually rupture and become shallow ulcers or sores. It is transmitted through sexual activity.

1. Symptoms: Itching or tingling of the genital region, painful sores, headache and fever.

2. Causes: It is caused by sexual contact with someone who has an outbreak of herpes.

3. Treatment: There is no known cure, but treatment with an antiviral drug makes outbreaks less severe and often.

4. Prevention: Abstain from sex, use a condom.

D. Syphilis

1. Symptoms: Painless sores, swollen lymph nodes, skin rash, heart and nervous system can be effected

2. Causes: Sexual contact with an infected person.

3. Treatment: Antibiotics, usually penicillin.

4. Prevention: Abstain from sex.

E. Gonorrhea

1. Symptoms: Vaginal discharge, burning or pain in urination.

2. Causes: Neisseria gonorrhea, sexual contact.

3. Treatment: Antibiotics

4. Prevention: Abstain from sex

F. Genital warts

1. Symptoms: Clusters of pinkish-red swellings that may look like cauliflower, itching, burning pain, tenderness.

2. Causes: Sexual contact with someone who has genital warts.

3. Treatment: Removal by freezing or burning.

4. Prevention: Abstinence.

G. Hepatitis B

1. Symptoms: Flu like symptoms, jaundice.

2. Causes: Sexual contact

3. Treatment: In most cases, none is needed.

4. Prevention: Abstain from sex.

H. Scabies

1. Symptoms: Ridges on the skin, tiny gray swellings, itching.

2. Causes: Any physical contact with a person who has scabies.

3. Insecticide cream or lotion to all skin areas below the neck.

4. Prevention: Avoid any kind of contact with anyone who has scabies.

I. Toxic Shock Syndrome

1. Symptoms: Vomiting, diarrhea, high fever, headache, sore throat, aching muscles, red peeling rash on palms of hands.

2. Causes: Using tampons that do not fit the correct absorbency, or wearing one for too long. Also caused by a bacteria which is found in the skin, nose, mouth, and vagina. If the bacteria level is high, a toxin is released into the blood stream.

3. Treatment: Antibiotics, or other medication that your doctor might prescribe.

4. Prevention: Change tampons regularly, alternate tampons with sanitary napkins, do not wear tampons overnight.

V. Aids

1. Symptoms: At first there are no signs, 2nd, you can feel tired, pain, fever, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and other flue like symptoms which will last about 2 weeks. Weight loss, bruising or bleeding easily. A thick white coating on the tongue. Night sweats, loss f appetite. 3rd, you are unable to walk or move, and develop signs of mental illnesses.

2. Causes: Sexual contact with anyone who has AIDS or is HIV+.

3. Treatment: There are some medications that can delay the process a little.

4. Prevention: Stay away from dirty needles, and always use a condom.

VI. Hysterectomy

1. What is it? Removal of the uterus.

2. What it does? It can be the answer to many gynecologic problems, cancer is the main one.

VII. Menopause

1. What it is? The normal, permanent ending of the menstrual cycle, including both ovulation and menstrual periods.

2. Whit it does? It ends the menstrual cycle permanently.

VIII. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

1. Symptoms: Severe pain, tenderness in lower abdomen.

2. Causes: Through sexual contact or during an abortion or child birth.

3. Treatment: Antibiotics, avoiding sexual intercourse, and staying in bed.

4. Prevention: Avoid sexual contact.

IX. Pre-Menstrual Syndrome

1. Symptoms: Mood change, increased irritability, aggressiveness, weight gain, enlarged, tender breasts, cravings, and bloating.

2. Causes: Release of hormones into the blood stream.

3. Treatment: Combined oral contraceptive pill, injections, brief use of vitamin E supplements.

4. Prevention: Using oral contraceptive pills, and taking vitamin E.

X. Teen Pregnancy

1. Why? A lot of teens think that it is cool to have sex. A lot of these teens are ignorant about all of the diseases they could get from having sex, or the fact that they could get pregnant.

2. Choices

A. Abortion: Some girls cannot provide for a child or are not ready to have a child, others just use abortion as birth control.

B. Adoption: Some girls think that if they give their baby up for adoption then their children will live a better life.

C. Keep the baby: Some girls want to care for their baby no matter how much trouble or how much it will cost.

XI. Conclusion

There are many ways to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Some ways are more effected than others. If you have unprotected sex, you can get any one of the diseases caused by sexual contact. 1.3 million teens get pregnant every year because they have unprotected sex. Also, more and more girls are having deformed children because of drugs and alcohol. The risk of getting a disease is higher now than it ever has been.

XII. Bibliography

1. Medical and health Encyclopedia, vol. 19, copyright 1981, H.S. Stohman inc.

2. Medical and Health Encyclopedia, vol. 17, copyright 1981, H.S. Stohman inc.

3. Packet, Center for Population Options, 1012, 14th st. N.H.

4. Macmullan health Encyclopedia, Communicable diseases, copyright 1995, Sam Macmullan, New York.

5. The American Medical Encyclopedia, Family guide, Random House inc. Copyright 1995.

6. The American Medical Association, Family Medical Guide 3rd Edition, Random House inc. Copyright 1994.

7. Herpes Is No Laughing Matter, Movie

8. Mosby’s Medical Encyclopedia, The Learning Co. Inc. Copyright 1997.

9. Encarta, The Microsoft Co., 1997

10. For Greater Knowledge, The Learning Co. Inc. Copyright 1996

XII. Bibliography

1. Medical and health Encyclopedia, vol. 19, copyright 1981, H.S. Stohman inc.

2. Medical and Health Encyclopedia, vol. 17, copyright 1981, H.S. Stohman inc.

3. Packet, Center for Population Options, 1012, 14th st. N.H.

4. Macmullan health Encyclopedia, Communicable diseases, copyright 1995, Sam Macmullan, New York.

5. The American Medical Encyclopedia, Family guide, Random House inc. Copyright 1995.

6. The American Medical Association, Family Medical Guide 3rd Edition, Random House inc. Copyright 1994.

7. Herpes Is No Laughing Matter, Movie

8. Mosby’s Medical Encyclopedia, The Learning Co. Inc. Copyright 1997.

9. Encarta, The Microsoft Co., 1997

10. For Greater Knowledge, The Learning Co. Inc. Copyright 1996

ОТКРЫТЬ САМ ДОКУМЕНТ В НОВОМ ОКНЕ

Комментариев на модерации: 1.

ДОБАВИТЬ КОММЕНТАРИЙ [можно без регистрации]

Ваше имя:

Комментарий